Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops <div> <p>Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops (JOSAC), which is the official publication of Indian Society for Spices, is published twice a year at present during June and December. It is an international journal devoted to the advancement of spices, aromatic and related crops. The journal publishes multidisciplinary reviews, research articles and research notes on all aspects of spices, aromatic and allied crops. The journal has been rated in the highest class in punctuality and quality by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.</p> </div> Update Publishing House en-US Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops 0971-3328 Diversity and distribution of vetiver grass (Chrysopogan zizanioides (L) Roberty) and its manifold uses: A review <p>During the last few decades essential oils derived from different herbs and aromatic plants have received a growing focus of scientific investigation due to their multifunctional uses beyond their traditional roles as food additives and scents. Over 3000 species have been identified as medicinal plants that produce essential oils. Vetiver grass has wide range of diversity throughout the world with diverse genotype variability. It has multifarious uses in various agricultural, medicinal, aromatic, engineering, conservational and in industrial sector. The <em>C. zizanioides </em>is well known in various regions of South Asia, Southeast Asia, and West Africa. Vetiver roots, particularly those from Karnataka, have been utilised to make herbal drinks that are energising to combat tiredness. The vetiver grass, referred as "vetiver" or "vetiver–vetiver" in India, serves a variety of purposes in aromatic, pharmaceuticals, food, and beverage industries. This paper presents a review of the diversity &amp; distribution of this crop along with its various uses and applications.</p> Ankit Pandey S C Tiwari Copyright (c) 2023 Ankit Pandey; S. C. Tiwari 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 01 13 10.25081/josac.2023.v32.i1.8204 Patterns in genetic variation and character association of yield components in turmeric (curcuma longa L.) <p>Understanding genetic variability patterns of turmeric yield traits is essential to develop new genotypes with improved traits. The objective of the present study was to investigate the genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and association of various yield components in turmeric genotypes. The experiment was conducted for two seasons during 2021-22 and 2022-23 using 21 turmeric genotypes at ICAR-IISR, Experimental farm, Peruvannamuzhi, Kerala. The results indicate that the genotypes exhibited significant variation across two seasons for most traits, with the exception of collar girth, weight of primary rhizomes per clump, and number of primary rhizomes per clump, which suggests the presence of genetic variability in the genotypes. Maximum fresh rhizome yield per clump was recorded in the genotype, IISR Pragati. The Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV) was found to be moderate to high for most of the traits except plant height, leaf lamina length, collar girth and fresh rhizome yield per plant, whereas, Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV) was found to be moderate to high for all the traits except plant height. Heritability was observed moderate to high for all the traits except collar girth, number of primaries per clump, weight of primaries rhizomes per clump and fresh rhizome yield per plant. The petiole length, total leaf area, weight of mother rhizomes per clump and number of mother rhizomes per clump showed high heritability along with genetic advance. Correlation analysis suggested that weight of mother rhizomes per clump had a strong positive association with plant height, number of leaves, leaf lamina length, leaf lamina width, leaf area, total leaf area, and collar girth and had a weak positive relationship with fresh rhizome yield per plant and petiole length. The path analysis revealed, total leaf area, fresh rhizome yield per plant and number of primaries per clump have high direct positive effects with weight of mother rhizomes per clump. The high heritability and genetic advance observed for above mentioned traits suggest that exercising a simple selection could indirectly improve the low heritable low genetic advance traits such as fresh rhizome yield per plant as indicated by correlation and path analysis.</p> Raghuveer Silaru Yuvaraj Kotha Madduri Aarthi Sounderarajan Prasath Duraisamy Copyright (c) 2023 Raghuveer Silaru, Yuvaraj Kotha Madduri, Aarthi Sounderarajan, Prasath Duraisamy 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 14 23 10.25081/josac.2023.v32.i1.8589 Physical and functional properties of low temperature ground turmeric (Curcuma longa) powder <p>Turmeric (<em>Curcuma longa</em>) rhizome (var. <em>Salem</em>) sample was ground according to two different grinding parameters <em>viz., </em>four grinding methods and two feed temperatures. The effect of grinding methods and feed temperature on some functional and physical properties was evaluated. The average values of the flow property <em>viz.,</em> bulk density (506.78 to 537.94 kg/m<sup>3</sup>), tapped density (611.35 to 635.72 kg/m<sup>3</sup>), Hausner ratio (1.150 to 1.225) and compressibility index (13.07 to 18.34%) and functional property <em>viz.,</em> water absorption index (3.88 to 4.46), water solubility index (16.17 to 26.51%), water holding capacity (268.40% to 307.19%) and oil absorption index (210.57% to 258.04%) with respect to different grinding methods and feed temperatures varied. The ground sample with chilled water circulation method with the ambient temperature feed (L<sub>2</sub>T<sub>0</sub>) was found the most suitable for better flow parameters and functional properties.</p> P S Sapariya N U Joshi M N Dabhi Copyright (c) 2023 P S Sapariya, N U Joshi, M N Dabhi 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 24 33 10.25081/josac.2023.v32.i1.7567 Biochemical composition, oil profiling and elemental analysis of different cumin (Cuminum cyminum L) genotypes <p>Cumin (<em>Cuminum cyminum </em>L.) is an annual plant of the family <em>Apiaceae</em> and the genus <em>Cuminum</em> has a single species <em>Cyminum</em>, native from the east Mediterranean to east India. In India, Gujarat and Rajasthan are the major producing states. After black pepper, cumin is the second most popular spice in the world. The present research work was carried out to study the nutritional quality parameters, oil profiling and element composition of fifteen cumin genotypes. The results showed that the moisture content was found to vary from 6.22 to 8.15 %. The carbohydrate content was higher in Kushalpura-1 (46.14 %), while the crude protein was highest in Indawar followed by GC-2 and Merta-2. Total protein content was highest in Lampolai (18.24 %) and lowest in GC-2 (11.36 %). In Lamba Jatan, highest content of non-reducing sugars (8.35 %) and total soluble sugars (9.11 %) were observed. Reducing sugars was detected in the range of 0.72 – 1.53 %. Highest amount of total free amino acids and crude fiber were found in Gawardi and Kushalpura-1, respectively. The total oil (20.27 %) and volatile oil (3.99 %) content were highest in GC-4. The petroselinic acid and linoleic acid were observed as primary fatty acids in all tested genotypes. However, Lampolai, Merta-1, GC-2 and GC-4 were good sources of both fatty acids among all the genotypes. The elemental analysis showed that the GC-2 has a high overall amount of macronutrients, while micronutrients was highest in Piplon-5.</p> N S Gamit N S Litoriya A S Thounaojam P K Patel Copyright (c) 2023 N. S. Gamit, N. S. Litoriya, A. S. Thounaojam, P. K. Patel 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 34 48 10.25081/josac.2023.v32.i1.8033 Effect of seed pelleting on yield and storage quality in Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) <p>The current investigation on the effect of seed pelleting on germination, plant establishment and seed yield in fennel was carried out in two seasons during Rabi 2017 and 2018. The experiment consisted of 17 seed pelleting treatments along with the control. Field emergence (93.1 %), umbels per plant (26.61) and seed yield (1376 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) were highest in seeds pelleted with Lignite +A<em>zospirillum </em>and higher number of seeds per plant (397) was obtained in Lignite+Gum Arabic, whereas, days to 50 % field emergence, plant height and test weight showed non-significant differences among the treatments. Lignite + gum Arabic pelleting recorded maximum seed germination (65 %) at the end of six months storage period. In general, seeds pelleted with Lignite and coated with A<em>zospirillum</em> showed better performance both in terms of yield and storability.</p> Prashant H Nikumbhe Shantharaja C Shivanna Copyright (c) 2023 Prashant H Nikumbhe, Shantharaja C Shivanna 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 49 55 10.25081/josac.2023.v32.i1.8590 Price transmission behaviour of major seed spices in Rajasthan <p>The present study was based on secondary price information. The study period from January, 2011 to December 2021 was chosen to analyse the price behaviour of major seed spice markets in Rajasthan. The data was analysed using the Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test and Vector Error Correction Model to accomplish the objectives of the study. ADF test results showed that price data for coriander, cumin, fenugreek, and fennel were non-stationary at the level and stationary at the first difference level. Values of trace and maximum Eigen of Johansen multiple co-integration tests revealed three co-integration equations in cumin and coriander crops, but only one co-integration equation in fennel prices. Prices of coriander, cumin, and fennel in selected KUMS (Krishi Upaj Mandi Samiti) were primarily influenced by the one-month and two-month lag prices of respective market in the long run. The prices of coriander, cumin and fennel demonstrated one-way co-integration in KUMS, Merta City→KUMS, Jodhpur and Ramganj Mandi→Baran while combination of Baran↔Kota, Ramganj Mandi↔Kota and Merta City↔Niwai showed bi-directional co-integration. Fenugreek prices in selected KUMS did not move in tandem over a long period of time. We find that the prices of coriander, cumin and fennel in Rajasthan's selected markets moved in lockstep over time and were influenced by one month or two months lag price of other respective markets.</p> Kailash Chand Bairwa G L Meena Hari Singh Harkesh Kumar Balai Anju Yadav P C Meena Copyright (c) 2023 Kailash Chand Bairwa, G L Meena, Hari Singh, Harkesh Kumar Balai, Anju Yadav, P C Meena 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 56 70 10.25081/josac.2023.v32.i1.7847 Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) for genetic variability, character association and path analysis <p>Different accessions of saffron were studied to analyze genetic diversity and heritable component of variation in yield and yield related traits. Dry pistil weight, fresh pistil weight, fresh flower weight corm-<sup>1</sup> line-<sup>1</sup>, number of flowers corm-<sup>1</sup> line-<sup>1</sup>, and big corm index, all had high genotypic coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance. The traits included in the selection scheme, correlation among traits (floral and agronomic) are important as varieties must have high yield associated with exemplary quality parameters. At both phenotypic and genotypic levels, the association was found significant among the traits. Stigma length and fresh flower weight had strong direct effect with respect to dry pistil weight followed by number of flowers corm<sup>-1</sup> line<sup>-1</sup>, fresh pistil weight and big corm index. Therefore, these parameters can be taken as criteria for selection.</p> Mohammad Irfan Uzma Rahid Sabeena Nasseer M Ashraf Bhat Z A Dar M Altaf Wani Shahid Rasool M H Khan Rayees A Wani Copyright (c) 2023 Mohammad Irfan, Uzma Rahid, Sabeena Nasseer, M Ashraf Bhat, Z A Dar, M Altaf Wani, Shahid Rasool, M H Khan, Rayees A Wani 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 71 79 10.25081/josac.2023.v32.i1.8192 Floral biology insights into essential oil yield and chemical composition in davana (Artemisia pallens Bess), a high-value aromatic plant of India <p>Floral organs are identified as the major source of essential oil production in some prime aromatic plants. The quality and quantity of the essential oil are also influenced by the floral developmental stages. The present study was undertaken in <em>A. </em><em>pallens</em> Bess (davana) with respect to its floral biology and floral sequence in relation to the essential oil yield and its chemical constituents for industrial extraction. The findings revealed that floral (inflorescence) biomass is the primary source of essential oil yield in davana, with the highest oil yield (0.90 ml/100 g) recovered during the blooming stage, followed by herbage (stems and leaves) biomass. Furthermore, <em>cis</em>-davanone, the major chemical constituent of davana essential oil, was recorded at a higher percentage in the bud stage (66.36±0.60%) followed by the blooming stage (60.56±0.20%) and the seed setting stage (40.54±0.80%). These findings can be used to optimize harvest timing in order to obtain higher quality and quantity of davana essential oil.</p> R Ravi Kumara P E Keerthi N D Yogendra Copyright (c) 2023 R Ravi Kumara, P E Keerthi, N D Yogendra 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 80 89 10.25081/josac.2023.v32.i1.8151 Exploring the therapeutic potential of volatile bioactive compounds from different parts of Tinospora cordifolia: a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) study <p>Chemicals utilised in the pharmaceutical business can be found in large quantities in medicinal plants. Crude plant herbal extracts are frequently utilised because they combine a variety of secondary metabolites or phytochemical elements with significant therapeutic potential. The main objective of this research was to identify the medicinally significant phytoconstituents from different economic parts of <em>Tinospora cordifolia </em>employing GC-MS. The stem, leaf, and root, respectively, had a total of 93, 74, and 53 peaks, which translates to a sizable number of phytocompounds with therapeutic value. Our results show that oleic acid, columbin, 10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid, 9- octadecenoic acid (Z), 2, 3 - dihydroxypropyl ester, n-hexadecanoic acid, and 9,12,15-octadeca trieno were found in various parts of <em>T. cordifolia</em>. The results provide credence to the use of <em>Tinospora cordifolia</em> in conventional medical practice for a range of ailments.</p> B C Akhilraj J Suresh K Rajamani M Kumar R Gnanam Copyright (c) 2023 B C Akhilraj, J Suresh, K Rajamani, M Kumar, R Gnanam 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 90 100 10.25081/josac.2023.v32.i1.8592 Report on association of plant parasitic nematodes in large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) at Sikkim, Himalaya region of India <p>Large cardamom (<em>Amomum subulatum </em>Roxb.), is a major cash crop grown in Sikkim Himalaya region. The crop is found to be affected by many pests (insects and diseases); which hinders the production, productivity as well as quality of the produce. Based on symptoms in this crop, similar to nematode infestation, soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of different large cardamom fields and analyzed for presence of nematodes. Laboratory analysis revealed the association of six nematode species with large cardamom <em>viz</em>., <em>Meloidogyne incognita, Helicotylenchus </em>spp., <em>Hoplolaimus </em>sp., <em>Tylenchorhynchus annulatus</em>, <em>Pratylenchus</em> sp. and <em>Macroposthonia</em> spp., of which <em>Meloidogyne incognita</em> and <em>Pratylenchus</em> sp. were recorded in roots also and the percentage of occurance was 59.09. Apart from <em>Meloidogyne incognita</em>, all other five nematode species were recorded for the first time in large cardamom. <em>Helicotylenchus </em>spp. was the dominant genera among the six genera with 50% occurrence, 61.56 % relative abundance and 60 nematodes per 200 cc soil.</p> S S Bora Debanand Das Binita Basumatary D Ajay T N Deka S L Bhutia L O Pakhrin A B Remashree Copyright (c) 2023 S S Bora, Debanand Das, Binita Basumatary, D Ajay, T N Deka, S L Bhutia, L O Pakhrin, A B Remashree 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 101 105 10.25081/josac.2023.v32.i1.8593 Biology of aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover in cumin <p>The experiment on biology of aphid, <em>Aphis gossypii</em> infesting cumin crop was conducted under ambient conditions in the Entomology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Station, Mandor, Jodhpur. The study was conducted on potted plants of cumin variety GC-4. The aphid, <em>A. gossypii</em> nymphs were moulted four times before attaining the adult stage. The mean body length, width, antennal length and cornicle length of first, second, third and fourth instar nymphs were 0.50 ± 0.04, 0.28 ± 0.03, 0.28 ± 0.02 and 0.036 ± 0.01 mm; 0.90 ± 0.04, 0.38 ± 0.04, 0.40 ± 0.03 and 0.065 ± 0.01 mm; 1.11 ± 0.05, 0.49 ± 0.04, 0.54 ± 0.03 and 0.095 ± 0.01 mm and 1.31 ± 0.06, 0.65 ± 0.05, 0.64 ± 0.04 and 0.175 ± 0.01 mm, respectively. The mean body length, width, antennal length and cornicle length of adult aphid were 1.68 ± 0.06, 0.71 ± 1.53, 0.88 ± 0.02 and 0.266 ± 0.01 mm, respectively. The mean duration period of first, second, third and fourth instar nymphs were 1.30 ± 0.42, 2.05 ± 0.62, 2.40 ± 0.52 and 1.45 ± 0.45 days, respectively. The total nymphal duration was 7.75 ± 1.61 days. The mean longevity of adult aphid was 9.65 ± 1.75 days with an entire life span of 17.75 ± 2.91 days. The pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-reproductive periods were 1.35 ± 0.56, 7.20 ± 1.47 and 1.75 ± 0.71 days, respectively. The fecundity of the adult female was 24.45 ± 6.21 nymphs per female and the intrinsic rate of single female per day was an average of 4.80 ± 2.01 nymphs/day.</p> Sarita Dadhich Shalini Pandey M M Kumawat M M Sundria Copyright (c) 2023 Sarita Dadhich, Shalini Pandey, M M Kumawat, M M Sundria 2023-09-26 2023-09-26 106 111 10.25081/josac.2023.v32.i1.8310