Initial screening of vegetable amaranth landraces towards extending the vegetable list


  • Saubhik Das Taki Government College West Bengal State University



Vegetable amaranth is considered as one of the most favorite vegetables in the world, especially in the hot and humid tropical regions of the globe. Two of them are most popular i.e., Amaranthus tricolor and Amaranthus blitum, both are represented by a large number of morphotypes or landraces or varieties, which are taxonomically ill-defined, many of them are consumed as palatable vegetables as they look like the conventional cultivars. Due to wide morphological diversity and presence of many synonyms both the species are supposed to represent two species complex or aggregates viz., “Tricolor complex†and “Blitum complexâ€. Two new species have been identified from their landraces. In the present investigation morphometric analysis along with biochemical and molecular methodologies were applied to explore the relative closeness among few well known, popular vegetables and few less known landraces for better utilization of the crop biodiversity of vegetable amaranths. The experimental data were statistically analyzed and separate Dendrograms were computed on three parameters (Morphology, Isozyme polymorphism and ISSR band profile).The members of “Tricolor complex†were clustered together in a single group along with two newly introduced species A. bengalense (a member of “Blitum complexâ€) and A. parganensis (a gynomonoecious member of “Tricolor complexâ€). Tricolor complex represents a plexus of species with varying sexual behavior from gynomonoecy to monoecy and indicates probable origin of monoecious  Amaranthus tricolor varieties or landraces from gynomonecious member like A. parganensis as recent introduction. The study indicated a close alliance between A. bengalense, A. parganensis, A. tricolor landrace and popular A. tricolor varieties which consolidated the feasibility of utilizing the landrace and newly introduced species as potential vegetable.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Saubhik Das, Taki Government College West Bengal State University

Associate Professor

Department Of Botany



Bawa KS, Beach JH. Evolution of sexual systems in flowering plants. Ann Mo Bot Gard 1981; 68: 254-274.

Brewbaker J L, Upadhya DM, Makinen Y, Macdonald T, et al. Isozyme polymorphism in flowering plants, III. Gel electrophoretic methods and applications. Physiol Plant 1968; 21: 930-940.

Chan KF, Sun M. Genetic diversity and relationships detected by isozyme and RAPD analysis of crop and wild species of Amaranthus. Theor Appl Genet 1997; 95: 865–873.

Costea M, DeMason DA. Stem morphology and anatomy in Amaranthus L. (Amaranthaceae) – Taxonomic significance. J Torrey Bot Soc 2001; 128(3): 254–281.

Costea M, Tardif FJ. The bracteoles in Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae): their morphology, structure, function, and taxonomic significance. Sida 2003b; 20: 969–985.

Costea M, Brenner DM, Tardif FJ, Tan YF, Sun M, et al. 2006. Delimitation of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus caudatus L. using micromorphology and AFLP analysis: an application in germplasm identification. Genet Resour Crop Evol 2003b; 53(8): 1625–1633.

Cuenoud P, Savolainen V, Chatrou LW, Powell M, Grayer R, Chase M. Molecular phylogenetics of Caryophyllales based on nuclear 18S rDNA and Plastid rbcL, atpB and matK DMA sequences. Am J Bot 2002; 89(1): 132-144.

Das S. Taxonomical observation on the grain amaranths and new varieties of Amaranthus cruentus (Amaranthaceae). Nor J Bot 2012b; 30: 412– 420.

Das S. Infraspecific variability of Amaranthus tricolor (Amaranthaceae) in India with a new variety. Phytotaxa 2013; 88(2): 25–30.

Das S, Iamonico D. Amaranthus bengalense (Amaranthaceae) a new species from India, with taxonomical notes on A. blitum aggregate. Phytotaxa 2014; 181(5): 293-300.

Das S. Amaranthus parganensis (Amaranthaceae), a new species from West Bengal, India. Novon 2015; 23: 406-410.

Hauptli H, Jain S. Allozyme variation and evolutionary relationships of grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.). Theor Appl Genet 1984; 69: 153–165.

Hershkovitz MA. Phylogenetic studies in Centrospermae: a brief appraisal. Taxon1989; 38: 602-608.

Iudina RS, Zheleznova NB, Zakharova OV, Zheleznov AV, Shumny VK. Isozyme variation in a genetic collection of amaranths (Amaranthus L.). Genetika 2005; 41:1681- 1687.

Jayaprakasam B, Zhang Y, Nair MG. Tumor cell proliferation and cyclooxygenase Enzyme inhibitory compounds. J Agric Food Chem 2004; 52(23): 6939-6943.

Mitchell CH, Diggle PK. Evolution of unisexual flowers: morphological and functional convergence results from diverse developmental transitions. Am J Bot 2005; 92: 1068-1076.

Mosyakin SL, Robertson KR. New infrageneric taxa and combination in Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae). Ann Bot Fenn1996; 33: 275–281.

Nolan C, Noyes A, Bennett A, Hunter R, Hunter KL. Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs) reveal genetic variation among mid-Atlantic populations of threatened African Amaranthus pumilus and phylogenetic relationship. Castanea 2010; 75: 506-516.

Schnetzler KA, Breene WM. Food uses and amaranth product research: a comprehensive review. In: Peredes-Lopez O, editor. Amaranth biology, chemistry and technology. FL: CRC Press, Boca Raton; 1994. p. 155–184.

Stefunova V, Bezo M, Labajova M, Senkova S. Genetic analysis of three Amaranthus species using ISSR markers. Emir J Food Agric 2014; 26(1): 35–45.

Studier FW. Analysis of bacteriophage T7 early RNAase and protein on slab gels. J Mol Biol 1973; 79: 237-248.

Transue DK, Fairabanks D, Robinson LR, Andersen WR. Species identification by RAPD analysis of grain amaranth genetic resources. Crop Sci 1994; 34: 1385–1389.

Willett WC. Eat, Drink and be healthy. New York: Free Press, A division of Simon & Schuster Inc.; 2001. p. 132.

Wetter L, Dyck J. Isozyme analysis of cultured cells and somatic hybrids. In: Evans DA, Sharp WR, Ammirato PV, Yamada Y, editors. Handbook of plant cell culture. New York: Macmillan Publ Co; 1983. p. 607-628.

Xu F, Sun M. Comparative analysis of phylogenetic relationships of grain amaranths and their wild relatives (Amaranthus: Amaranthaceae) using internal transcribed spacer, amplified fragment length polymorphism and double – primer fluorescent inter simple sequence repeat markers. Mol Phylogenet Evol 2001; 21(3): 372–387.



How to Cite

Das, S. (2017). Initial screening of vegetable amaranth landraces towards extending the vegetable list. Current Botany, 8.



Regular Articles