Chemical composition of ‘Kiaat’ (Pteropcarpus angolensis) bark and the effect of herb pastes on the quality changes in marinated cat fish during chilled storage

  • B. A. Origbemisoye, B. O. T Ifesan Department of Food science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria


Kiaat (Pterocarpus angolensis) bark, which is valued for its high medicinal effects, was subjected to proximate analysis, while the extract from its bark was examined for, phytochemicals and minerals compositions. Kiaat bark was mixed with  garlic, to preserve  minced fresh catfish and was stored at 4 oC for 9 days. Physical and chemical characteristics were analysed. The results of proximate composition revealed that kiaat bark contains high crude fibre (30.67%), protein (17.33%) and low contents of fat (2.98%). Phytochemical screening showed that the kiaat bark has flavonoid (1.90%), tannin (5.79%) alkaloid (2.96%) and phenol (5.90%) contents. The mineral determination revealed that kiaat bark contained high calcium (24.50 mg/100g), iron (17.20 mg/100g) content with very small amount of lead (0.01 mg/100g). The pH (6.30) of the minced cat fish marinated with kiaat bark+garlic at day 0 tends to be more acidic with increase in storage days and was 4.80 at day 9. The total volatile nitrogen values (TVB) (0.30 mg/100 g-5.46 mg/100 g) were lower than  the standard limit (<35 mg/100 g sample).  Trimethylamine in minced fish preserved with kiaat paste+garlic was 0.36 mgN/100g which later decreased to 0.16 mgN/100g at day 9, while values for samples with only kiaat bark and the control ranged from 0.64 mgN/100g -0.8 mgN/100g at day 9. Results further showed that thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) values raised in all marinated samples during storage, especially in control sample (2.1-5.0 mgma\100g), sample with kiaat paste (0.2-4.2mgma\100g) and fish treated with kiaat paste+garlic (0.24-3.67mgma\100g). Addition of garlic to kiaat bark paste may be a preffered method to increase shelf-life of fresh catfish during chilled storage.

Keywords: Kiaat, Marinade, Phytochemical, TBARS, Total Volatile Base Nitrogen


Download data is not yet available.


1. Stahle DW, Mushove PT, Cleaveland MK, Roig F, Haynes GA. Management implications of annual growth rings in Pterocarpus angolensis from Zimbabwe. Forest Ecology and Management. 1999;124(2-3):217-29.
2. Saslis-Lagoudakis C. H., Klitgaard B. B., Forest F., Francis L., Savolainen V., Williamson E. M J. A. Hawkins. The use of phylogeny to interpret cross-cultural patterns in plant use and guide medicinal plant discovery: an example from Pterocarpus (Leguminosae) PLoS One, 6 2011; p. e22275, 10.1371/journal.pone.0022275.
3. Samie, A., Obi Chibuzo, Lall, Namrita, Meyer and Jacobus. In-vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities, against clinical isolates of Campylobacter species and Entamoebahistolytica, of local medicinal plants from the Venda region, in South Africa. Annals of tropical medicine and parasitology. 2009;103. 159-70. 10.1179/136485909X384992.
4. Abubakar, M. N and Majinda, R. R. T. GC-MS Analysis and Preliminary Antimicrobial Activity of Albiziaadianthifolia (Schumach) and Pterocarpus angolensis (DC). Medicines, 2016; 3, 3.
5. Ifesan, B. O. T., Siripongvutikorn, S., Thummaratwasik, P. and Kanthachote, D. Stability of Antibacterial Property of Thai Green Curry during Chilled Storage. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 2010; 34: 308–321.
6. Ifesan, B. O. T. Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of instant ‘irihibotoh’, ‘iriboerharhe’, and ‘afia efere’ soups commonly consumed in south Eastern Nigeria. IMPACT: Journal of Research in Applied, Natural and Social Sciences. 2016; 2: 1-4.
7. Ifesan, B. O. T. Physicochemical properties of aqueous extract from curry paste of selected local medicinal soups in Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Homeopathy and Natural Medicines. 2018; 4: 13-17.
8. AOAC. Official methods of analysis of the AOAC International. 18th ed. Association of official analytical chemists. Arlington, VA, USA, Washington 2005.
9. Harborne J. B. Text book of Phytochemical methods. London. Chapman and Hall, 1974; Ltd. pp. 49-188.
10. Swain T., “Tannins and lignins,” in Herbivores: Their Interactions with Plant Metabolites, Rosenthal G. A. and Janzen D. H., Eds., Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1979.
11. Wheeler, E. L and Ferrel, R. E. (1971) Method for phytic acid determination in wheat and wheat fractions. Cereal chemistry.
12. Obadoni B. P. Ochuko, phytochemical studies comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some homeostatic plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria, Global J. pure Appl. Sci., 2001; 8,203-208.
13. Singleton, V.L., Orthofer R. and Lamuela-Raventos R.M., Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol., 1999; 299: 152-178.
14. Bao J. Y., Cai M., Sun G., Wang and Corke H. Anthocyanins, Flavonoid and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of thinesBaybery (Myrialrubia) extracts and their colour properties and stability. Journal of Agric Food Chem. 2005;53: 2327-2332.
15. AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Official Methods of Analysis of the Analytical Chemist International, 2012; 18th ed. Gathersburg, MD USA.
16. European-Commission, fixing the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) limit values for certain categories of fishery products and specifying the analysis methods to be used. Commission Regulation (EC), No 95/149 of 8th March 1995; Official Journal of European Union, 97, 84–87.
17. Association of Official of Analytical Chemists. In: Sidney, W. (Ed.), Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official of Analytical Chemists. 1990;15th ed., Arlington, VA.; 123-125
18. Alam Zeb and Fareed Ullah. “A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances in Fried Fast Foods,” Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, vol. 2016, Article ID 9412767, 5 pages.
19. Adeyeye E. I and Ayejugo O. O. Chemical composition of Cola acuminatu and Garcinia kola seeds grown in Nigeria. J. Food Sci., 1994;45: 223-230
20. Akintayo, M. O. and Adeyeye, Olufemi J.. Government Policy and Collective Bargaining Process in Nigeria. In: The African Journal of Labour Studies. The African Journal of Labour Studies, Alafas Nigeria Company 2, Ogundipe Bye Pass, Off Liberty Stadium Road, /ba rfnn, 2002; pp. 1-17.
21. Park, J.H. and Hall, J.C. Isolation and chronobiological analysis of a neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor gene in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Biol. Rhythms 1998;13(3): 219--228.
22. Adepoju, A. The challenge of labour migration flows between West Africa and the Maghreb. Migration Research Papers. Geneva: International Labour Organisation 2006a.
23. Sofowora E. Phytochemical screening: Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa, Spectrum Books Ltd, Ibadan, Nigeria: pp270-289.Straub DA. 2007. Calcium supplementation in clinical practice: a review of forms, doses, and indications. Nutr Clin Pract, 1993;22: 286–296.
24. Okwu D. E. Phytochemicals, vitamins and mineral contents of two Nigerian Medicinal Plants. Int. J. Mol. Med. Adv. Sci. 2004; 1: 375-381.
25. Kubmarawa D, Wase G. A, Ayinla O. G. Preliminary studies on phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial evaluation of extracts of commmiphoral kerstingli, J. Chem. Soc. Nigeria 2007;32(1):38-40.
26. Choudhary, K. A and Bandyopadhyay N. G. Preliminary studies on the inorganic constituents of some indigenous hyperglycaemic herbs on oral glucose tolerance test, J. Ethnopharmacol, 1999; 64:179-184.
27. Straub D. A. Calcium supplementation in clinical practice: a review of forms, doses, and indications. Nutr Clin Pract, 2007; 22: 286–296.
28. Soetan K. O, Olaiya C. O and Oyewole O. E. The importance of mineral elements for humans, domestic animals and plants: A review. Afr J Food Sci, 2010; 4: 200-222.
29. Omokehide A, Lajide L, Hammed O and Babatunde O. Trace elements and major minerals evaluation in Fluerya aestuans Linn. Int J Pharm Sci, 2013;3: 328- 332.
30. Daur I. Chemical composition of selected Saudi medicinal plants. Arab J Chem, 2015; 8:329332.
31. World Health Organization (WHO): Geneva Switzerland (1998). Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Retrieved on December 08, 2016 from:
32. Khan S. L, Khan L, Hussain I, Marwat K. B and Akhtar N. Profile of Heavy Metals in Selected Medicinal Plants. Pak J Weed Sci Res, 2008;14: 101-110.
33. Nieman D. C., Butterworth D. E and Nieman C. N. Nutrition. WmC. Brown, Dbugye, USA, 1992; 237-312.
34. International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Foods [ICMSF]. Microbial ecology of foods. Volume 1, Factors affecting life and death of microorganisms. Orlando: Academic Pr. 1980; p 311
35. Castillo-Yáñez, F. J, Pacheco-Aguilar, R., Márquez-Ríos, E., Lugo-Sánchez, M. E., and Lozano-Taylor, J. Freshness loss in sierra fish (Scomberomorus sierra) muscle stored in ice as affected by postcapture handling practices. Journal of Food Biochemistry,2007;31(1),56-67.
36. Egan, H., Kirk R. S. and Sawyer, R. Pearson’s Chemical Analyses of Foods; 1981; 8th Edition London-UK.
37. Juntachote T., Berghofer Siebenhandl E. S, and Bauer F. “The Antioxidative Properties of Holy Basil and Galangal in Cooked Ground Pork,” Meat Science, 2006; Vol. 72, No. 3, pp. 446-456. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.08.009
38. Castell, H. C. and Triggs, E. R. Spoilage of haddock in the trawlers at sea: The measurement of spoilage and standards of quality. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 1995;12 (3): 329-341.
39. Connell J. J. Control of fish quality. Fourth edition. Church Hill Livingstone Edinburg, Scotland. 1995; p. 245.
40. Tipsrisukond, N., Fernando, L.N. and Clarke, A.D. Antioxidant effects of essential oil and oleoresin of black pepper from supercritical carbon dioxide extractions in ground pork. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1998; 46, 4329–4333.
30 Views | 35 Downloads
Research Article