Current Botany <p>The Current Botany [ISSN: 2220-4822] is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal that publishes quality articles in all the areas of plant science research. The journal welcomes the submission of original manuscripts (Please see <a href="">Plagiarism Policy</a>) that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence.</p> <p>See the detailed <a href=""><strong>Aims and Scope</strong></a> of Current Botany.</p> <p><a href="">Click Here</a> to submit your article to the Current Botany</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Caution: </strong>The Editorial Office of Current Botany receives compliments from the authors that they receive e-mail with fake promises on acceptance guarantee, fast publication and that could include a request to submit articles by mail. Authors should aware of these fake promises. The manuscript should be submitted through the <a href="">online submission portal</a> not by mail and the submission, status and technical queries should be sent only to <a href=""></a>. All the submitted manuscripts will be subjected to plagiarism screening (iThenticate) and peer-review process by a minimum of two reviewers.</p> <p> </p> <p> <strong>Announcements</strong></p> <p> <strong>Current Botany [ISSN: 2220-4822] has been indexed in:</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">UGC-CARE List</li> <li class="show">AGRIS (FAO)</li> </ul> en-US (Managing Editor) (Managing Editor) Tue, 03 Jan 2023 11:04:43 +0530 OJS 60 Embryo maturation, dormancy and seed storage behaviour of Gymnacranthera canarica (King) Warb., a threatened endemic tree species of Southern Western Ghats <p><em>Gymnacranthera canarica </em>is a severely endangered endemic tree species found in the Myristica swamps of the Southern Western Ghats. Seed storage behaviour is an essential factor to consider when developing effective conservation methods for plant genetic resources whose <em>ex-situ </em>preservation is unclear. The seed storage behaviour, seed dormancy state, dormancy breaking treatments, germination, and phytohormonal analysis of <em>G. canarica </em>were explored in this work. <em>G. canarica </em>seed moisture at shedding was 28.86%, germinated to 34% at 25ºC, and had a low germination rate in natural conditions. Germination was considerably aided by Gibberellic acid pretreatment and drying stratification. <em>G. canarica </em>seeds may have non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy, as evidenced by the fact that their embryos grew at temperatures between 20 and 25ºC (MPD). Seeds can be stored for up to 60 days at 20ºC after being desiccated to 19.37% suggest that <em>G. canarica </em>seeds are recalcitrant, with non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy, and that seed pretreatment with Gibberellic acid prior to germination could be a viable approach for mass propagation and long term <em>ex-situ </em>conservation could be the potential storage of this critically endangered species.</p> S. Anusha, C. Anilkumar, A. Gangaprasad Copyright (c) 2023 S. Anusha, C. Anilkumar, A. Gangaprasad Tue, 03 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0530 A concise study on the floral biology of Thevetia peruviana morphovariants <p><em>Thevetia peruviana</em>, an ornamental medicinal plant of the family Apocynaceae blooms in different colour shades of yellow, orange and white, and is considered morphological replicas of its original parental type. A concise morpho-anatomical study has been carried out on the floral biology of these three morphovariants emphasizing biometrics of various floral parts, the architecture of corolla tube and corolline corona, adnation of anther stigmatic head complex and ovule to embryo formation, using the hand as well as microtome sections, to analyze the similarities and differences among these specimens. Appendiculate and smooth walled hairs in corolla tube, germination of pollen grains in a lateral stigmatic notch, appression of anther lobes on 10-lobed incompletely fused stigma, triaperturate pollen grains, ovule developmental stages, entry of pollen tube into ovule, attachment of funicle on placenta etc are some of the enchanting valuable scientific observations under light microscopy. Gross morphological variations noted in the overall size of various floral parts are regarded as negligible ones, which may happen due to environmental factors. Floral morphology alone is insufficient to give distinct varietal status in the hierarchy of classification, but corolla shades, of course, are of prime importance for phenotypic differentiation, and a multidisciplinary approach will help to expose untapped characters, useful for future studies below the rank at the subspecies level.</p> E. A. Nesy, Lizzy Mathew Copyright (c) 2023 E. A. Nesy, Lizzy Mathew Thu, 09 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0530 In silico molecular docking and in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of phytochemical compounds of Lantana camara Linn. <p>The rise of multi-drug resistant bacteria and the extensive use of antibiotics has become a serious threat worldwide. The side effect of antibiotics swirled the researchers towards traditional medicine to find a therapeutic agent with antibacterial activity. The phytochemical compound from medicinal plants paves a way for the novel antibacterial agent. In the present study, <em>in silico</em> molecular docking of phytochemical compounds identified through GC-MS analysis and <em>in vitro</em> antibacterial efficacy of ethanolic leaf extract of <em>Lantana camara</em> were evaluated. <em>In silico</em> docking studies of 11 Phyto-ligands were carried out against 4 motifs- 1PHO, 5I5H, 5UW2 and 6NTW of <em>Escherichia coli</em> to estimate the binding energy and to know the protein-ligand interaction. Amongst all the phyto-ligands studied, 4,8,13-Cyclotetradecatriene-1,3-diol,1,5,9-trimethyl-12-(1-methylethyl) showed good affinity towards 1PHO, 4a(2H)-Phenanthrenecarboxaldehyde,1,3,4,9,10,10a-hexahydro-6-methoxy-1,1-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl) exhibited highest affinity with 5I5H motifs of <em>E. coli</em>, 4,8,13-Cyclotetradecatriene-1,3-diol, 1,5,9-trimethyl-12-(1-methylethyl) showed better affinity towards motif 5UW2 of <em>E. coli</em> and (Z)-4-Nitro-alpha-(p-nitrophenyl)cinnamic acid showed good affinity towards 6NTW motif of <em>E. coli.</em> The ethanolic leaf extract of <em>L. camara</em> L. showed concentration dependent activity against <em>E. coli</em>.</p> Adline Anita, D. Selvaraj Copyright (c) 2023 Adline Anita, D. Selvaraj Mon, 27 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Diversity of fungal endophytes at different maturity levels of Cryptolepis buchanani leaves <p>A study on endophytic microflora diversity at each level and portion of the leaves of <em>Cryptolepis buchanani, </em>a medicinal plant used by tribals of Madhya Pradesh, India was carried out in the present investigation. As many as 383 isolates from 360 discs of leaves belonging to 17 fungal species and 9 isolates, which did not show any sporulation (sterile), were recovered. Among the 17 identified species, hyphomycetes is the dominant class and <em>Aspergillus, Colletotrichum and Khuskia </em>are the dominant genera. Colonization frequency (CF) was higher in mature leaves (78.3%) and comparatively lower in younger leaves (51.1%) and there was a marginal decrease in CF from the base of the leaf (66.7%) towards the leaf apex (62%). Statistical analysis revealed that level of the leaf had a significant effect on CF and diversity of fungal endophytes, while as leaf sub-parts had little influence. Biochemical characterization of the endophyte revealed the production of various enzymes viz. protease, amylase, lipase, cellulase, xylanase and pectinase. These fungal enzymes can be tapped for food, pharma, beverages, textiles, confectionaries, and leather industries. These bioactive natural products are easy to process as they are usually more stable than products obtained from other sources. The enzymatic activities also help to get a better insight into the host-endophyte relationship. However, the world of fungal endophytes needs to be researched extensively for production of plant based novel eco-friendly biomolecules in cost-effective manner.</p> Sujata Bhardwaj, N. S. Abbas, Babeeta C Kaula, Anil Prakash Copyright (c) 2023 Sujata Bhardwaj, N. S. Abbas, Babeeta C Kaula, Anil Prakash Sat, 04 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Phytoconstituents profiling and antioxidant potential of Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. <p>In the Indian traditional system of medicine<em>, Wrightia tinctoria </em>R.Br. (Apocyanaceae) is recognized as a biologically effective therapeutic plant for the treatment of jaundice. It is a natural medicinal tree possessing antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, antifungal, antibacterial, antipsoriatic, antiviral, anthelmintic, anticancerous, analgesic, antipyretic, and aphrodisiac activities. Methanolic extract of <em>W. tinctoria </em>plant was investigated with Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the antioxidant activity of <em>W. tinctoria </em>was analysed by most probable hydrogen peroxide scavenging (H2O2) activity, DPPH activity and Thiobarbutaric acid<em>. </em>The phytochemical in <em>W. tinctoria </em>leaf and bark have been assessed by GC-MS analysis. GC-MS analysis of W. tinctoria methanolic extract exposed the existence of the GC-MS chromatograms of 10 peaks in the leaf and 20 peaks in the bark. The FTIR spectroscopy analyses were identified by various functional compounds in the extracts with distinctive peak values. The FTIR analysis of methanolic leaf extracts of <em>W. tinctoria </em>confirmed the presence of alcohol, amine, alkane, carboxylic acid, sulfur compounds, halogen compounds and alkyne which showed major peaks. Also the methanolic bark extracts of <em>W. tinctoria </em>confirmed the presence of amines, phenol, alcohols, alkane, aldehydes, carboxylic acid, nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds, and halogen compounds which also exhibited major peaks. Significant antioxidant activity is displayed by the plant part of leaf and bark sample. The results obtained in the determination of antioxidant activity of MEWT displayed considerable free radical scavenging capacity against DPPH which generated free radicals. This study includes the identification of phytochemicals and antioxidant potential of methanolic and aqueous extract of <em>W. tinctoria </em>which assist in therapeutic claims about this species in the traditional medicinal plant system.</p> S. Rajkumar, G. Sathyaprabha, Maghimaa Mathanmohun Copyright (c) 2023 S. Rajkumar, G. Sathyaprabha, Maghimaa Mathanmohun Fri, 10 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Screening of Padina boergesenii for pharmacological activities <p><em>Padina boergesenii </em>is a distinctive small brown algae with rounded fronds growing to a length and diameter of 04 to 06 cm (1.6 to 2.4 in). <em>P. boergesenii </em>is widely present in the shallow water of tropical, subtropical and warm temperate areas. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial, anti-biofilm, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities of crude ethyl acetate extract of <em>P. boergesenii</em>. Anti-bacterial activity of crude ethyl acetate extract of <em>P. boergesenii </em>against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was determined using the well diffusion method. MIC of <em>P. boergesenii </em>against biofilm was carried out by the Resazurin method. Antioxidant potential was assessed by DPPH, FRAP, and the Hydrogen peroxide scavenging method. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using the albumin denaturation and heat-induced hemolysis method. Cytotoxicity activity of <em>P. boergesenii </em>against cell line L929 was analyzed by MTT assay. The maximum zone of inhibition obtained was 23 mm for <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, followed by 21 mm for <em>Escherichia coli</em>. Biofilm of <em>Enterococcus faecalis </em>showed higher resistance (MIC= 25.00±00.00 mg/mL). Biofilm of <em>Acinetobacter baumannii </em>was found to be most susceptible (MIC= 06.25±00.00 mg/mL). The IC50 value for the crude ethyl acetate extract <em>P. boergesenii </em>was 155.5 μg/mL for the DPPH method, 1567.18 μg/mL for the FRAP method, and 3098.27 μg/mL for the H2O2 method. The results of <em>in vitro </em>anti-inflammatory studies exhibited IC50= 122.33 μg/mL and 2522.40 μg/mL for albumin denaturation assay and heat-induced hemolysis method respectively. The crude ethyl acetate extract of <em>P. boergesenii </em>showed cytotoxicity against the growth of the L929 cell line. The present study suggested that the crude ethyl acetate extract <em>P. boergesenii </em>has potent antibacterial, anti-biofilm, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities. The bioactive components present in the <em>P. boergesenii </em>extract can be a promising source for pharmaceuticals.</p> Nirmala Mahendran, Priya Rajendran, Sasikumar Kandasamy, Gobianand Kuppannan, Muhammad Musthafa Poyil, Malarvizhi Arthanari Copyright (c) 2023 Nirmala Mahendran, Priya Rajendran, Sasikumar Kandasamy, Gobianand Kuppannan, Muhammad Musthafa Poyil, Malarvizhi Arthanari Tue, 28 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Diversity, distribution and seasonal variation of seaweeds in Southwest coast of Peninsular India <p>Six different research locations around the southwest coasts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala were used for the current investigations on the diversity, distribution, and seasonal fluctuation of seaweeds (India). A total of 73 Chlorophyta, Ochrophyta and Rhodophyta were recorded under 23 families and 38 genera. The study site Rasthakaadu (53) was with the maximum number of seaweeds followed by Kanniyakumari (51). Out of six study sites, four study sites (Rasthakaadu, Kanniyakumari, Muttom, Kurumpanai) were dominant with Rhodophyta in contrast to the other two study sites (Vallavilai, Vizhinjam) in which Chlorophyta was dominant. Chlorophyta such as <em>Chaetomorpha antannina, C. indica, C. media, Ulva fasciata</em>, <em>U. lactuca, </em>brown seaweeds <em>Sargassum ilicifolium </em>and red seaweed <em>Gracilariopsis longissima </em>were commonly seen in the study area. <em>Chaetomorpha indica </em>(Chlorophyceae) was recorded as the most dominant species in season I, whereas <em>Sargassum ilicifolium </em>(Phaeophyaceae) was considered as the most dominant seaweed taxon in seasons II and III. The seasonal variation in physicochemical parameters of seawater had much influence on the growth of seaweeds. Comparing the eastern Coromandel Coast of peninsular India to the western Malabar Coast, it has been found from the current study that the eastern Coromandel Coast was rich in seaweed. Moreover, the study shows that the topography and seasonal change of the physicochemical characteristics of seawater at a given site were the key determinants of seaweed richness. Anthropogenic activities, like Nuclear power plants (Koodankulam), sand mining, construction works, dumping of plastics etc., also affected the potential growth of seaweeds thereby reducing the sustainability of the natural resource.</p> N. Maybel Starlin, S. Princy, P. David Samuel, P. Subitha, A. Pepsi, S. Sukumaran Copyright (c) 2023 N. Maybel Starlin, S. Princy, P. David Samuel, P. Subitha, A. Pepsi, S. Sukumaran Tue, 23 May 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of different extracts from aerial parts of Zilla spinosa (L.) Prantl <p><em>Zilla spinosa </em>L. is a medicinal plant widely used in traditional Algerian phytotherapy against urinary lithiasis. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of different extracts from the aerial part of this plant. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was examined by two different methods, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC). The anti-inflammatory activity of <em>Z. spinosa </em>was determined by the protein denaturation method. The qualitative phytochemical screening shows the presence of the majority of secondary metabolites in the aerial parts except anthraquinones and steroids, on the other hand, the root is characterized by the absence of several metabolites except tannins and coumarins.The ethyl acetate fraction displayed the highest antioxidant capacity (IC<sub>50</sub> value: 10.47±0.18 μg/mL in DPPH assay, and A<sub>0.50 </sub>value: 40.89 ± 0.86 μg/mL in CUPRAC). The percentage of inhibition of BSA denaturation (0.2%) is proportional to the concentration of the different plant extracts, where the highest percentage was recorded in the concentrations of ethyl acetate 500; 250 μg/mL compared to Diclofenac (75 mg/3 mL), in contrast to the aqueous extract which gave non-significant results compared to the standards (p≥5℅). In comparison to the standards used in this study, the ethyl acetate extract demonstrated better DPPH inhibitory activity, while all organic extracts demonstrated lower CUPRAC inhibitory activity but higher anti-inflammatory activity.</p> R. Mecheri, N. Mahfouf, D. Smati, A. Boutefnouchet Copyright (c) 2023 R. Mecheri, N. Mahfouf, D. Smati, A. Boutefnouchet Mon, 05 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Analysis of pollen in honey samples in the district of Prayagraj, India <p>The analysis of pollen grains found in honey, known as melissopalynology, reveals pertinent details about the pollen and nectar sources in a location where bees produce honey, allowing researchers to identify the honey’s geographical and botanical origins. To determine the significant source plants in the area, the present analysis is conducted on five samples of winter honey that were collected from Prayagraj’s urban localities (Dahi, Baksi, Sirsa, Soraon, and Phoolpur). The methodology recommended by the International Commission of Bee Botany (ICBB) was followed in this study. Analysis of 5 honey samples recorded a diversity of 31 pollen types and one fungal spore type. The majority of pollen grains recovered from honey samples belong to entomophilous taxa (66%), 25% of the pollen is from anemophilous taxa, and 9% from amphiphilous taxa. Four honey samples (S1, S2, S3, and S5) were found to be unifloral while the remaining samples (S4) were multi-floral. The field mustard i.e. <em>Brassica campestris </em>L. was the predominant pollen type. The secondary frequency class contained three different pollen types, while the minor and significant minor frequency classes contained 14 and 30, respectively. With respect to the frequency of occurrence of pollen types in honey samples, field mustard was found to be a very common pollen type as they were recovered from more than 50% of the collected honey samples. The various type of pollen and spores were also observed in collected honey samples.</p> Jafar Mehdi, Ravi Kumar Yadav, Anil Kumar Gupta Copyright (c) 2023 Jafar Mehdi, Ravi Kumar Yadav, Anil Kumar Gupta Tue, 06 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Selaginella likabalika Aran & Roy sp. nov: a new species from Arunachal Pradesh, India <p>A new species of <em>Selaginella i.e</em>., <em>Selaginella likabalika </em>is described in the present study. The species was collected from Likabali, under the Lower Siang district and Karsingsa, under the Papumpare district of Arunachal Pradesh. The new species can be easily confused to be mosses due to their similar appearance and habitat resemblance. The species is minute, prostrate and generally covers the ground like a carpet. The morphology of the new species is close to <em>Selaginella armata, S. apoda, S. confusa </em>and <em>S. flacca </em>but can be differentiated by leaf features.</p> Khencha Aran, Himu Roy Copyright (c) 2023 Khencha Aran, Himu Roy Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Ethnomedicinal practices in the arid zone of India: A study in urban and semi-urban areas of Bhuj, Gujarat <p>Plants are a vital and life-sustaining natural resource as they provide many ecosystem services and supply food, fibre, fuel, medicine, etc. They are distributed heterogeneously in different ecosystems. With the increasing urbanization in all parts of the world, the vegetation overlapped with urban localities like parks, gardens, roadsides, wasteland and other human habitations. Among this vegetation, many of them are used in ethnomedicine or in ayurvedic medicine by people for a long period of time. These valuable plant resources are now under threat due to various anthropogenic activities in the urban landscape. Bhuj is a small historic city in the arid zone of India with a rich diversity of medicinal plants. With the increasing human population and associated developmental activities within the city, many of these plants are under threat of extinction. Therefore, an attempt was made to document these medicinal plants distributed in different parts of the city and their uses for ethnomedicinal purposes. The plants were intensively surveyed and documented using a questionnaire survey, discussion and cross-checked with available literature. A total of 123 species of ethnomedicinal plants were documented and analysed for their uses in curing different health problems and conservation purposes in the urban landscape.</p> Dipmala Gajjar, Rakesh Poptani, Bhagirath Paradva, Arun Kumar Roy Mahato, Jayesh B. Bhatt Copyright (c) 2023 Dipmala Gajjar, Rakesh Poptani, Bhagirath Paradva, Arun Kumar Roy Mahato, Jayesh B. Bhatt Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Ethno-veterinary study of medicinal plants in Charkhi Dadri district of Haryana, India <p>Ethno-veterinary medicinal plants are important as they are used extensively in many rural areas of the world where people heavily rely on traditional herbal treatments to treat their domestic animals. Indigenous herbal remedies utilized for centuries to keep animals healthy and verbally passed down through the generations. Charkhi Dadri is a district of Haryana situated in the Trans-Gangetic Plains area of India. A total of 45 distinct medicinal plants were studied from 31 families to explore their ethno-veterinary uses of which herbs comprised the majority of the plants followed by trees, shrubs, and climbers. The seeds, leaves and whole plants are the most popular plant parts used. The people can use the documentation of this native knowledge to promote the adoption of traditional methods for treating livestock problems since time immemorial. The findings of this study demonstrate the viability of traditional medicine, which primarily relies on the usage of medicinal herbs to provide for the healthcare needs of cattle in the Charkhi Dadri District of Haryana. The information gathered from the region’s livestock farmers may also utilize to manage the nation’s system for caring for livestock and enhance the quality of life in humans.</p> Sunita Sangwan, Jyoti Rani, Khushboo Singh, Deepika Rani, Sangeeta Sangwan, Mamta Rani, Asha Gaur, Kusum Lata Copyright (c) 2023 Sunita Sangwan, Jyoti Rani, Khushboo Singh, Deepika Rani, Sangeeta Sangwan, Mamta Rani, Asha Gaur, Kusum Lata Wed, 12 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0530 In-vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of ethyl acetate extract of Holigarna ferruginea <p>Higher plants have long been used as traditional medicines to treat human ailments. Approximately 80% of people worldwide utilize plants as safe sources of medicines to heal human diseases via a totally new medicinal system. <em>Holigarna ferruginea </em>is an indigenous medicinal tree plant in the Anacardiaceae family. The plant has a wide range of physiologically active chemicals. GC-MS was used to screen phytochemical substances, while FTIR was used to identify functional groups. GC-MS study revealed 10 major bioactive phytochemical substances that belong to functional groups such as secondary amines, alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, and anhydrides. These diverse active phytochemicals have been discovered to have a wide range of actions that may aid in the prevention of illnesses. Higher quantities of phytochemical substances were found in ethyl acetate extracts of leaves. As a result, the extract possesses anticancer and antioxidant activities against Humans Breast cell lines (MCF-7). The viability was reduced when the concentrations of the ethyl acetate extract of <em>H. ferruginea </em>leaves were increased and it may help in the discovery of an ideal therapeutic agent in novel drugs as well as nutritional supplements.</p> Kumbar Mudakappa Manjunath, Yelugere Linganaik Krishnamurthy Copyright (c) 2023 Kumbar Mudakappa Manjunath, Yelugere Linganaik Krishnamurthy Tue, 08 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Anticandidal activity of some plant extracts <p>Candidiasis, especially by <em>Candida albicans </em>is the most prevalent disease over the years. To control the infection, several synthetic drugs and their formulations have been applied. Although antifungals are quite effective in treating candidiasis, long term use has been reported to have side effects. Nevertheless, it has other drawbacks such as efficiency as well as cost, recurrence of the infection, emergences of resistant strains etc. Thus, plant based natural compounds are being investigated for their antifungal activity. In the present study, five different plant extracts assessed exhibited retardation of growth and protease production (molar concentration) in <em>C. albicans</em>. The mycelia form of the organism showed growth resistance to tested plant extracts than the yeast extract form which conferred the higher pathogenicity of the mycelia form. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each plant extract was experimentally evidenced with the oil obtained from the seeds of <em>Pongamia glabrata </em>showed the MIC values at the lowest concentration (20-30 μL/mL), followed by seed oil of <em>Azadirachta indica </em>and <em>Ricinus communis</em>. The order of candidostatic efficacy of the various oils was observed to be: <em>Pongamia &gt; Azadirachta &gt; Ricinus &gt; Eucalyptus &gt; Curcuma</em>. These findings have paved the way for further investigation of plant based antifungal agents and their clinical appropriateness for the treatment of Candidiasis.</p> Aparna Das Copyright (c) 2023 Aparna Das Fri, 11 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Comparative foliar anatomical study of six different varieties of Piper betle L. <p>The present investigation on a few selected cultivars of <em>Piper betle L. </em>was undertaken mainly to understand the anatomy and tissue components of the stem, leaves and petiole. This was accomplished by using basic anatomy techniques such as free hand and microtome sectioning. The varieties selected were: HY1, HY2, JB, KB, LV and SG. Major aspects of the present inquiry were - macro morphology, anatomy and histochemistry. The main focus of the study was on the internal structure of leaves and petioles to understand the role of specialised cells like enlarged hypodermal cells and mucilage cavities in retaining moisture and thereby preserving the shelf life of harvested leaves.</p> K. Mydeen Fathima Begam, P. Ravichandran, V. Manimekalai Copyright (c) 2023 K. Mydeen Fathima Begam, P. Ravichandran, V. Manimekalai Mon, 21 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0530