Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops <div> <p>Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops (JOSAC), which is the official publication of Indian Society for Spices, is published twice a year at present during June and December. It is an international journal devoted to the advancement of spices, aromatic and related crops. The journal publishes multidisciplinary reviews, research articles and research notes on all aspects of spices, aromatic and allied crops. The journal has been rated in the highest class in punctuality and quality by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.</p> </div> en-US [email protected] (Editorial Office) [email protected] (Editor-in-Chief) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 OJS 60 Genetic variability analysis in elite black pepper genotypes using morpho-physiological and yield-attributing traits <p>The genetic variability in selected 21 black pepper accessions was analyzed based on desirable drought-tolerant and susceptible characteristics using principal component and cluster analyses. The experiment was conducted at ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research, Experimental farm, Peruvannamuzhi, Kozhikode using a randomized block design with four replications. Morphological, physiological and yield contributing traits were studied. The traits examined showed a comprehensive range of variability. The principal component and UPGMA clustering analyses were employed to assess the proportional contribution of various traits and grouped the genotypes, respectively. The first principal component was responsible for the highest variation (30.87%) in the yield-related characteristics, which were positively correlated with each other and correlated negatively with the morphological characteristics and stomatal frequency. Separate clusters were formed for the genotypes that displayed drought-tolerant characteristics (cluster 2 and 3) and those that showed susceptible characteristics (cluster 1). The results indicated that the analysed black pepper genotypes have significant genetic variability among them which may be helpful for identification of genotypes with desirable drought tolerant characteristics. Accessions 7211 (cluster 2), 1495, 1343 and 4132 (cluster 3) showed characteristics that make them potentially drought tolerant while the accessions 5717 and 4064 (cluster 1) showed drought susceptible traits.</p> A P Theertha, M S Shivakumar, K S Krishnamurthy Copyright (c) 2023 A P Theertha, M S Shivakumar, K S Krishnamurthy Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Productive and profitable black pepper based mixed cropping systems involving tuber crops <p>An experiment on pepper based mixed cropping systems involving tuber intercrops was carried out at Pepper Research Station (Kerala Agricultural University), Panniyur, Kannur during 2013-14 to 2022-23. Five different black pepper based mixed cropping systems which accommodated five different tropical tuber crops were experimented. The data pertaining to 2020-21, 2021-22 and 2022-23 were separately recorded and the pooled mean worked out for individual crop yields as well as equivalent yields and economics of cultivation of the different systems. The pooled equivalent yield for black pepper + greater yam and black pepper + elephant foot yam mixed cropping systems were recorded in terms of base crop black pepper as 1239.28 and 1214.25 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>respectively, significantly superior to all other mixed cropping systems. The equivalent yield recorded for black pepper sole cropping was 561.73 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> only. The pooled data revealed higher profitability for black pepper + greater yam mixed cropping system with gross returns, net returns and B:C ratio of Rs. 619637 ha<sup>-1</sup>, Rs.440043 ha<sup>-1</sup> and 3.45 respectively. For black pepper + elephant foot yam&nbsp;&nbsp; system, the respective values were Rs. 607126 ha<sup>-1</sup>, Rs. 440043 ha<sup>-1</sup> and 3.57. The soil properties were also favourably maintained under mixed cropping as that in sole cropping of black pepper as indicated by soil nutrient analysis conducted at the end of the field experiment.</p> B Sudha, C K Airina, C K Yamini Varma, C K Thankamani, K S Krishnamurthy, Sharon Aravind Copyright (c) 2023 B Sudha, C K Airina, C K Yamini Varma, C K Thankamani, K S Krishnamurthy, Sharon Aravind Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Identification of drought tolerant turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) genotypes with sustainable yield <p>Turmeric (<a href=""><em>Curcuma</em></a><em>&nbsp;longa</em>&nbsp;L.) (Zingiberaceae), is native to south west India. Water stress is the most common adverse environmental condition which severely affects crop productivity. Here we have analysed morphology, stomatal density, relative water content, electrolyte leakage, epicuticular wax content and rhizome yield of 50 elite turmeric genotypes for identification of genotypes with differential response (tolerance and susceptibility) to water stress. Results showed that water stress during rhizome development stage (90-120 days after planting) significantly decreased the leaf relative water content and increased membrane permeability. Epicuticular wax content varied significantly among the genotypes. Genotypes with lower leaf area, higher relative water content, lesser electrolyte leakage, higher wax content and fewer stomata than other genotypes were shortlisted as tolerant. From among these shortlisted ones, four tolerant genotypes (IISR Pragati, SL 5, Suguna, and Suvarna) with higher yield, along with two susceptible genotypes (IISR Alleppey Supreme and IISR Kedaram), were further evaluated in field conditions. The results indicated that, in terms of yield and physiological parameters, the tolerant genotypes significantly outperformed the susceptible ones, showcasing superior drought tolerance traits. These genotypes with contrasting characters can be used for further studies to elucidate the mechanism of drought tolerance.</p> C V Nazmin Banu, K S Krishnamurthy Copyright (c) 2023 C V Nazmin Banu, K S Krishnamurthy Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 High yielding nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) varieties: a farmer-centric research approach to select superior trees <p>A comprehensive survey was conducted in the nutmeg-growing region of Kerala state to locate superior clones of nutmeg, by employing Participatory Varietal Selection (PVS) method. Twenty-nine superior accessions were identified through mother tree characterization for four consecutive years. The characterized clones were female and produced fruits ranging from 628 to 2250 tree<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>, dry nut weight varied from 3.27 g to 15.37 g, and assorted dry mace weight varied from 0.35 g to 4.80 g. Genetic variability analysis revealed high heritability with high genetic advance as per se mean (dry mace weight 76.30%, dry kernel weight 71.37% and the number of fruits tree<sup>-1</sup> 73.24%) which signifies the advantage of simple selection method of breeding. Based on the economic importance of yield contributing characteristics, five superior clones out of twenty-nine mother trees evaluated have been released as KAU- farmer’s varieties. All the superior trees identified based on yield traits had appreciable quantities of volatile oil (1.63-12.25% in nut; 3.31-16.97% in mace), oleoresin (17.60-41.77% in nut; 13.00-30.50% in mace) and fixed oil (22.45-40.70% in nut) in their nuts and maces as well as myristicin, elemicin, safrole and sabinene in the volatile oils. The characteristic features of mother trees and released varieties are discussed in this paper, and further, these varieties are recommended for commercial cultivation under tropical moist, humid climate conditions.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> N Miniraj, H C Vikram, E V Nybe, Manu Philip Copyright (c) 2023 N Miniraj, H C Vikram, E V Nybe, Manu Philip Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 The economic landscape of clove production in India: challenges and opportunities <p>Clove is a valuable spice commodity with high demand in India, yet domestic production has remained stagnant, leading to import dependency. This study analyzed the clove economy in India, focusing on production trends, trade patterns, cost of production, and returns from clove farming. The data from primary survey of 40 clove plantations from five clove growing regions of Kerala (Idukki, Kozhikode and Kollam districts) and Tamil Nadu (Kanyakumari and Tenkasi districts) were used to estimate the cost of production and profitability of clove farming. The cost of production was estimated to be Rs 581 per kilogram of dry clove. The study reveals that clove cultivation faces challenges such as low genetic variability, poor agronomic practices, inadequate soil fertility management, biotic stress factors, senile plantations, unorganized markets, and labour shortages during harvest. These challenges constrain domestic production and hinder profitability. Intervention opportunities include developing high-yielding, disease-resistant varieties, enhancing extension services and training, strengthening disease and pest control measures, encouraging replanting and rejuvenation of senile plantations, establishing organized markets and price stabilization mechanisms, and addressing labour shortages during harvest. Addressing these challenges and implementing suggested interventions can increase domestic clove production, reduce import dependency, and improve the profitability and sustainability of clove farming in India.</p> Lijo Thomas, K Anees, V A Muhammed Nissar Copyright (c) 2023 Lijo Thomas, K Anees, V A Muhammed Nissar Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Biocontrol activity of Streptomyces isolate SDSRO-13 against Colletotrichum spp. causing anthracnose disease of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) <p>A total of 18 <em>Streptomyces</em> species were isolated from the rhizospheric soil of maize. Among 18 isolates, SDSRO-13 showed strong inhibition against <em>Colletotrichum </em>spp. of chilli. SDSRO-13 was identified as <em>Streptomyces</em> sp. based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA partial gene sequence analysis. In this study, two strains of <em>Colletotrichum</em> sp. were used for pathogenicity test. For <em>in vivo</em> antifungal activity, spore suspension of the test pathogens were used on the fresh chilli fruit by making a small puncture on the fruit, in completely sterile conditions and incubated for up to 21 days. The chilli fruits treated with SDSRO-13 and test pathogens showed no disease symptoms. The infected fruits were subjected for Koch’s postulate test and they showed the similar morphological features compared to the pure cultures of the pathogens.&nbsp; We conclude that Actinomycetes, especially members of the genus <em>Streptomyces</em> are potential biocontrol agents which offer safer alternative management strategy to control the chilli fungal pathogens.</p> D S Savita, R Onkarappa Copyright (c) 2023 D S Savita, R Onkarappa Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L. Sprague) based intercropping for higher system productivity of semiarid tropics of Northern Karnataka <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-IN" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">Field trials were executed at the University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot, Karnataka during the kharif season of 2016 and 2017 to study the growth and productivity of ajwain and leafy vegetables under intercropping system including economic profitability of such cropping systems in Northern Karnataka. The experiments were carried out with thirteen treatments comprising sole ajwain and sole crops of leafy vegetables (fenugreek, coriander, dill and amaranthus) and various combinations of ajwain and leafy vegetables in 1:1 and 1:2 ratios adopting randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that the sole crop of ajwain exhibited superior growth and yield. However, in intercropping systems, the combination of ajwain and coriander at a 1:1 ratio demonstrated the highest growth and yield parameters. The sole crop of ajwain recorded the maximum plant height (84.64 and 84.55 cm), number of branches per plant (52.38 and 52.19), number of umbels per plant (166.54 and 164.93), number of umbellate per umbel (12.44 and 12.34), and seed yield (12.95, 12.88 q ha-1 during both the years, respectively). This performance was comparable to intercropping with ajwain + coriander (1:1). Sole crops of fenugreek, coriander, dill, and amaranthus yielded higher fresh market yields compared to different intercropping systems. Notably, growing ajwain as an intercrop with coriander at a (1:1) resulted in a significantly higher land equivalent ratio (1.61) and a higher benefit–cost ratio (2.99) followed by ajwain + fenugreek (1:1) (2.98). </span></p> Honnappa Asangi, K N Kattimani, A B Mastiholi, R Siddappa, C B Harisha Copyright (c) 2023 Honnappa Asangi, K N Kattimani, A B Mastiholi, R Siddappa, C B Harisha Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Influence of irrigation and nitrogen levels on yield attributes, yield and water use efficiency in dill (Anethum graveolens L.) cultivation <p>The field experiments were conducted during three consecutive Rabi seasons of 2016-19 at Agricultural Research Station, SKRAU, Bikaner to study the influence of irrigation and nitrogen levels to growth, yield attributes, yield and water use efficiency of dill (<em>Anethum graveolens</em> L.) under a drip irrigation system. The experiment consisted of sixteen treatment combinations of four irrigation levels (ETc- 0.4, ETc- 0.6, ETc- 0.8 &amp; ETc- 1.0), &amp; four nitrogen levels (control, 120% RDN in 4 splits, 100% RDN in 4 splits and 80% RDN in 4 splits). The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Results revealed that irrigation at ETc 1.0 with application of nitrogen at 120% of RDN in four splits recorded significantly higher crop yield as compared to the remaining treatments. The water use efficiency decreased with increased irrigation and nitrogen levels.</p> R C Bairwa, S R Bhunia Copyright (c) 2023 R C Bairwa, S R Bhunia Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Morphological and biochemical characterization of Alpinia calcarata rhizomes <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-IN" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">Lesser galangal rhizomes are well known for their anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-oxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to assess the variability in morphological and biochemical characters of lesser galangal, Alpinia calcarata accessions collected from various South Indian states. The results revealed that accession IC373608 was significantly superior with respect to yield contributing traits including the rhizome length, width, fresh yield and dry recovery (6.02 cm, 2.40 cm, 14.63 g tiller-1 and 33.26% respectively) among the eighteen accessions studied. The biochemical analysis of rhizomes revealed that the maximum volatile oil and oleoresin content were found in the accession IC468880 (0.75%) and IC373608 (34.20%) respectively. The highest values for total phenols, total flavonoids and starch were observed in the accessions IC373608 (115.25 mg GAE.g-1), IC582825 (55.65 mg QE. g-1) and IC210656 (44.05 mg. g-1) respectively. The accession IC550112 (7.90%) recorded the lowest crude fibre content, whereas the highest total terpenoid content was noticed in accession IC210421 (20.25%). The GCMSMS profiling of volatile oil of A. calcarata rhizome showed the presence of 28 compounds in it. Considering all economically important characters, accessions IC373608, IC582825 and IC210421 were found to be superior and can be utilized in future crop improvement programmes. </span></p> K Shibila, A K Aneesha, A Suma, P Anitha, C R Rashmi Copyright (c) 2023 K Shibila, A K Aneesha, A Suma, P Anitha, C R Rashmi Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Virus-mealybug relationship in the transmission of piper yellow mottle virus <p>In the current study, the piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV)-mealybug (<em>Ferrisia virgata</em>) relationship in the transmission of PYMoV in black pepper was determined. The mealybug<em> F. virgata</em> collected from healthy black pepper plants was reared on a pumpkin in the laboratory and used to determine the acquisition access period (AAP), retention period (RP) and inoculation access period (IAP) for the transmission of PYMoV. The crude extract isolated from black pepper plants and mealybugs were tested through PCR using PYMoV-specific primers. The study determined 30 min, 8 h, and 30 min as the AAP, RP, and IAP respectively, indicating the semipersistent type of transmission of PYMoV.</p> P Malavika, A Lijisha, A I Bhat Copyright (c) 2023 P Malavika, A Lijisha, A I Bhat Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530