Current Botany https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb <p>The Current Botany [ISSN: 2220-4822] is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal that publishes quality articles in all the areas of plant science research. 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The manuscript should be submitted through the <a href="https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/about/submissions">online submission portal</a> not by mail and the submission, status and technical queries should be sent only to <a href="mailto:contact@updatepublishing.com">contact@updatepublishing.com</a>. All the submitted manuscripts will be subjected to plagiarism screening (iThenticate) and peer-review process by a minimum of two reviewers.</p> <p> </p> <p> <strong>Announcements</strong></p> <p> <strong>Current Botany [ISSN: 2220-4822] has been indexed in:</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">UGC-CARE List</li> <li class="show">AGRIS (FAO)</li> </ul> Update Publishing House en-US Current Botany 2220-4822 Influence of plant growth regulators on fatty acid composition of Simarouba glauca DC. https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6521 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Simarouba glauca</em> is a medicinally important oil yielding plant. It is a rainfed wasteland evergreen edible oil tree. Presowing soaked seeds of <em>Simarouba</em> <em>glauca</em>&nbsp;in various Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) are analyzed to estimate their fatty acid composition. The fatty acids extraction was done using petroleum ether and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were analyzed by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). Due to the application of growth regulators stearic acid, lingoceric acid and linolenic acid enhances noticeably, while, total saturated fatty acids are augmented due to cysteine, Salicylic Acid (SA) and methionine treatments and monosaturated fatty acids elevated due to the application of 6-Benzylaminopurine&nbsp;(6-BA) whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids enhanced in response to Gibberellic Acid (GA) and Chlormequat chloride (CCC). The PGR induced changes in fatty acid composition predominantly in polyunsaturated fatty acids may certainly recover the oil quality of <em>S. glauca</em> seeds.</p> S. Patil Manasi V. Waghmode Ahilya Chirag Narayankar D. K. Gaikwad Copyright (c) 2021 S. Patil Manasi, V. Waghmode Ahilya, Chirag Narayankar, D. K. Gaikwad 2021-02-22 2021-02-22 1 3 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6521 Cancer selective cytotoxicity of Sida acuta extracts on Artemia salina and human breast adenocarcinoma cells https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6542 <p style="text-align: justify;">Cancer is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The interests in the use of plants or plant-derived compounds are increasing recently due to their promising results in chemoprevention. The present study investigates the anti-cancer potentials of <em>Sida acuta</em>, a traditionally well-known medicinal plant. Accordingly, the methanol and aqueous extracts of <em>S. acuta</em> (SAM and SAA) were tested against <em>Artemia salina </em>nauplii for toxicity and on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines for cytotoxic and apoptotic properties. Both the extracts, SAM and SAA exhibited higher toxicity towards <em>Artemia salina</em>. Interestingly, the extracts exhibited minimal cytotoxicity in normal cells (VERO) than in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). The highly active SAA successfully induced apoptosis in MDA MB 231 and MCF-7 cells showing 17.81% and 4.27% of late apoptotic cells and 27.14% and 37.32% of early apoptotic cells, respectively. Most of the drugs being developed from plant sources had landed successfully in clinical trials. In conclusion, the observations clearly suggest that SAA may have possible therapeutic potential against human breast cancer-derived diseases specifically against ER-positive breast cancer.</p> Ramasamy Elankanni Devanga Ragupathi Naveen Kumar Rangasamy Ashok Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Ramasamy Elankanni, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen Kumar, Rangasamy Ashok kumar 2021-02-24 2021-02-24 4 9 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6542 Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Euphorbia paralias L. and Melilotus sulcatus Desf. against some pathogenic microorganisms https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6643 <p style="text-align: justify;">The present study was aimed to investigate the antimicrobial potential of leaf extracts of <em>Euphorbia paralias</em> and <em>Melilotus sulcatus</em> against four bacterial species <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli </em>and <em>Klebsiella sp</em>. and two fungal species <em>Asperigillus niger</em> and <em>Aspergillus flavus</em>. The agar well diffusion assay was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity. The effect of these extracts was most effective against the bacterial species compared to the fungal species at a used concentration (100 mg/ml). Methanolic extracts of selected plants displayed good antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms species, while, no activity for aqueous extracts against tested fungal species. Methanolic extracts were the most effective plant extracts against all tested bacterial species, with MIC and MBC reached 6.2 and 12.5 mg/ml, except <em>Klebsiella sp.</em> which was less sensitive to <em>M. sulcatus</em> methanolic extract and its MIC and MBC reached 12.5 and 25 mg/ml, respectively. These plant extracts which proved to be potentially effective can be used as bioactive agents to control microorganisms caused for diseases and they can be used naturally in the human and veterinary healthcare systems.</p> Miloud M. Miloud Najma A. Senussi Copyright (c) 2021 Miloud M. Miloud, Najma A. Senussi 2021-02-27 2021-02-27 10 15 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6643 GC analysis of different parts of Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth for fatty acid composition https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6605 <p style="text-align: justify;">The study evaluated the fatty acid profile of <em>Tecoma stans</em> (L.) Juss. ex Kunth plant parts. PUFAs were predominant in seed and leaf, except flower, which showed a higher amount of SFAs. Leaf exhibited the highest content of linolenic acid. cis-11,14-Eicosadienoic acid was the major fatty acid observed in leaf and seed. Another health beneficial n-6 FA observed in seed was cis-13,16-Docosadienoic acid. The C18:2n6c: C18:3n3c ratio of 4.75:1 confirms plant seed as an ideal source of n-6 FAs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mukul Anand R. Basavaraju Copyright (c) 2021 Mukul Anand, R. Basavaraju 2021-03-16 2021-03-16 16 21 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6605 In-silico molecular docking analysis of some plant derived molecules for anti-inflammatory inhibitory activity https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6583 <p style="text-align: justify;">Herbs are essential resources for drug discovery. However, numerous challenges stand in front of the scientific community to discover novel drugs from herbs. To explore the validation behind the precious knowledge of traditional medicine, we focused on achieving virtual screening to detect the potential medicines from the herbs.&nbsp; Five bioactive compounds from known anti-inflammatory medicinal plants were examined through molecular docking against &nbsp;cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS), using AutoDock 4.2. The docking of selected ligands with COX-2 showed the binding energy varying from -6.15 Kcal/mol to ‑11.24 Kcal/mol. The docking energies of identified ligands with iNOS were generated ranges from -3.85kcal/mol to -6.99 kcal/mol.&nbsp; Among the tested ligands, it was noted that 6 urs-12-en-24-oic acid showed the best binding energy than other compounds with the lowest binding energy and highest binding affinity with both anti-inflammatory target proteins COX-2 and iNOS. The <em>in silico</em> study validates the potential phytochemical compound of the medicinal herb that contribute to anti-inflammatory activity with low toxicity and minimal side effects.</p> L. Thamaraiselvi T. Selvankumar E.G. Wesely N. Vinod Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 L. Thamaraiselvi, T. Selvankumar, E.G. Wesely, N. Vinod Kumar 2021-03-19 2021-03-19 22 27 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6583 Ethnomedicinal knowledge among the Malayali tribal of Chitteri hills, Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6878 <p style="text-align: justify;">The present study was aimed to document the ethnomedicinal knowledge among the Malayali tribal of Chitteri hills Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. Field visits were made to the Chitteri hills every month covering all seasons. Interviews with traditional healers and other knowledgeable inhabitants and farmers were conducted. The Malayali tribal people of Chitteri hills use 320 plant species for their day-to-day life, this ethnobotanical exploration revealed they were the habit of using around 216 species of medicinal plants belonging to 200 genera under 45 families. Malayali tribes use morphological characters such as bark surface, leaf colour, leaf taste and exudates, underground plant parts and ecology of species as criteria for identification of 135 species belongs to 105 genera under 46 families. The documentation of the knowledge of Malayali tribal identification of plants of Chitteri hills is to be accorded top priority in the preservation of our ancient traditional knowledge.</p> R. Prabakaran T. Senthil Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 R. Prabakaran, T. Senthil Kumar 2021-03-19 2021-03-19 28 35 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6878 Withaferin A – A natural multifaceted therapeutic compound https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6867 <p style="text-align: justify;">COVID 19, which has lead to the death of millions of people, is still spreading worldwide. The development of any new drug after proper trial is much time consuming.&nbsp; This present global pandemic situation has lead the researchers around the world to run behind various existing antiviral and immunomodulatory natural compounds to overcome this contagious disease.&nbsp; <em>Withania somnifera</em> (ashwagandha) that is being used in Ayurvedic medicine for several ailments since several years is also said to pocess anti viral activity. Thus many of its metabolites are being studied individually for its efficacy against the dreadful disease. Withaferin A, a steroidal lactone from ashwagandha is one such prime metabolite which beyond acting as an antioxidant or antimicrobial agent, is also said to pocess anti-inflammatory to anti carcinogenic properties.&nbsp; Thus because of its wide spectrum of medicinal properties it has now become an attractive drug candidate for several preclinical studies. This increase in the demand for withaferin A has chanelled its way towards <em>in vitro</em> propagation of the plant <em>Withania somnifera </em>and trials on various strategies to increase the yield in terms of plant biomass as well as the withaferin content in the plants thus making it a better alternative to field grown plants. Thus this article reviews in depth on the important medicinal properties of withaferin A, its demand in Ayurveda industry and the <em>in vitro</em> strategies being carried out to overcome the demand.</p> Sangeetha Vinod Kalaiselvi Senthil Copyright (c) 2021 Sangeetha Vinod, Kalaiselvi Senthil 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 36 52 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6867 Morphological, anatomical and preliminary phytochemical characterization of Buddleja madagascariensis Lam. https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6242 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Buddleja madagascariensis</em> Lam. is a perennial invasive shrub distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The present study was conducted on morphological, anatomical and phytochemical characterization of <em>Buddleja madagascariensis</em> and the results revealed that plant height varied from about 188-191 cm, and the whole plant was covered with trichome which may be glandular and eglandular and unicellular or, multicellular. Inflorescence was terminal and axillary in position, thyrsoid panicle. Anatomical and histo-chemical studies of the transverse section of various parts of the plant revealed the presence of steller tissues, starch in cortical and pith region. Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. But alkaloids, glycosides and free amino acids were absent. Thus, characterization of plants on the basis of these parameters could be used as tools to distinguish the crude drugs of plants from adulterants, used in the preparation of traditional medicines and used as diagnostic keys. Also, it is useful in the future for revealing the importance of plants and phytochemical resources for the conservation of resources.</p> Vaishali Dobriyal Saurabh Guleri Maneesha Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Vaishali Dobriyal, Saurabh Guleri, Maneesha Singh 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 53 61 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6242 Colchicine induced polyploidy in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6360 <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of this study was to find a suitable treatment combination that would effectively induce polyploidy in Coriander. In this study, colchicine concentrations and treatment durations were examined for improving the induction of polyploidy. The combinations of three colchicine concentrations such as 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% for 3 hrs per day for two to three days were tested in coriander. Three tetraploids were obtained in 0.2% colchicine treated population. The treatment of colchicine (cotton swab method) seedling with 0.2% for 3 days was suitable for induction of chromosome doubling. The control plant showed eleven bivalents (2<em>n</em>=2<em>x</em>=22) and polyploid plant showed twenty two bivalents (2<em>n</em>=4<em>x</em>=44) at diakinesis/metaphase-I in most of the PMCs. Anaphase-I distribution of chromosomes was normal (11:11) in control and in tetraploids distribution of chromosomes was (22:22) at each poles. In contrast with the normal plants, those treated by colchicine treatment often showed changes in height and width, in thickness of branches, in size, shape, texture of leaves, flowers, size of fruits and seed setting.</p> Rakesh Purbiya Rakesh Chandra Verma Preeti Dass Chhatar Sing Chouhan Copyright (c) 2021 Rakesh Purbiya, Rakesh Chandra Verma, Preeti Dass, Chhatar Sing Chouhan 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 62 65 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6360 Mutagenic potential of Gamma rays on Somatic cell division and morphological parameters in Foeniculum vulgare Mill. https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6608 <p style="text-align: justify;">Mutagenesis involving ionizing radiation has been widely used for alteration in genetic constituents to increase the variability at gene level in a very small fraction of time. But, attempts to induce genetic variability in fennel for agronomically important trait are very limited. Narrow genetic base is the main hindrance in handling the conventional breeding in Fennel . Thus, main idea of this study is to generate genetic variability in Ajmer fennel-2 variety of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. by using the most potent physical mutagen i.e. gamma rays. The seeds were exposed to different doses of gamma rays viz. 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25Kr, respectively, along with control to analyze the effect of gamma rays on meristematic root tips. Germination and survival percentage were significantly affected in response to ionizing potential of gamma rays and a dose dependent decline was observed in both the parameters. Plant height, shoots, root length and days of flowering were also affected by gamma rays and a considerable increment was achieved at lowest dose with respect to control. As the dose of gamma ray increases, the rate of Active Mitotic Index declines. The irradiated seeds show numerous chromosomal variations such as; scattering, stickiness, bridge formation etc which are computed in the form of Total Abnormality Percentage.</p> Moni Mishra Girjesh Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Moni Mishra, Girjesh Kumar 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 66 71 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6608 Response of paddy field cyanobacterium, Westiellopsis prolifica Janet to the inorganic nitrogenous fertilizers https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6412 <p style="text-align: justify;">Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic nitrogen fixing microorganism which played a significant role in the nitrogen fixation and contributed much to the submerged rice cropping system of the world. It can luxuriantly flourish in paddy fields and providing nitrogen as well as various growth promoting substances that influence the growth of paddy plants. India, being an important rice producing country of the world, depends upon various inorganic fertilizers for rice cultivation. The heterocystous cyanobacterium, <em>Westiellopsis prolifca</em> is a common inhabitant in most of the paddy fields of Kerala. The growth and other biochemical parameters upon the growth of cyanobacterium were assayed. The nitrogenous fertilizer ammonium sulphate influences the chlorophyll-a synthesis, protein content and growth rate. But the ammonia excretion was drastically reduced in cyanobacterial cultures upon the treatment with inorganic fertilizers.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mamiyil Shamina Copyright (c) 2021 Mamiyil Shamina 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 72 74 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6412 Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh) and their anticancer properties https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6615 <p style="text-align: justify;">Marine macroalgae produce numerous bioactive compounds with potential pharmacological properties. In this study, macroalga was collected from the Gulf of Mannar, India and identified as, <em>Turbinaria conoides</em> (J. Agardh). The aqueous extract of <em>T. conoides</em> was used to synthesize iron nanoparticles (NPs). The synthesized iron NPs were characterized by X –ray diffraction analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The synthesized NPs showed potent activity against DLD1 and HeLa cell lines.</p> Asha D. V. Bensy G. Johnsi Christobel Copyright (c) 2021 Asha D. V. Bensy, G. Johnsi Christobel http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 75 79 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6615 Studies on the effect of sodium arsenate & cadmium chloride on Pithophora oedogonia (Mont.) Wittrock 1877 https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6463 <p>Cadmium and Arsenic are heavy metals although not common in our environment, its threat in certain places are aggravated due to anthropogenic factors. To know its critical role on plants the investigation was made using Na<sub>2</sub>HAsO<sub>4 </sub>and CdCl<sub>2 </sub>treatment on <em>Pithophora</em> <em>oedogonia </em>(Mont.) Wittrock 1877. The observations were made after 14 days of treatment. The changes were noted. In both cases, the treated cells exhibited gradual disruption of cell wall and cell membrane. The chlorophyll content initially increased and finally decreased due to the notable destruction of chloroplasts in both treated cells. A profuse number of akinetes were observed at 100 ppm and 150 ppm of Na<sub>2</sub>HAsO<sub>4 </sub>and CdCl<sub>2</sub> treated media. Decrease in protein content was started at 100 ppm in both cases. The lipid content initially decreased at 50 ppm and at 100 ppm lipid profile increased in terms of toleration to the Na<sub>2</sub>HAsO<sub>4 </sub>and CdCl<sub>2 </sub>stress. <em>Pithophora oedogonia</em> (Mont.) Wittrock 1877 exhibited more sensitivity to CdCl<sub>2 </sub>stress &amp; showing abrupt changes in chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b production. The carotenoid production shown more sensitivity in Na<sub>2</sub>HAsO<sub>4 </sub>stress. Total phenol production was decreased initially and at 200 ppm CdCl<sub>2</sub> stress had shown significant enhancement than the control set but at the 200 ppm of Na<sub>2</sub>HAsO<sub>4 </sub>shown inhibitory effect.</p> Puspendu Karmakar Jai Prakash Keshri Copyright (c) 2021 Puspendu Karmakar, Jai Prakash Keshri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-04-14 2021-04-14 80 84 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6463 Assessment of threatened status, phytochemical composition and biological properties of three Aconitum species from Kashmir Himalaya - India https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6892 <p style="text-align: justify;">Genus <em>Aconitum</em> (Ranunculaceae) is represented by 6–8 species from Kashmir Himalaya. Traditionally <em>Aconitum</em> species are used to treat a wide array of diseases, but their ethnopharmacological validation and phytochemistry are hitherto unreported from Kashmir Himalaya. The present study was undertaken to bring insights into the traditional use and distribution pattern of three <em>Aconitum </em>species from the region. An ethnobotany-directed approach was employed to study the conservation status of three <em>Aconitum</em> species. Their phytochemical profiles and biological properties were screened under <em>in vitro</em> conditions. Folin–ciocalteu and Aluminium chloride assays were employed to measure their total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, respectively. Plant extracts were evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Three <em>Aconitum</em> species, viz. <em>Aconitum heterophyllum</em> Wall. ex Royle, <em>Aconitum violaceum</em> Jacquem. ex Stapf and <em>Aconitum chasmanthum</em> Stapf. ex Holmes showed dwindling conservation status in Kashmir Himalaya. <em>Aconitum</em> extracts showed significant variations in total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Antioxidant activity of <em>Aconitum chasmanthum</em> methanolic extract was studied to be comparatively higher (80.115%). <em>Aconitum chasmanthum</em> DCM &amp; methanolic extracts showed a good MIC value of 0.125 mg/ml against <em>Candida albicans</em> and <em>Streptococus pyogenes</em>, respectively. The percent inhibition of NLRP inflammasome was found significant in <em>Aconitum violaceum</em> ethyl acetate extract (74.61%). The present study revealed that <em>Aconitum</em> species are constantly declining at least in investigated habitats of Kashmir Himalaya and hence need strategic conservation planning. The results also emphasized the utility of <em>Aconitum</em> species as an antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent that could be used to manage various health problems.</p> Sabeena Ali Dilpreet Kour Augustin Ntemafack Nitika Kapoor Phalisteen Sultan Ajay Kumar Sumit G. Gandhi Qazi Parvaiz Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 Sabeena Ali, Dilpreet Kour, Augustin Ntemafack, Nitika Kapoor, Phalisteen Sultan, Ajay Kumar, Sumit G. Gandhi, Qazi Parvaiz Hassan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 85 96 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6892 The Antimicrobial effect of a cyclic peptide Nostophycin isolated from wastewater cyanobacteria, Nostoc calcicola https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6612 <p>Different types of peptides are produced by cyanobacteria of the genus <em>Nostoc</em>, which are unique in structure and have a wide spectrum of biological activities. The objective of the study to explore different habitats of organism and study antimicrobial activities to improve their pharmaceutical application and drug like properties by structure modification. A cyclic peptide nostophycin was isolated from <em>Nostoc</em> <em>calcicola</em> (MK506349) through freeze dried lyophilization method. Its structure has been elucidated with FT-IR, <sup>1</sup>HNMR, <sup>13</sup>CNMR and LC-MS. Glycine, d-glutamine, l-phenylamine, d-isoleucine, l-proline and a novel amino acid Ahoa are constituents of nostophycin. <sup>1</sup>HNMR, <sup>13</sup>CNMR spectroscopy confirmed the number of protons and carbons, and characteristics peak determined the structure and fragmentation pattern through LCMS. &nbsp;Nostophycin possess Ahoa instead of Adha which makes it different from microcystin. Nostophycin exhibits antimicrobial activity against <em>E.coli, S. aureus</em>, <em>C. albicens</em> and <em>A. niger</em>. A good antifungal activity (9-52 μg/mL) and moderate &nbsp;antimicrobial activity (concentration 18-52 μg/mL) were found for nostophycin. In case of already known peptides, these molecules may be further exploited to improve pharmaceutical application and future drug development.</p> Vaishali Gupta Deepak Vyas Copyright (c) 2021 Vaishali Gupta, Deepak Vyas http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 94 101 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6612 Varietal identification and fingerprinting of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) varieties and hybrid using morphological descriptors and SSR markers https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/7022 <p style="text-align: justify;">Pearl Millet (<em>Pennisetum glaucum) </em>is the sixth most important cereal crop in the world. The genomic resources available in Pearl millet can be utilized for fingerprinting and screening of hybrids using SSR markers and will be helpful for the assessment of seed purity. Hence, the present study was focused on fingerprint popular pearl millet varieties and hybrids of Tamil Nadu for varietal identification and hybrid purity test. The varieties used for DNA fingerprinting were CO (Cu) 9, CO 10, Pearl Millet hybrid CO 9 along with the parents, A' line ICMA 93111A and R' line PT 6029-30. The morphological features were recorded to screen the cultivars. The Pearl millet hybrid CO 9 scored the highest value for more than four quantitative characters via., Number of productive tillers (4-6), Leaf blade length (60-68cm), Leaf blade width (4.0-4.5cm), number of nodes (8-10), and 1000 seed weight (13-14g) which is at par and comparable with the composite CO 10&nbsp; and higher than that of the variety CO (Cu) 9. PCR was performed using 36 SSR primers to find out polymorphism among the varieties. The SSR markers ICMP3021 and PSMP2089 were able to selectively identify CO (Cu) 9 from the other varieties. Whereas, the SSR markers ICMP3018, PSMP2219, and PSMP2220 were used to distinguish CO 10 from the other varieties. Further, the CO10 variety produced additional alleles for all the markers due to its composite nature. Among the thirty-six SSR primers screened, none of them were found suitable to distinguish the TNAU hybrid CO 9 from its parents. The unique DNA fingerprints developed in the present study can be utilized for seed purity testing and varietal identification.</p> Senthil Natesan Subbulakshmi Kali Kaavya Venkateswaran Keerthika Selvam Iyanar Krishnamoorthy Ravikesavan Rajasekaran S. Geetha Copyright (c) 2021 Senthil Natesan, Subbulakshmi Kali, Kaavya Venkateswaran, Keerthika Selvam, Iyanar Krishnamoorthy, Ravikesavan Rajasekaran, S. Geetha http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 105 109 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.7022 Seed germination behaviour of Terminalia paniculata Roth (Combretaceae), an economically important endemic tree to peninsular India https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6857 <p>The present study was conducted to investigate the seed germination behaviour of <em>Terminalia paniculata</em>, a commercially important tree component of deciduous forests of Peninsular India. The study included the identification of maturity index to determine the optimum collection period of the most viable seeds with good seed longevity. Species are characterized by very low germinability and poor regeneration status. Observations were made throughout the flowering and fruiting period on selected matured trees. Seed viability was tested at various stages of maturity and seed longevity was evaluated. The results indicated that the 16<sup>th</sup> week after anthesis with red-colored fruits recorded the maximum viability (2.60% germination) that shows it is the best period for the collection of seeds. Seed emptiness is very high in <em>T. paniculata</em> (4 to 2%) compared to other <em>Terminalia </em>species (low emptiness). Pre-sowing treatments were not effective in enhancing seed germination and viability. Seeds can be stored up to 6 months in an air-tight metallic container at 4<sup>o</sup>C and 45 ± 5 % relative humidity. The results of the study can be taken as a reference for various other tree improvement programs and further studies. </p> Sanal C Viswanath P K C Pillai Sinny Francis T K Hrideek Copyright (c) 2021 Sanal C Viswanath, P K C Pillai, Sinny Francis, T K Hrideek http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 110 114 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6857 In vitro salt tolerance induced secondary metabolites production in Abrus precatorius L. https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6391 <p>The white seeded <em>Abrus</em> <em>precatorius</em> L. is an important herbaceous medicinal plant with broad range of therapeutic effects. In the present study, the internode was selected as explant for <em>in</em> <em>vitro</em> salt tolerance analysis. For callus induction, MS medium with different concentrations and combinations of BAP, KIN and IBA were used. Better callus Fresh Weight and Dry Weight observed on MS medium supplemented with BAP 0.5mg/l and KIN 1mg/l. To detect the <em>in</em> <em>vitro</em> salt tolerance potential of calli, NaCl at different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100mM) were supplemented on MS+BAP0.5mg/l+KIN1mg/l of which 40mM NaCl induced better callus proliferation. The callus grown without NaCl stress showed the presence of eight phytochemical compounds in GC-MS analysis. While the NaCl stress tolerant callus exhibited the presence of seventeen phytochemical compounds. All these analyzed compounds were with antimicrobial / anti-oxidant properties. The present work will be very much helpful to ameliorate the production of medicinally significant compounds in the pharmaceutical industry. </p> P. Deepa K.P. Lafna Farshana Copyright (c) 2021 P. Deepa, K.P. Lafna Farshana http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 115 120 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6391 Biological approaches of termite management: A review https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/7021 <p>For increased crop production, the role of chemical termiticides cannot be neglected as they have provided the efficient way to achieve green revolution. But the present scenario has forced mankind to search for alternative options. While keeping in mind the concept of sustainable agriculture, pest management including termites and other phyto-diseases etc. needs to be focused. For the achievement of the above stated goal, eco-friendly and cost-effective strategies need to be emphasized. Biopesticidal agents that mainly comprise of herbal and microbial formulations are known to exhibit anti termite activity and have a pivotal role in the production of organic food products. In order to reduce the chemical consumption, the vast area of biological alternatives needs to be explored as they provide us with many beneficial aspects like sustainability, suitable application, biodegradable nature, target specificity etc. Further, the bioactive components of such biological agents can later be used as commercially viable termiticides in the form of formulations. These herbal and microbial termiticides are effective and have immense scope to be used in future for sustainable development.</p> Preeti Mishra Monica Verma Saket Jha Arpita Tripathi Anand Pandey Anupam Dikshit Satyawati Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Preeti Mishra, Monica Verma, Saket Jha, Arpita Tripathi, Anand Pandey, Anupam Dikshit, Satyawati Sharma http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-06-06 2021-06-06 121 131 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.7021 Anatomical studies on the leaf and stem of Tinospora formanii Udayan & Pradeep (Menispermaceae), an endemic species to Southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6455 <p>The anatomical studies on leaf and stem of <em>T. formanii </em>Udayan &amp; Pradeep an endemic species to southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India was carried out focusing on its macroscopic, microscopic, maceration along with organoleptic evaluation. Distinguishing characters of the stem revealed the presence of calcium oxalate crystals, simple and compound starch grains and pitted lignified fibers. Leaf anatomy showed the anomocytic and paracytic stomata, pitted lignified fibers, spiral vessels, non-glandular small trichomes, C or half-moon shaped vascular bundle, surrounded with sclerenchymatous tissues and rosette and prism shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Whereas, maceration studies revealed the presence of spiral and scalar form vessel, fibers, calcium oxalate crystals, simple starch grains. These anatomical studies are vital in the present-day trade scenario not only helpful in the proper identification of the genuine materials in use but also to distinguish different species of <em>Tinospora, </em>where the stem and leaf are often admixed with other species of <em>Tinospora</em> in the crude drug markets.</p> Patturaj Raj S. Noorunnisa Begum K. Ravikumar P. Sheema Dharmapal P. S. Udayan Copyright (c) 2021 Patturaj Raj, S. Noorunnisa Begum, K. Ravikumar, P. Sheema Dharmapal, P. S. Udayan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-07-23 2021-07-23 132 137 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6455 Density, diversity and community composition of trees in tropical thorn forest, peninsular India https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/7138 <p>Tropical thorn forests (TTFs) are characterized by the presence of small and thorny trees which usually shed their leaves in dry season. A quantitative phytosociological study was conducted in Uthumalai Reserve Forest of Peninsular India to record density, species richness, diversity and population structure of trees. Diameter of all free standing trees ≥1 cm diameter at breast height (DBH, cm) was measured at 1.37 m above the ground. A sum of 4135 trees ≥1cm DBH recorded from one hectare study plot. With 2272 (54.94%) individuals <em>Dalbergia spinosa </em>dominated the study plot followed by <em>Commiphora berryi</em> (484, 11.70%), <em>Grewia flavescens</em> (259, 6.26%), <em>Dichrostachys cinerea</em> (206, 4.98%) and <em>Anogeissus pendula</em> (171, 4.14%). In total, 26 species belonged to 19 genera and 15 families found in one ha study plot. The family Mimosaceae had a large number of species followed by Apocynaceae, Capparidaceae, Tiliaceae, Rhamnaceae. Rubiaceae (each 2 species). Stand basal area of tree community recorded as 15.238 m<sup>2</sup> ha<sup>-1</sup>. <em>Commiphora berryi</em> constituted 50.80% (7.74 m<sup>2</sup> ha<sup>-1</sup>) of stand basal area followed by <em>Dalbergia spinosa</em> (19.43%, 2.96 m<sup>2</sup> ha<sup>-1</sup>). The forest showed a reverse J shaped population structure. Shannon diversity (<em>H</em>), equitability (<em>H’</em>) and Simpson’s dominance (<em>D</em>) indices of study area recorded as 1.76, 0.54 and 0.335, respectively. <em>Dalbergia spinosa</em>, <em>Commiphora berryi</em>, <em>Grewia flavescens</em>, <em>Dichrostachys cinerea</em> and <em>Anogeissus pendula</em> topped the species important value index with 87.80, 73.53, 20, 19.79, 17.43 scores, respectively. In family important value index, Papilionaceae topped the list followed by Burseraceae and Mimosaceae with scores 129.32, 74.23 and 34.43, respectively. The study area endowed with a moderate species richness and diversity, and acts as one of the homes for an IUCN’s <em>vulnerable</em> tree species.</p> J. Evitex-Izayas M. Udayakumar Copyright (c) 2021 M. Udayakumar, J. Evitex-Izayas http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-08-07 2021-08-07 138 145 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.7138 Impact of tannery effluent on Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/7148 <p>The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of tannery effluent on different varieties of <em>Sorghum bicolor</em>. The disparate concentrations of tannery effluent <em>viz.,</em> 5, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were tested for its impacts on six varieties of <em>Sorghum bicolor</em> (L.) Moench (TNAU CO 5, TNAU CO 30, CO (S) 28, BSR 1, K Tall and Paiyur 1). The experimentation was carried out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with five replications. The impact of tannery effluent on the germination percentage, shoot length (cm), root length (cm), seedling weight (g), vigour index, tolerance index and phytotoxicity were recorded. The outcome revealed that the parameters escalated in 5% effluent concentration and declined after 25% concentration of tannery effluent.</p> V. Sangeetha P.S. Sharavannan Copyright (c) 2021 V. Sangeetha, P.S. Sharavannan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-08-09 2021-08-09 146 149 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.7148 Genetic status of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (Indian pennywort): A review https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6971 <p>In recent years, demand for medicinal plants increased due to the rise in attraction towards herbal products which are safer compared to modern drugs. <em>Centella asiatica</em> (L.) Urb is known as an important medicinal plant in herbal medicinal systems. It also used as an active ingredient for many products in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. So far, review on this plant concerns mainly on medicinal, cosmetology and photochemical works reported. This review presents the genetic studies conducted in this herb along with a mention on conservation. Since documenting and studying genetic variation and its composition has an important connection for the understanding of evolution and improving the conservation of this species.</p> Sakthipriya Mathavaraj Kalluvettankuzhy Krishnannair Sabu Copyright (c) 2021 Sakthipriya Mathavaraj, Kalluvettankuzhy Krishnannair Sabu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-09-10 2021-09-10 150 160 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6971 A comprehensive evaluation of pectinase, pectinmethylesterase and pectolyase activity https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6579 <p style="text-align: justify;">Pectin polysaccharide has galacturonic acid with linear chains of α-(1–4)-linked D- galacturonic acid. Rhamnogalacturonan I pectins (RG-I) shows the existence of the repeating disaccharide 4-α-D-galacturonic acid-(1,2)-α-L- rhamnose, which acts as a backbone. Chiefly, D-galactose, L-arabinose, and D-xylose are the sugars types and its proportions of neutral sugars are varied according to the origin of pectin. Pectinase, pectinmethylesterase, and pectolyase enzymes have important applications in food, textile and agricultural industries. These enzymes play an important role in the breakdown of the central part of the plant cell wall. Pectin forms the center part of the plant cell wall. Pectins are termed as structural polysaccharide that has integrity for the steadiness of the plant cell wall. Citrate buffer of molarity 0.1 utilized to verify optimal pH along with temperature, for standardising enzyme activity of pectinase, pectolyase, and pectinmethylesterase by the dinitrosalicylic acid reagent method. Confirmatory check of enzyme’s activity was performed on plant leaves dried particles. Impact of catechin presence in enzyme reaction was too studied. Results delve into degradation of the plant polysaccharide by applying these enzymes. An increase in the monosaccharide galacturonic acid quantity was also significant. The highest release of the polyphenols was found due to pectolyase followed by pectinmethylesterase and pectinase. Pectinmethylesterase effect showed the maximum release of the flavonoids followed by pectinase and pectolyase which was remarkable.</p> Karishma Rajbhar Himanshu Dawda Usha Mukundan Copyright (c) 2021 Karishma Rajbhar, Himanshu Dawda, Usha Mukundan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-09-14 2021-09-14 161 165 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6579 Development of wound dressing film using methanolic extracts of freshwater microalgae and determining its wound healing ability https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6986 <p>Wound healing is a complex process in which bacterial infection is a major cause for delayed wound healing. Occurrence of drug resistance among bacterial pathogens led to discovery of new antimicrobial agents from new sources. The present study aimed to identify microalgal metabolites with antibacterial activity and to develop a wound dressing film with their potential healing activity. Microalgal samples were collected from three different freshwater habitats, isolated, made them pure cultures and physico-chemical properties of water samples from the respective sampling sites were analzed. Among the three microalgal isolates,&nbsp; <em>Chlorella</em> sp. NRMC-F-0350 showed antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of&nbsp; <em>E. coli</em>,<em> Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus. </em>Additionally, functional groups present in <em>Chlorella</em> sp. NRMC-F-0350 were identified using FTIR and GC-MS analysis. Several antibacterial compounds <em>viz.</em> benzoxazole, 1,2 Benzene dicarboxylic acid, sistosterol, 9-Octadecanoic acid, eicosane and hexadecane were identified<strong>. </strong>Wound dressing films were developed and showed evident antibacterial as well as significant wound healing activity (84.5%). Therefore, the developed films can be used as a potential wound dressing material.&nbsp;</p> S. Soundararajan R. Karkuvel Raja S. Vishnu Chitthan S. Sanjay Prasad N. Thajuddin Copyright (c) 2021 S. Soundararajan, R. Karkuvel Raja, S. Vishnu Chitthan, S. Sanjay Prasad, N. Thajuddin http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-09-20 2021-09-20 166 173 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6986 Biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using ginger spent and their antibacterial activity https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6590 <p>Ginger spent is the byproduct of spice industries that remove the essential oils of ginger (<em>Zingiber officinale)</em> for food industry and medicinal purposes. Ginger is a well known spice used often for seasoning in Indian cuisine. The de-oiled ginger has no specific use mostly goes to waste. Hence, we utilized this industrial waste product in the efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles with the aid of UV irradiation from a solution of 1mM silver nitrate and spent extract in the ratio 9:1. Immediate colour change from pale yellow to dark brown was noted indicating the rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were centrifuged, dried and well characterized. UV Vis Spectroscopy, XRD analysis, Zeta potential and SEM analysis was carried out. It was commendable that the size of the nanoparticles fell well within the upper limit of 100nm. Agar well diffusion method was used to screen the antimicrobial activity of the well characterized silver nanoparticles. They were tested against seven pathogenic strains of three gram negative bacteria (<em>Escherichia coli</em>,<em> Klebsiella pneumonia</em> and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>) three gram positive bacteria(<em>Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus </em>and<em> Streptococcus faecalis)</em> and a fungus (<em>Candida&nbsp; albicans).</em> It was seen that the zone of inhibition(ZOI) in well plate method&nbsp; increased on increasing the concentration of silver nanoparticles. Further studies could lead to the application of these silver nanoparticles in medicine.</p> Sinthia Ganesan Palanichamy Mehalingam Govindan Sadasivam Selvam Copyright (c) 2021 Sinthia Ganesan, Palanichamy Mehalingam, Govindan Sadasivam Selvam http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-09-20 2021-09-20 174 179 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6590 Biochemical composition, nutritional analysis and antioxidant activity of Buchanania lanzan Spreng fruits https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/6852 <p><em>Buchanania lanzan</em> Spreng belongs to the family Anacardiaceae. The primary focus of this study was to examine phytochemical, proximate, antioxidant property and GCMS evaluation of unripe and ripen fruit of <em>B. lanzan</em> Spreng. The phytochemical studies showed that alkaloids, phenols, flavones, saponins, coumarins, glycosides and tannins are present in both ripen and unripe fruits. The proximate evaluation confirmed that crude fat (14.5%) and protein (6.37±0.69 g/100g) is high in ripen fruit. In unripe fruit (11.3%) crude fat and protein (4.11%) is less percent. The carotenoid (5.58 ± 0.5 mg/100g) and catalase (0.226±0.074 mg/100g) activity is higher in unripe fruit. The total polyphenol (6.4±0.8 mg/100g) and peroxidase (0.362±0.017 mg/100g) content show greater activity in ripen fruit. In DPPH and FRAP highest activity showed in methanol extract of ripen and unripe fruit than the other solvent. GC-MS evaluation showed many bioactive compounds present in unripe and ripen fruit. It is concluded that nutritional and bioactive ability is high in ripen and unripe fruits of <em>B. lanzan.</em> The fruits of <em>B.lanzan</em> are a good source of nutrition and medicinally important.</p> Madhuri Suryawanshi Vilas Patil Varsha Jadhav (Rathod) Copyright (c) 2021 Madhuri Suryawanshi, Vilas Patil, Varsha Jadhav (Rathod) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 180 187 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6852 Dyeing of cotton fabric by Caesalpinia sappan aqueous extract at different temperatures and mordants https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/cb/article/view/7277 <p>The colour is one of the most important features in textile industry and customers requirements. Synthetic colours are available at affordable prices due to their bulk production. On the other hand, they pose undesirable taste (in case of foods) and harmful effects to ecosystem. The natural colours when used in textiles do not threat the environments and do not cause any skin allergy, toxicity and other hazards to living things as compared to the synthetic counterparts. In the present study, dyeing experiments were conducted with the aqueous extract of bark chips of Caesalpinia sappan at 60, 80 and100° C and using different mordant treatments. The fastness to washing for most of cotton fabrics showed fair grey scale rating. Among the mordants Alum, CuSo<sub>4</sub> and Myrobalan used, the natural mordant myrobalan showed poor fastness properties compared to other two mordants. The staining tests showed that most of fabrics exhibited only slight/completely no pilling in majority of the treatments.</p> K. Kannathasan P. Kokila Copyright (c) 2021 K. Kannathasan, P. Kokila http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-09-22 2021-09-22 188 191 10.25081/cb.2021.v12.7277