Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops <div> <p>Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops (JOSAC), which is the official publication of Indian Society for Spices, is published twice a year at present during June and December. It is an international journal devoted to the advancement of spices, aromatic and related crops. The journal publishes multidisciplinary reviews, research articles and research notes on all aspects of spices, aromatic and allied crops. The journal has been rated in the highest class in punctuality and quality by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.</p> </div> en-US (Editorial Office) (Editor-in-Chief) Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0530 OJS 60 Spices of the Pacific region with special reference to vanilla and ginger production: Challenges and the way forward <p>The Pacific region (Oceania) is divided into four sub-regions (i) Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), (ii) Melanesia, (iii) Micronesia, and (iv) Polynesia and the population of this region is around 0.5% of the global population. There are 14 independent countries and 12 dependent overseas territories in Oceania. Most of the countries are smaller in size, less developed (except Australia and New Zealand), remotely placed and vulnerable to natural calamities. Spices are mostly introduced crops to this region. Turmeric was the earliest spice introduced to this region. The Missionaries and Europeans who colonized these regions introduced many other spices. British introduced ginger to Australia during 1788. Fiji is an important south pacific country, where Fiji-Indians consume considerable amount of spices. Black pepper and vanilla were introduced during 1880’s; ginger before 1890 (Probably from Australia), cardamom, nutmeg and clove during 1930’s to Fiji. The FAO statistics provide data on spices production from ten Oceanica countries with a total production of 618, 914 tonnes which translates to 0.3% of the global spices production. The spice crops of the region are chillies, onion, garlic, ginger, turmeric, vanilla, nutmeg and coriander. Other spices like tamarind, mango, (tender mango) cinnamon, curry leaf, herbal spices are produced in small scale and exported within the region. Spice crops like clove, allspice, black pepper, small cardamom are also grown by a few individuals in limited number. There is not much research work on spices except for ginger in Australia and a few on vanilla diseases from the Pacific region. This review provides the status of spices in the Pacific region focusing on ginger and vanilla which helps to understand the status of spices of Oceania. The information complied here may help in designing strategies for enhancing spice production and trade, which can positively influence the economy of the region.</p> K Kandiannan, Shalendra Prasad, Amena Banuve Copyright (c) 2022 K Kandiannan Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Phytophthora, Pythium and Fusarium associated with foot rot and yellowing diseases of black pepper <p>In this study, a multiplex PCR assay was developed to detect Phytophthora, Pythium and Fusarium infecting black pepper. Genus-specific primers were designed from the conserved region of ITS and a multiplex PCR was optimized by manipulating the annealing temperature and primer as well as MgCl2 concentrations. The black pepper 18S rRNA gene-specific primers were also included in the multiplex PCR assay as internal control. The assay successfully detected the pathogens from artificially inoculated black pepper roots and did not show any cross amplification with other fungal pathogens of black pepper such as Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Colletotrichum sp. Hence, the developed multiplex PCR assay will help in early diagnosis of the cause of black pepper yellowing leading to timely adoption of management strategies.</p> A Jeevalatha, Fathimath Zumaila, C N Biju, Mohammed Faisal Peeran Copyright (c) 2022 A Jeevalatha, Fathimath Zumaila, C N Biju, Mohammed Faisal Peeran Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Variation in the oil content in different parts of clove bud and from different geographical regions <p>This study determined the difference in oil content from separated parts of clove buds, full bud with crown, clove bud without crown and dust (stamen and style), and only crown along with dust from market sample. Results showed that the highest oil content in clove bud without a crown. Oil yield varied in clove buds from different geographical regions wherein, Madagascar showed the highest amount of oil.</p> Riya Bhosle, Shraddha Dighe, Drushti Kute, Gopaal Ahuja, Ganesh Ahuja, Kirti Laddha Copyright (c) 2022 Riya Bhosle, Shraddha Dighe, Drushti Kute, Gopaal Ahuja, Ganesh Ahuja, Kirti Laddha Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Nutmeg with yellow arils-potential tree spice with high essential oil content <p>The mace derived from the arils of Myristica fragrans, is red in colour, whereas the present study reports the evaluation of Myristica fragrans with yellow arils. Morphological features of fruits of M. fragrans with yellow arils and that of common red aril variant from cultivated locations in Kerala, South India, were similar. The average mace yield was higher for the yellow arils (2.5 kg plant-1) than the red arils (2.0 kg plant-1). The volatile chemical profiling revealed that the essential oil yield of the yellow mace (19.3% v/w) was more than twofold higher than standard red mace (9.2% v/w). GC-MS analysis showed that the distribution of monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and phenylpropanoids were similar in both the varieties, except for the percentage distribution. The major constituents of mace of both the red and yellow types were α-pinene, and sabinene followed by elemicin and safrole. Though an exotic species, M. fragrans has been naturalized in south India, and several high-yielding varieties have been reported from the region. The present study highlights nutmeg with yellow arils as a potential spice crop with high oil yield.</p> M G Govind, R Ananthakrishnan, Mathew Dan, M Madhukrishnan, K V Radhakrishnan, K B Rameshkumar Copyright (c) 2022 M G Govind, R Ananthakrishnan, Mathew Dan, M Madhukrishnan, K V Radhakrishnan, K B Rameshkumar Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Drying kinetics and activation energy for solar drying of ginger slices <p>Drying is one of the oldest and most important preservation method for food in which by reducing the water activity the shelf life can be increased. In the present investigation, fresh ginger was pretreated in calcium oxide solution at different concentrations. Solar drying at three temperature levels viz., 55, 65 and 75o C at loading densities of 0.147 g/cm2, 0.176 g/cm2, 0.206 g/cm2 respectively were used for the investigation. Results of study revealed that the total time required for ginger drying in solar dryer curtails with rise in drying air temperature and increased as loading density increased. The activation energy was observed to be 20.45 kJ mol-1, 29.06 kJ mol-1 and 17.6 kJ mol-1 for 0.147 g/cm2, 0.176 g/cm2 and 0.206 g/cm2 loading density respectively. Also, the diffusivity increased with increase in temperature from 45 to 65 oC.</p> N C Shahi, Deepika Kohli, Pradeep Kumar, Mohit Tamta, Pooja Arya Copyright (c) 2022 N C Shahi, Deepika Kohli, Pradeep Kumar, Mohit Tamta, Pooja Arya Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Impact of cluster-based technology transfer on profitability of ginger cultivation by small hill farmers of Shivalik region of Haryana <p>Ginger (<em>Zingiber officinale</em>) is an important commercial crop of Morni hills of Haryana Shivaliks. There was considerable gap between the actual yield and income than the potential indicated by successful growers. In an attempt to bridge this gap by adopting a cluster development approach, 32 ginger growers of a hill village were formed as a common group to implement the recommended package of practices based on soil test analysis and adopted over one bigha (1/12th of hectare) of 32 demonstration plots and one bigha was kept as untreated control with farmers’ normal practice. The beneficiary farmers were provided trainings, exposure visits and interaction with agricultural experts. The average fresh ginger rhizome production in treated plots was 11.19 t ha-1 as against 6.97 t ha-1 in control plots. While 84 percent farmers obtained an yield of 11 to 12 t ha-1, yield recorded by remaining farmers ranged from 7.44 to 9.63 t ha-1 thus indicating scope of further increase in production. The ratio between seed used and rhizome yield was taken as an indicator of yield potential and this was 4.04 in case of treated plots and 2.65 in case of control thus registering overall increase of 52.4 percent. The total gross and net returns were Rs 996678 and 395925 ha-1 and the average cost of cultivation was Rs 600753 ha-1. The overall benefit cost ratio was 1.66. However, in case of control plots, the average gross and net returns were Rs 532800 and Rs 106972 with a benefit cost ratio of 1.22. In the cluster based approach, reduction in input costs and collective marketing resulted in better dividends.</p> S S Grewal, J S Kanwar Copyright (c) 2022 S S Grewal, J S Kanwar Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Quality variation of turmeric during polishing in a power operated turmeric polisher <p>Polishing of turmeric is an important post harvest operation done after drying to improve the surface colour and to obtain a smooth surface finish. Turmeric (variety IISR Prathiba) was cleaned and cured for 1 h in a steam operated turmeric boiler and one batch was dried in a solar tunnel drier of size 9 m × 4 m × 2.6 m and the other batch was sun dried on cemented concrete floor until constant weight was obtained. The turmeric obtained by both the methods were subjected to polishing in a power operated turmeric polisher to obtain clean and yellow coloured turmeric. Based on the physical appearance and surface finish, it was revealed that turmeric polished for 30 min was optimum to obtain turmeric rhizomes of marketable acceptance and the degree of polishing for solar tunnel dried turmeric was 5.45% and for sun dried turmeric it was 5.20%.</p> E Jayashree, Nejma Basheer Copyright (c) 2022 E Jayashree, Nejma Basheer Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Comprehensive assessment of phytometabolites and health benefits of Geographical Indication turmeric in India <p>The interest and demand for the Geographical Indication (GI) turmeric have increased significantly in recent years as research unfolds their unique benefits. Still, their comprehensive and comparative metabolite profile remains to be analysed in detail from a nutritional perspective. This investigation reports phytochemical constituents, nutraceuticals, and bioactivities of four GI turmeric (Erode turmeric, Kandhamal haldi, Waigaon turmeric and Sangli turmeric) in India. The results revealed considerable differences in major quality parameters viz., essential oil (4.00-5.60%), oleoresin (8.36-18.12%) and curcuminoids (2.23-5.50%). Among the GIs, Waigaon turmeric was superior in terms of quality parameters and rhizome traits. The Erode turmeric contained significantly high protein (4.64%) and several minerals (K, Ca, Fe and Mg). The IC50 values of DPPH scavenging assays (160.72 – 194.25 μg ml-1) and α-glucosidase inhibitory assays (126.50 – 146.57 μg ml-1) ensured the potent antioxidant and anti-diabetic activities of GI turmeric. The GC-MS profile of essential oil unveiled six major compounds such as, ar-turmerone, β-sesquiphellandrene, α-zingiberene, α-curcumene, α-turmerone, and curlone. The brightest yellow colour was observed in Sangli turmeric and dark orange in Waigon turmeric, based on L*, a* and b* values. All the four GI turmeric varieties are good sources of spice for people to consume but Waigaon turmeric was found to be superior among them.</p> Dona Ann Jose, N M Bhabhina, N K Leela, M Vishudha, S Aarthi, D Prasath Copyright (c) 2022 Dona Ann Jose, N M Bhabhina, N K Leela, M Vishudha, S Aarthi, D Prasath Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Estimates of genetic variability, inter character association and path analysis in turmeric over environments <p>Pooled data of 27 traits, including quantitative and qualitative, from 15 turmeric varieties grown in three locations over two years were used to estimate the genetic parameters of variability and path analysis. High genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) combined with high phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was observed for collar girth, length of mother rhizome, number of mother rhizomes, weight of mother rhizome, weight of primary rhizome, number of secondary rhizomes, primary rhizome inter-nodal length, bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), demethoxycurcumin (DMC), curcumin (CUR) and yield. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent mean (GAM) was recorded for plant height, number of shoots, leaf petiole length, leaf length, collar girth, length of mother rhizome, girth of mother rhizome, primary rhizome inter-nodal length, dry recovery, oleoresin, BDMC, DMC and curcumin. Correlation coefficients showed that yield was significantly associated with collar girth, weight of mother rhizome, number of primary rhizomes, weight of primary rhizome and number of secondary rhizomes. Path coefficient analysis at phenotypic level revealed that, positive direct effect was high for length of mother rhizome followed by number of mother rhizomes, weight of primary rhizome and curcumin content. The study confirmed that characters such as weight of mother rhizome, girth of mother rhizome, weight of primary rhizomes, number of primary rhizomes and curcumin content can be relayed upon to form selection criteria in turmeric.</p> S Aarthi, J Suresh, D Prasath Copyright (c) 2022 S Aarthi, J Suresh, D Prasath Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of curing methods on quality and drying characteristics of turmeric <p>Turmeric rhizomes of Suranjana cultivar were cured by traditional and microwave methods in water and sodium bicarbonate solution and dried in hot air dryer. Effect of curing methods on moisture content, hardness, colour, curcumin content, essential oil content, total phenolic content and drying rate were investigated. Curing methods did not have significant effect on moisture content of cured rhizomes. Hardness of turmeric rhizomes decreased as curing duration increased. Microwave curing in sodium bicarbonate solution for 6 min resulted in maximum value of the colour indices, highest curcumin content (5.20%) and essential oil content (4.38%) in turmeric powder and highest dry recovery (24.20%). Curing caused significant reduction in drying time. Minimum drying time (20.84 h) was required in microwave curing in water for 8 min, whereas, uncured samples took longest time (29 h) for drying. Drying of all the turmeric rhizomes cured by different methods occurred in falling rate period.</p> Tshering Ongchu Lepcha, Shrilekha Das, Babli Dutta, P S Medda Copyright (c) 2022 Tshering Ongchu Lepcha, Shrilekha Das, Babli Dutta, P S Medda Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of different crop management practices for better economic returns from Kharif onion <p>The present study was undertaken at the Agricultural Research Substation, Sumerpur-Pali to find out the effect of different fertilizer levels and crop geometry on kharif onion (Allium cepa L.) production. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with NPKS levels as main plot and crop geometry as subplot with three replications. Spacious crop geometry with highest dose of fertilizer (15 cm x 15 cm + 140 N: 80 P: 80 K: 40 S kg ha-1) produced maximum plant height (98.20 cm), leaves plant-1 (20), bulb polar diameter (79.34 mm), equatorial diameter (85.10 mm), bulb weight (137.44 g) and harvest index (51.30) with huge quantity of split/multiplier bulbs (6.54 t ha-1). Marketable yield (43.71 t ha-1), gross return (` 5.25 lakhs), net return (` 4.25 lakhs) and B: C ratio (4.25) were higher in the closer crop geometry (10 cm x 10 cm) with highest dose of fertilizer, whereas maximum biological yield (126.75 t ha-1) and total bulb yield (61.60 t ha-1) were reported in the closest spacing with highest dose of fertilizer (7.5 cm x 7.5 cm + 140 N: 80 P: 80 K: 40 S kg ha-1), which also produced the highest quantity (28.69 t ha-1) of unmarketable bulbs. It is concluded that for maximum production of better quality of kharif onion bulb, the seedlings should be planted at 10 cm x 10 cm spacing with the highest level of fertilizer dose (140 N: 80 P: 80 K: 40 S kg ha-1).</p> R L Bhardwaj, D K Parmar, Jaideep Meena, Latika Vyas Copyright (c) 2022 R L Bhardwaj, D K Parmar, Jaideep Meena, Latika Vyas Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Screening of black pepper varieties against anthracnose under nursery conditions <p>Pathogen causing anthracnose of black pepper was isolated from symptomatic leaf sample and was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on the basis of morphological, cultural and molecular characterization. Later, pot culture experiment was conducted in greenhouse (year 2020-21) to determine resistance/susceptibility of seven different black pepper varieties viz., Arakkulamunda, Doddigya, Karimunda, Malligesara, Panniyur-1, Poonjarmunda and Uddagare, against anthracnose in nursery condition. It was observed that no variety was resistant but Karimunda variety was found to be highly tolerant against the disease. Whereas, Poonjarmunda and Panniyur-1 were classified as susceptible and highly susceptible, respectively.</p> Rajshree Verma, Apurba Das, P R Narzary, D K Sarmah, R C Boro, P K Kaman, Sanjib Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Rajshree Verma, Apurba Das, P R Narzary, D K Sarmah, R C Boro, P K Kaman, Sanjib Sharma Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0530