Spice bioactives in edible packaging


  • K. Ravi Department of Spices & Flavour Sciences, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysuru-570 020, Karnataka, India
  • K. Goyal Department of Spices & Flavour Sciences, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysuru-570 020, Karnataka, India
  • S. Priyadarshi Department of Spices & Flavour Sciences, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysuru-570 020, Karnataka, India
  • M. M Naidu Department of Spices & Flavour Sciences, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysuru-570 020, Karnataka, India




antimicrobial activity, bioactive compound, edible coating, edible film, spice constituents, spice essential oil


Edible packaging received significant attention in recent years. The main advantage of edible packaging over synthetic packaging is that they are environment friendly. The material used in edible packaging (lipids, polysaccharides, proteins) is generally recognized as safe and it acts as a barrier to gases, light and moisture. Spices have been traditionally used for its medicinal value. Spice extract or its essential oil possesses various bioactive compounds which are known for their antioxidant and antimicrobial property. Incorporation of spice extract or its essential oil into edible packaging exerts antimicrobial activity against the food pathogens thus preventing food spoilage and enhances the shelf-life and also increases the nutritional value of the final product. Antioxidant properties of spices retard the lipid oxidation. Dietary allergy and intolerance are also associated with packaging material and spices. Because of the high cost of film-forming material, scaling-up of edible packaging has remained a problem.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdou E S, Galhoum G F & Mohamed E N 2018 Curcumin loaded nanoemulsions/pectin coatings for refrigerated chicken fillets. Food hydrocoll. 83: 445–453.

Ali B H, Blunden G, Tanira M O & Nemmar A 2008 Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): A review of recent research. Food Chem.Toxicol. 46: 409–420.

Almasi H, Ghanbarzadeh B & Entezami A A 2010 Physicochemical properties of starch-CMC-nanoclay biodegradable films. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 46: 1–5.

Anthony A, Caldwell G, Hutt A G & Smith R L 1987 Metabolism of estragole in rat and mouse and influence of dose size on excretion of the proximate carcinogen 10 -hydroxyestragole. Food Chem. Toxicol. 25: 799–806.

Arshad H, Mohsin Ali T & Hasnain A 2020 Bioactive properties and oxidative stability of nutmeg oleoresin microencapsulated by freeze drying using native and OSA sorghum starches as wall materials. J. Food Meas. Charact. 14: 2559–2569.

Avila-Sosa R, Palou E, Munguia M T J, Nevarez-Moorillon G V, Cruz A R N & Lopez-Malo A 2012 Antifungal activity by vapor contact of essential oils added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 153: 66–72.

Aydin S, Basaran A A & Basaran N 2005 The effects of thyme volatiles on the induction of DNA damage by the heterocyclic amine IQ and mitomycin C. Mutat. Res. Genet. Toxicol. Environ. Mutagen. 581: 43–53.

Ayoughi F, Marzegar M, Sahari M A & Naghdibadi H 2011 Chemical compositions of essential oils of Artemisia dracunculus L. and endemic Matricaria chamomilla L. and an evaluation of their antioxidative effects. J. Agr. Sci. Tech.13: 79–88.

Bahram S, Rezaei M, Soltani M, Kamali A, Ojagh S M & Abdollahi M 2014 Whey protein concentrate edible film activated with cinnamon essential oil. J. Food Process. Preserv. 38: 1251–1258.

Basilico M Z & Basilico J C 1999 Inhibitory effects of some spice essential oils on Aspergillus ochraceus NRRL 3174 growth and ochratoxin A production. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 29: 238–241.

Behbahani B A, Shahidi F, Yazdi T F, Mortazavi S A & Mohebbi M 2017 Antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effect of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) extract and chemical composition of its essential oil. J. Food Meas. Charact. 11: 847–863.

Beltran J M G & Esteban M A 2016 Properties and applications of plants of Origanum sp. Genus. SM. J. Biol. 2: 1–9.

Bolumar T, Andersen M L & Orlien V 2011 Antioxidant active packaging for chicken meat processed by high pressure treatment. Food Chem. 129: 1406–1412.

Bourtoom T 2008 Factors affecting the properties of edible film prepared from mung bean proteins. Int. Food Res. J. 15: 167–180.

Burt S A, Vlielander R, Haaqsman H P & Veldhuizen E J 2005 Increase in activity of essential oil components carvacrol and thymol against Escherichia coli O157:H7 by addition of food stabilizers. J. Food Prot. 68: 919–926.

Chaleshtori R S, Rokni N, Razavilar V & Kopaei M R 2013 The evaluation of the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) essential oil and its chemical composition. Jundishapur J. Microbiol. 6: 78–77.

Chandra M C, Harini K, Sudharsan K, Radha Krishnan K & Sukumar M 2019 Quorum quenching effect and kinetics of active compound from S. aromaticum and C. cassia fused packaging films in shelf life of chicken meat. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 105: 87–102.

Chandra M C, Radha Krishnan K, Babuskin S, Sudharsan K, VajihaAafrin, Lalithapriya U, Mariyajenita P, Harini K, Madhushalini D & Sukumar M 2017 Active compound diffusivity of particle size reduced S. aromaticum and C. cassia fused starch edible films and the shelf life of mutton (Capra aegagrushircus) meat. Meat Sci. 128: 47–59.

Chandra Mohan C, Rakhavan K R, Sudharsan K, Radhakrishnan K, Babuskin S & Sukumar M 2016 Design and characterization of spice fused tamarind starch edible packaging films. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 68: 642–652.

Dalanche F, Carvalho C Y, Alves V D, Moldao-Mrtins M & Mata P 2016 Optimisation of gellan gum edible coating for ready-to-eat mango (Mangifera indica L.) bars. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 84: 43–53.

Denavi G, Tapia-Blacido D R, Anon M C, Sobral P J A, Mauri A N & Menegalli F C 2009 Effects of drying conditions on some physical properties of soy protein films. J. Food Eng. 90: 341–349.

Derakhshan S, Sattari M & Bigedli M 2007 Evaluation of antibacterial activity and biofilm formation in Klebsiella pneumoniae in contact with essential oil and alcoholic extract of cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum). Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 29: S601.

Diab T, Biliaderis C G, Gerasopoulos D & Sfakiotakis E 2001 Physicochemical properties and application of pullulan edible films and coatings in fruit preservation. J. Sci. Food Agric. 81: 988–1000.

Diao W R, Hu Q P, Zhang H & Xu J G 2014 Chemical composition, antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of essential oil from seeds of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Food Control 35: 109–116.

Du W X, Olsen C W, Avena-Bustillos R J, McHugh T H, Levin C E & Friedman M 2009 Effects of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud essential oils in edible apple films on physical properties and antimicrobial activities. J. Food Sci. 74: M372–M378.

El-Baroty G S, Abd El-Baky H H, Farag R S & Saleh M A 2010 Characterization of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds of cinnamon and ginger essential oils. Afr. J. Biochem. Res. 4: 167–174.

Esmaeili H, Cheraghi N, Khanjari A, Rezaeigolestani M, Basti A A, l Kamkar A & Aghaee E M 2020 Incorporation of nanoencapsulated garlic essential oil into edible films: A novel approach for extending shelf life of vacuum-packed sausages. Meat Sci. 166: 108–135.

Espitia P J P, Du W X, Avena-Bustillos R D J, Soares N D F F & Mc Hugh T H 2014 Optimal antimicrobial formulation and physical-mechanical properties of edible films based on Acai and pectin for food preservation. Food Hydrocoll. 2: 38–49.

Fabra M J, Talens P & Chiralt A 2010 Influence of calcium on tensile, optical and water vapour permeability properties of sodium caseinate edible films. J. Food Eng. 96: 356–364.

FICCI (Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry) 2016 A report on plastic industry. 2nd National Conference: Plastic packaging-the sustainable choice. http://ficci.in/spdocument/20690/plastic-packaging-report.pdf.

Freitas I R, Cortez-Vega W R, Pizato S, Prentice-Hernandez C & Borges C D 2013 Xanthan gum as a carrier of preservative agents and calcium chloride applied on fresh-cut apple. J. Food Saf. 33: 229–238.

Froiio F, Mosaddik A, Morshed M T, Paolino D, Fessi H & Elaissari A 2019 Edible polymers for essential oils encapsulation: application in food preservation. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 58: 20932–20945.

Georgantelis D, Ambrosiadis I, Katikou P, Blekas G & Georgakis S A 2007 Effect of rosemary extract, chitosan and ?-tocopherol on microbiological parameters and lipid oxidation of fresh pork sausages stored at 4?. Meat Sci. 76: 172–181.

Ghasemi G, Fattahi M, Alirezalu A & Ghosta Y 2018 Antioxidant and antifungal activities of a new chemovar of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). Food Sci. Biotechnol. 28: 669–677.
Ghosh T, Monika & Vimal Katiyar V 2020 Emerging sustainable nanostructured materials facilitated by herbal bioactive agents for edible food packaging. Nano-food Eng.1: 259–287.
Gomez-Estaca J, Lopez-de-Dicastillo C, Hernandez-Munoz P, Catala R & Gavara R 2014 Advances in antioxidant active food packaging. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 35: 42–51.

Guldiken B, Ozkan G, Catalkaya G, Ceylan F D, Yalcinkaya I E & Capanoglu E 2018 Phytochemicals of herbs and spices: health versus toxicological effects. Food Chem. Toxicol. 119: 37–49.

Gupta A D, Bansal V K, Babu V & Maithi N 2013 Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt). J. Genet. Eng. Biot. 11: 25–31.

Gutierrez J, Bourke P, Lonchamp J & Barry-Ryan C 2009 Impact of plant essential oils on morphological, organoleptic and quality markers of minimally processed vegetables. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 10: 195–202.

Han J H 2001 Design of edible and biodegradable films/coatings containing active ingredients. In: Park H J, Testin R F, Chinnan M S, Park J W (Eds.) Active biopolymer films and coatings for food and biotechnological uses (pp.187–198). Proceedings of Precongress Short Course of IUFoST, Seoul, Korea.

Han J H 2002 Protein-Based Films and Coatings carrying antimicrobial agents. In: Gennadios A (Ed) Protein-based films and coatings (pp: 485–499). CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Han J H 2014 Edible Films and Coatings: A Review. In: Innovations in Food Packaging (Ed) (pp: 213-255). A volume in food science and technology, PepsiCo Corporate R&D/PepsiCo Advanced Research, Plano, TX, USA.

Harlina P W, Ma M, Shahzad R, Gouda M M & Qiu N 2018 Effect of clove extract on lipid oxidation, antioxidant activity, volatile compounds and fatty acid composition of salted duck eggs. J. Food Sci. Technol. 55: N4719–4734.

Hassani F, Garousi F & Javanmard M 2012 Edible coating based on whey protein concetrate- ricebran oil to maintain the physical and chemical properties of the kiwifruit (Actinida deliciosa). Trakia. J. Sci. 10: 26–34.

Huang M, Wang H, Xu X, Lu X, Song X & Zhou G 2020 Effects of nanoemulsion-based edible coatings with composite mixture of rosemary extract and ?-poly-L-lysine on the shelf life of ready-to-eat carbonado chicken. Food Hydrocoll. 102: 105576.

Huber K C & Embuscado M 2009 Edible films and coatings for food applications.10.1007/978-0-387-92824-1.

Hussain A I, Anwar F, Sherazi S T H & Przybylski R 2008 Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oils depends on seasonal variations. Food Chem. 108: 986–995.

Irawan A, Barleany D R, Jayanudin J, MeriYulvianti D & Haqi F 2017 Antimicrobial activity of chitosan based edible film enriched with red ginger essential oil as an active packaging for food. Res. J. Pharm. Biol. Chem Sci. 8: 1523–1530.

Jeevahan J, Chandrasekaran M, Durairaj R B, Mageshwaran G & Joseph G B 2017 A brief review on edible food packing materials. J. Global Eng. Problems Solutions 1: 9–19.

Jongjareonrak A, Benjaku S, Visessangua W, Prodpra T & Tanaka M 2006 Characterization of edible films from skin gelatin of brownstripe red snapper and bigeye snapper. Food Hydrocoll. 20: 492–501.

Kaefer C M & Milner J A 2008 The role of herbs and spices in cancer prevention. J. Nutr. Biochem. 19: 347–361.

Kanmani P & Lim S T 2013 Development and characterization of novel probiotic-residing pullulan/starch edible films. Food Chem. 141: 1041–1049.

Karbowiak T, Debeaufort F, Champion D & Voilley A 2006 Wetting properties at the surface of iotacarrageenan-based edible films. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 294: 400–410.

Karunamay S, Badhe S R, Shulka V & Jaiswal S 2020 Effect of essential oil of clove and oregano treated edible packaging film in extending the shelf life of paneer. Pharm. Inno. J. 9: 317–322.

Kavoosi G, Dadfar S M M, Mohammadi Purfard A & Mehrabi R 2013 Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of gelatin films incorporated with carvacrol. J. Food Safe. 33: 423–432.

Ket-On A, Pongmongkol N, Somwangthanaroj A, Janjarasskul T & Tananuwong K 2016 Properties and storage stability of whey protein edible film with spice powders. J. Food Sci. Technol. 53: 2933–2942.

Khan M R, Sadiq M B & Mehmood Z 2020 Development of edible gelatin composite films enriched with polyphenol loaded nanoemulsions as chicken meat packaging material.
CYTA-J. Food. 18: 137–146.

Kodera Y, Ushijima M, Amano H, Suzuki J & Matsutomo T 2017 Chemical and biological properties of S-1-propenyl-l-cysteine in aged garlic extract. Molecules. 22: 570–588.

Krishnan R K, Babuskin S, Azhagu S B P, Sasikala M, Sabina K, Archana G & Sukumar M 2014 Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of spice extracts on the shelf life extension of raw chicken meat. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 171: 32–40.

Kristo E, Koutsoumanis K P & Biliaderis C G 2008 Thermal, mechanical and water vapor barrier properties of sodium caseinate films containing antimicrobials and their inhibitory action on Listeria monocytogenes. Food Hydrocoll. 22: 373–386.

Krochta J M 2002 Proteins as raw material for films and coatings: definition, current status and oppurtunities. In: Gennadios A (Ed.) Protein-based films and coatings (pp:1–41). CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Kulisic T, Radonic A, Katalinic V & Milos M 2004 Use of different methods for testing activity of oregano essential oil. Food Chem. 85: 633–640.

Lanzotti V, Scala F & Bonanomi G 2014 Compounds from allium species with cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity. Phytochem. Rev. 13: 769–791.

Lee K G & Shibamoto T 2001 Antioxidant property of aroma extract isolated from clove buds [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry]. Food Chem. 74: 443–448.

Lee K Y, Shim J & Lee H G 2004 Mechanical properties of gellan and gelatin composite films. Carbohyd. Polym. 56: 251–254.

Lee S J, Umano K, Shibamoto T, Lee K G 2005 Identification of volatile components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their antioxidant properties. Food Chem. 91: 131–137.

Li T, Hu W, Li J, Zhang X, Zhu J & Li X 2012 Coating effects of tea polyphenol and rosemary extract combined with chitosan on the storage quality of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea). Food Control. 25: 101–106.

Liu L, Liu C K, Fishman M L & Hicks K B 2007 composite films from pectin and fish skin gelatin or soybean flour protein. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 2349–2355.

Liu Q, Zhang M, Bhandari B, Xu J & Chaohui Yang 2020 Effects of nanoemulsion-based active coatings with composite mixture of star anise essential oil, polylysine, and nisin on the quality and shelf life of ready-to-eat yaomeat products. Food Control. 107: 106771–106778.

Liu TY, Chen CC , Chen CL & Chi CW 1999 Safrole-induced oxidative damage in the liver of spragudawley rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 37: 697–702.

Mahfoudhi N & Hamdi S 2015 Use of almond gum and gum arabic as novel edible coating to delay postharvest ripening and to maintain sweet cherry (Prunus avium) quality during storage. J. Food Process. Preserv. 39: 1499–1508.

Mamtani K 2017 Edible packaging market by material (lipids, polysaccharides, proteins, surfactants, and composite films), and end users (food & beverages and pharmaceuticals)-global opportunity analysis and industry forecast, 2017–2023. Allied Market Research. pp:138.

Manasa D, Srinivas P & Sowbhagya H B 2013 Enzyme-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Food Chem. 139: 509–514.

Mansingh D P, Dalpati N, Sali V K & Vasanthi A H R 2018 Alliin the precursor of allicin in garlic extract mitigates proliferation of gastric adenocarcinoma cells by modulating apoptosis. Pharmacogn. Mag. 14: 84–91.

Manzanarez-Lopez F, Soto-Valdez H, Auras R & Peralta E 2011 Release of ?-Tocopherol from Poly (lactic acid) films, and its effect on the oxidative stability of soybean oil. J. Food Eng. 104: 508–517.

Maqbool M, Ali A, Alderson P G, Mohamed M T M, Siddiqui Y & Zahid N 2011 Postharvest application of gum arabic and essential oils for controlling anthracnose and quality of banana and papaya during cold storage. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 62: 71–76.

Marino M, Bersani C & Comi G 1999 Antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris L. measured using a bioimpedometric method. J. Food Prot. 62: 1017–1023.

Matan N 2012 Antimicrobial activity of edible film incorporated with essential oils to preserve dried fish (Decapterus maruadsi). Int. Food Res. J. 19: 1733–1738.

Meena M R & Sethi V 1994 Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from spices. J. Food Sci. Technol. 31: 68–70.

Meloa E D A, Filhob M J & Guerra N B 2005 Characterization of antioxidant compounds in aqueous coriander extract (Coriandrum sativum L.). LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 38: 15–19.

Miller E C, Swanson A B, Phillips D H, Fletcher T L, Liem A & Miller J A 1983 Structure-activity studies of the carcinogenicities in the mouse and rat of some naturally occurring and synthetic alkenylbenzene derivatives related to safrole and estragole. Cancer Res. 43: 1124–1134.

Molina-Hernandez J B, Echeverri-Castro A, Martinez-Correa H A & Andrade-Mahecha M M 2020 Edible coating based on achira starch containing garlic/oregano oils to extend the shelf life of double cream cheese. Rev. Fac. Nac. Agron. Medellin. 73: 9099–9108.

Naeem A, Abbas T, Mohsin Ali T & Hasnain A 2019 Application of guar gum-based edible coatings supplemented with spice extracts to extend post-harvest shelf life of lemon (Citrus limon). Qual. Assur. Saf. Crop. Foods.11: 241–250.

Nagella P, Thiruvengadam M, Ahmad A, Yoon J Y & Chung I M 2014 Composition of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of garlic bulbs collected from different locations of Korea. Asian J. Chem. 26: 897–902.

Nakai M, Harada M, Akimoto K, Shibata H, Miki W & Kiso Y 2003 Novel antioxidative metabolites in rat liver with ingested sesamin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 1666–1670.

Nayik G A, Majid I & Kumar V 2015 Developments in edible films and coatings for the extension of shelf life of fresh fruits. Am. J. Nutrition Food Sci. 2: 16–20.

Negi P S 2012 Plant extracts for the control of bacterial growth: efficacy, stability and safety issues for food application. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 156: 7–17.

Olivasa G I & Barbosa-Canovas G V 2008 Alginate–calcium films: Water vapor permeability and mechanical properties as affected by plasticizer and relative humidity. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 41: 359–366.

Oses J, Fabregat-Vazquez M, Pedroza-Islas R, Tomas S A, Cruz-Orea A & Mate J I 2009 Development and characterization of composite edible films based on whey protein isolate and mesquite gum. J. Food Eng. 92: 56–62.

Pranoto Y, Salokhe V M & Rakshit S K 2005 Physical and antibacterial properties of alginate-based edible film incorporated with garlic oil. Food Res. Int. 38: 267–272.

Prasad S & Tyagi A K 2015 Ginger and its constituents: role in prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal cancer. Gastroent. Res. Pract. 2015: 1–11.

Priyadarshi S, Harohally N V, Roopavathi C & Naidu M M 2018. Isolation, identification, structural elucidation and bioactivity of Heneicos-1-ene from Coriandrum sativum L. foliage. Sci. Rep. 8: 1–6.

Quintavalla S & Vicini L 2002 Antimicrobial food packaging in food industry. Meat Sci. 62: 373–380.

Radhakrishnan K, Babuskin S, Rakhavan K R, Tharavin R, Babu A S P, Sivarajan M & Sukumar M 2015 Potential application of corn starch edible films with spice essential oils for the shelf life extension of red meat. J. Appl. Microbiol. 119: 1613–1623.

Ramos M, Jimenez A, Peltzer M & Garrigos M C 2014 Development of novel nano-biocomposite antioxidant films based on poly (lactic acid) and thymol for active packaging. Food Chem. 162: 149–155.

Razavi S M A, Mohammad A & Zahedi A Y 2015 Characterisation of a new biodegradable edible film based on sage seed gum: Influence of plasticiser type and concentration. Food Hydrocoll. 43: 290–298.

Sabato S F, Ouattara B, Yu H, Aprano G D, Le Tien C, Mateescu M A & Lacroix M 2001 Mechanical and barrier properties of cross-linked soy and whey protein based films. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49: 1397–1403.

Sacchetti G, Maietti S, Muzzoli M, Scaglianti M, Manfredini S & Radice M 2005 Comparative evaluation of 11 essential oils of different origin as functional antioxidants, antiradicals, and antimicrobials in foods. Food Chem. 91: 621–632.

Salgado P R, Lopez-Caballero M E, Gomez-Guillen M C, Mauri A N & Montero M P 2013 Sunflower protein films incorporated with clove essential oil have potential application for the preservation of fish patties. Food Hydrocoll. 33: 74–84.

Sanchez-Gonzalez L, Vargas M, Gonzalez- Martinez C, Chiralt A & Chafer M 2011 Use of essential oil in bioactive edible coatings. Food Eng. Rev. 3: 1–16.

Sapper M, Wilcaso P, Santamarina M P, Rosello J & Chiralt A 2018 Antifungal and functional properties of starch-gellan films containing thyme (Thymus zygis) essential oil. Food Control. 92: 505–515.

Sauceda-Pompa S, Jasso-Cantu D, Ventura- Sobrevilla J, Saenz-Galindo A, Rodriguez-Herrera R & Aguilar C N 2007 Effect of candelilla wax with natural antioxidants on the shelf life quality of fresh-cut fruits. J. Food Qual. 30: 823–836.

Senatore F, Oliviero F, Scandolera E, Taglialatela-Scafati O, Roscigno G, Massimo Zaccardelli M & Falco E D 2013 Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of anethole-rich oil from leaves of selected varieties of fennel [Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell]. Fitoterapia. 90: 214–219.

Shahat A A, Ibrahim A Y, Hendawy S F, Omer E A, Hammouda F M, Abdel- Rahman F H & Saleh M A 2011 Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from organically cultivated fennel cultivars. Molecules. 16: 1366–1377.

Shan B, Cai Y Z, Brooks J D & Corke H 2007 Antibacterial properties and major bioactive components of cinnamon stick (Cinnamomum burmannii): activity against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 5484–5490.

Silva-Weiss A, Ihl M, Sobral P J A, Gomez-Guillen M C & Bifani V 2013 Natural additives in bioactive edible films and coatings: functionality and applications in foods. Food Eng. Rev. 5: 200–216.

Skurtys O, Velasquez P, Henriquez O, Matiacevich S, Enrione J & Osorio F 2011 Wetting behavior of chitosan solutions on blueberry epicarp with or without epicuticular waxes. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 44: 1449–1457.

Soylu S, Yigitbas H, Soylu E M & Kurt S 2007 Antifungal effects of essential oils from oregano and fennel on Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. J. Appl. Microbiol. 103: 1021–1030.

Spencer A 2018 Have your food and eat the wrapper too. Food Tank (The Think Tank for Food). https://foodtank.com/news/2018/09/have-your-food-and-eat-the-wrapper-too/

Stammati A, Bonsi P, Zucco F, Moezelaar R, Alakomi H L & Wright A V 1999 Toxicity of selected plant volatiles in microbial and mammalian short-term assays. Food Chem. Toxicol. 37: 813–823.

Tajkarimi M M, Ibrahim S A & Cliver D O 2010 Antimicrobial herb and spice compounds in food. Food Control. 21: 1199–1218.

Teixeira B, Marques A, Pires C, Ramos C, Batista I, Saraiva J A & Nunes M L 2014 Characterization of fish protein films incorporated with essential oils of clove, garlic and origanum: physical, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 59: 533–539.

Tongnuanchan P, Benjakul S & Prodpran T 2013 Physico-chemical properties, morphology and antioxidant activity of film from fish skin gelatin incorporated with root essential oils. J. Food Eng. 117: 350–360.

Valdes A, Burgos N, Jimenez A & Garrigos M C 2015a Natural pectin polysaccharides as edible coatings. Coatings. 5: 865–886.

Valdes A, Mellinas A C, Ramos M, Burgos N, Jimenez A & Garrigos M C 2015b Use of herbs, spices and their bioactive compounds in active food packaging. RSC Adv. 50: 4034–4035.

Vallverdu-Queralt A, Regueiro J, Martinez-Huelamo M, Rinaldi-Alvarenga J F, Leal L N & Lamuela-Raventos R M 2014 A comprehensive study on the phenolic profile of widely used culinary herbs and spices: rosemary, thyme, oregano, cinnamon, cumin and bay. Food Chem. 154: 299–307.

Vargas M, Albors A & Chiralt A 2011 Application of chitosan-sunflower oil edible films to pork meat hamburgers. Ital. Oral Surg. 1: 39–43.

Wagh Y R, Pushpadass H A, Emerald F M E & Nath B S 2014 Preparation and characterization of milk protein films and their application for packaging of Cheddar cheese. J. Food Sci. Technol. 51: 3767–3775.

Wang G W, Hu W T, Huang B K & Qin L P 2011 Illicium verum: A review on its botany, traditional use, chemistry and pharmacology. J. Ethnopharmacol. 136: 10–20.

Wu J, Liu H, Ge S, Wang S, Qin Z, Chen L, Zheng Q, Liu Q & Zhang Q 2015 The preparation, characterization, antimicrobial stability and in vitro release evaluation of fish gelatin films incorporated with cinnamon essential oil nanoliposomes. Food Hydrocoll. 43: 427–435.

Yoo M, Lee S, Kim S, Hwang J B, Choe J & Shin D 2014 Composition of organosulfur compounds from cooland warm-type garlic (Allium sativum L.) in Korea. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 23: 337–344.

Zengin H & Baysal A H 2015 Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of thyme and clove essential oils and application in minced beef. J. Food Process. Preserv. 39: 1261–1271.
Zhang S, Gu W, Cheng Z, Ying Li Y & Gu W 2014 Development of edible packaging materials. Adv. Mater. Res. 904: 189–191.

Zhang G, Yuan C & Sun Y 2018 Effect of selective encapsulation of hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin on Components and antibacterial properties of star anise essential oil. Molecules. 23: 11–26.

Zhang H, Liang Y, Li X & Kang H 2020 Effect of chitosan-gelatin coating containing nano-encapsulated tarragon essential oil on the preservation of pork slices. Meat Sci. 166: 108–137.



How to Cite

Ravi, K., Goyal, K., Priyadarshi, S., & Naidu, M. M. (2020). Spice bioactives in edible packaging. Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 29(2), 81–97. https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2020.v29.i2.6507