Diversity and distribution of vetiver grass (Chrysopogan zizanioides (L) Roberty) and its manifold uses: A review

Diversity & uses of vetiver grass


  • Ankit Pandey Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Environmental Sciences Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh
  • S C Tiwari Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Environmental Sciences Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh




aromatic, diversity, uses, distribution, vetiver


During the last few decades essential oils derived from different herbs and aromatic plants have received a growing focus of scientific investigation due to their multifunctional uses beyond their traditional roles as food additives and scents. Over 3000 species have been identified as medicinal plants that produce essential oils. Vetiver grass has wide range of diversity throughout the world with diverse genotype variability. It has multifarious uses in various agricultural, medicinal, aromatic, engineering, conservational and in industrial sector. The C. zizanioides is well known in various regions of South Asia, Southeast Asia, and West Africa. Vetiver roots, particularly those from Karnataka, have been utilised to make herbal drinks that are energising to combat tiredness. The vetiver grass, referred as "vetiver" or "vetiver–vetiver" in India, serves a variety of purposes in aromatic, pharmaceuticals, food, and beverage industries. This paper presents a review of the diversity & distribution of this crop along with its various uses and applications.


Download data is not yet available.


Anon 1976 Vetiver In: Wealth of India, Publication & Information Directorate, Council of Scientific and Industrial Res., New Delhi. X: 451–457

Balasankar D, Vanilarasu K, Preetha P S, Umadevi S R M & Bhowmik D 2013 J. medicinal plants studies. J. of Medicinal Plants 1(3):191–200.

Babalola O, Jimba S C, Maduakolam O & Dada O A 2003 Use of vetiver grass for soil and water conservation in Nigeria. In Proceedings of the 3rd Int. Conference on Vetiver and Exhibition. Vetiver and Water. Guangzhou, China, 293–300.

Babalola O, Oshunsanya S O & Are K 2007 Effects of vetiver grass (Vetiveria nigritana) strips, vetiver grass mulch and an organomineral fertilizer on soil, water and nutrient losses and maize (Zea mays, L) yields. Soil and Tillage Res. 96(1–2): 6–18.

Bertea C M & Camusso W 2002 Anatomy, biochemistry, and physiology. In Vetiveria (pp. 25–49).

Carey B 2006 Monto vetiver grass for soil and water conservation. Natural Resource Sciences, Queensland, Australia. Council of Scientific and Industrial Res. (CSIR).

Chahal K K, Bhardwaj U, Kaushal S & Sandhu A K 2015 Chemical composition and biological properties of Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty syn. Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash–A Review. Indi. J. of Natural Product and Res. 6 (4): 251–260

Chou S T, Lai C P, Lin C C & Shih Y 2012 Study of the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and anti–inflammatory activity of essential oil from Vetiveria zizanioides. Food Chem. 134 (1): 262–268.

Chomchalow N 2001 The Utilization of Vetiver as Medicinal and Aromatic Plants with Special Reference to Thailand.

Chomchalow N 2003 Other uses, and utilization of vetiver.

Dudai N, Putievsky E, Chaimovitch D & Ben–Hur M 2006 Growth management of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) under Mediterranean conditions. J. Environ Manage, 81(1): 63–71.

Durge A A & Moon U R 2021 Vetiveria zizanioides l. Nash–a wonder plant: an industrial perspective. J. Adv. Sci Res., 12.

Greenfield J C 1989 Vetiver grass (Vetiveria spp.): the ideal plant for vegetative soil and moisture conservation. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Gnansounou E, Alves C M & Raman J K 2017 Multiple applications of vetiver grass–a review. Int. J. Edu Learn System, 2.

Gesesse A, Balemi T Natarajan P. & Amha Y 2013 Effect of vetiver grass hedges in maintaining soil fertility and productivity at anno agrfathio industry farm, gobu sayo district, oromiya region, Ethiopia. J. of Science and Sustainable Development, 1(1): 37–49.

Grover M, Behl T, Virmani T, Bhatia S, Al–Harrasi A & Aleya L 2021 Chrysopogon zizanioides—A review on its pharmacognosy, chemical composition and pharmacological activities. Environ. Science and Pollut. Res. 28(33): 667–692.

Joseph J K, Haridasan A, Akhildev K & Kumar A P 2017 Applications of Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon Zizanioides) in eco system–based disaster risk reduction–studies from Kerala state of India. J. Geogr. Nat. Disast. 7(192): 2167–0587.

Kumar D & Nikhil K 2016 Effect of FYM, NPK and Algal Fertilizers on the Growth and Biomass of Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nass). Int. J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 3(3): 85–89.

Kumar D & Nikhil K 2016 Vetiver grass for manifold uses: a critical review. Int. J. of Engineering & Technical Res. (IJETR) 4(2): 146–152.

Lal R K 2013 On genetic diversity in germplasm of vetiver ‘vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash’. Industrial Crops and Products 43: 93–98.

Lal R K, Chanotiya C S, Dhawan S S, Gupta P & Sarkar S 2018 Genotypic and morphological appearance of the traits in relation to genetic diversity of essential oil yield in vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides Roberty). Acta Sci. Agric. 2(8): 62–72.

Lal R K, Gupta P & Sarkar S 2018 Phylogenetic relationships, path and principal component analysis for genetic variability and high oil yielding clone selection in vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) Nash. J. Plant Genet. Breed 2(1): 105–113.

Lal R K, Mishra A, Gupta P, Chanotiya C S & Sarkar S 2021 National and Int. Scenario, Conventional Breeding and Plant Descriptor of Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty)" Editor: Dr. Sougata Sarkar. Rubicon Publications.

Lavania U C 2000 Primary and secondary centres of origin of vetiver and its dispersion. In Int. Vetiver conference, Proceedings. Thailand: TVN. 424–426.

Lavania U C 2003 Other uses and utilization of vetiver: vetiver oil. In the Third Int. Vetiver Conference, Guangzhou, China, 475.

Lavania U C 2004 Meeting Report: Vetiver system ecotechnology for water quality improvement and environmental enhancement. Curr. Sci. 86(1): 11–14.

Lavania U C 2008 Vetiver in India: historical perspective and prospective for development of specific genotypes for environmental or industrial application. In Proc. Ist Indian Vetiver Workshop–Vetiver System for Environment Protection and National Disaster Management, Cochin, India. Troung, P.(ed.) 40–47.

Leite B 2012 Extraction of essential oils from vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides) grass. M.sc environ. Thesis, School of Chemical Engineering at the University of KwaZulu Natal.

Maffei M 2002 Introduction to the genus Vetiveria. In Vetiveria (pp. 9–51). CRC Press.

Mondyagu S, Kopsell D E, Steffen R W, Kopsell D A & Rhykerd R L 2012 The Effect of Nitrogen Level and Form on the Growth and Development of Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides). Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science, 105.

Mondal S & Patel P P 2020 Implementing Vetiver grass–based riverbank protection programmes in rural West Bengal, India. Nat. Hazards 103(1): 1051–1076.

Nguyen V H, Nguyen T H N VO A & Pham V N 2004 Digestibility of Nutrient Content of Vetiver grass by Goats Raised in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

Rao P E V S, Akshata S, Gopinath C T, Ravindra N S, Hebbar A & Prasad N 2015 Vetiver production for small farmers in India. Sustainable agriculture reviews, 337–355.

Raja M B, Rajamani K, Suresh J, Joel A J & Uma D 2018 Chemical composition of Vetiver root oil obtained by using GCMS analysis. J. of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 7(6): 1709–1713.

Ramanjaneyulu A V 2021 Multifarious Uses of Vetiver Grass. Chron. of Bioresource Management 5(2): 026–032.

Rao R R & Suseela M R 2000 Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash–a multipurpose eco–friendly grass of India. ICV–2 held in Cha–am, Phetchaburi, Thailand, 18–22.

Raviprasad Sajjan M & Venugopal C K 2017 Studies on the effect of planting methods and nutrition on growth, yield and essential oil content in vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash). Int. J. of Chemical Studies 5(3): 225–229.

Raviprasad, Sajjan M, Venugopal C K, Chandranath H T, Balachandra K N & Mokashi AN 2019 Physico–chemical properties of essential oil in vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) as influenced by different planting methods and nutrition. Int. J. of Chemical Studies 7(1): 1443–1447.

Srivastava N K & Lal R K 2012 Variations among commercial cultivars of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) in the photosynthetic and metabolic characters associated with essential oil accumulation. Int. J. Med. Plant Res. 1: 45–49.

Sujatha S, Bhat R, Kannan C & D Balasimha 2011 "Impact of intercropping of medicinal and aromatic plants with organic farming approach on resource use efficiency in arecanut (Areca catechu L.) plantation in India." Industrial crops and products 33 (1): 78–83.

Smitha G R, Varghese T S & Manivel P 2014 Cultivation of Vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn)]. Published by: Dr. Jitendra Kumar, ICAR–Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Res.

Snigdha M, Kumar S S, Sharmistha M & Deepa C 2013 An overview of vetiveria zizanioides. Res. J. of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chem. Sciences 4(3): 777–783

Shabbir A, Khan M, Ahmad B, Sadiq Y, Jaleel H & Uddin M 2019 Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash: a magic bullet to attenuate the prevailing health hazards. In Plant and Human Health 2: pp. 99–120. Springer, Cham.

Tiwari J P 2014 Development and Field Evaluation of Vetiver Root Digger. Agricultural Engineering Today 38(3): 1–4.

Thiribhuvanamala G, Raja M B, Amirtham D & Rajamani K 2018 Exploitation of Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) shoot biomass for production of oyster mushrooms. Medicinal Plants–Int. J. of Phytomedicines and Rel. Industries 10(2): 133–137.

Troung P 2002. Vetiver grass technology. In: Maffei, M. (Ed.), Vetiveria the Genus Vetiveria. Taylor & Francis, New York, pp. 114–132.

Troung P, Van T T & Pinners E 2008 Vetiver system applications technical reference manual. The Vetiver Network Int. 89.

Verma A B 2020 Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash: A review of magic grass. J. of Medicinal Plants 8(1): 58–61.

Van den Berg J, Midega C, Wadhams L J & Khan Z R 2003 Can Vetiver grass be used to manage insect pests on crops. In Proceedings of the Third Int. Conference on Vetiver and Exhibition, Guangzhou, China pp. 254–264.

Vanoh R & Troung P 2020 Training Manual – Vetiver System” in Fiji in February/March 2020.

Wagner S, Troung P, Vieritz A & Smeal C 2003 Response of vetiver grass to extreme nitrogen and phosphorus supply. In Proceedings of the Third Int. Conference on Vetiver and Exhibition, Guangzhou, China pp. 6–9.

Yadav H K, Singh S, Kumar V & Kumara A 2013 Varietal Preferences and Adoption Pattern of Economically Viable Medicinal and Aromatic Crops by the Indian Farmers. AGRIS on–line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 5(665–2016–44989): 91–97.

Yaseen M, Singh M & Ram D 2014 Growth, yield, and economics of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) under intercropping system. Industrial Crops and Products 61: 417–421.

Yogendra N D, Baskaran K, Niranjana K A, Sundaresan V, Satya Sirnivas K V N & Kalra A 2021 Validation of harvesting time in vetiver crop for enhancing root and oil yielding in Tsunami affected coastal regions of Tamil Nadu. Journal of medicinal and aromatic plant science 43 (3–4): 148–153.



How to Cite

Pandey, A., & Tiwari, S. C. (2023). Diversity and distribution of vetiver grass (Chrysopogan zizanioides (L) Roberty) and its manifold uses: A review: Diversity & uses of vetiver grass. Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 32(1), 01–13. https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2023.v32.i1.8204