Analysis of pollen in honey samples in the district of Prayagraj, India


  • Jafar Mehdi Division of Plant Breeding and Genetic Resource Conservation, CSIR Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant, Lucknow-226022, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Ravi Kumar Yadav Department of Botany, Kashi Naresh Government Post Graduate College, Gyanpur, Bhadohi-221304, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Anil Kumar Gupta Division of Plant Breeding and Genetic Resource Conservation, CSIR Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant, Lucknow-226022, Uttar Pradesh, India



Honey, Honey hunter, Palynology, Pollen, Melissopalynology, Multifloral, Unifloral


The analysis of pollen grains found in honey, known as melissopalynology, reveals pertinent details about the pollen and nectar sources in a location where bees produce honey, allowing researchers to identify the honey’s geographical and botanical origins. To determine the significant source plants in the area, the present analysis is conducted on five samples of winter honey that were collected from Prayagraj’s urban localities (Dahi, Baksi, Sirsa, Soraon, and Phoolpur). The methodology recommended by the International Commission of Bee Botany (ICBB) was followed in this study. Analysis of 5 honey samples recorded a diversity of 31 pollen types and one fungal spore type. The majority of pollen grains recovered from honey samples belong to entomophilous taxa (66%), 25% of the pollen is from anemophilous taxa, and 9% from amphiphilous taxa. Four honey samples (S1, S2, S3, and S5) were found to be unifloral while the remaining samples (S4) were multi-floral. The field mustard i.e. Brassica campestris L. was the predominant pollen type. The secondary frequency class contained three different pollen types, while the minor and significant minor frequency classes contained 14 and 30, respectively. With respect to the frequency of occurrence of pollen types in honey samples, field mustard was found to be a very common pollen type as they were recovered from more than 50% of the collected honey samples. The various type of pollen and spores were also observed in collected honey samples.


Download data is not yet available.


Barth, O. M. (2004). Melissopalynology in Brazil: a review of pollen analysis of honeys, propolis and pollen loads of bees. Scientia Agricola, 61(3), 342-350.

Bhattacharya, K., Majumdar, M. R., & Bhattacharya, S. G. (2006). A Textbook of Palynology. Kolkata, India: New Central Book Agency Pvt. Ltd.

Chandra, L., & Sharma, S. C. (2011). Melittopalynological investigation of honey bees from ApisdorsataFabr and Apiscerana indica Fabr hives in Shahjahanpur district Uttar Pradesh, India. Indian Journal of Applied & Pure Biology, 26(2), 339-346.

Chaturvedi, M. (1973). An analysis of honey bee pollen loads from Banthra, Lucknow, India. Grana, 13(3), 139-144.

Chaudhary, O. P. (2003). Evaluation of honeybee flora of the northeastern region of Haryana. Journal of Palynology, 39, 127-141.

Devender, R., & Ramakrishna, H. (2015). Palynodiversity in Trigona honey from Pederu Forest Division of Vishakpatnam District Andhra Pradesh, India. Geophytology, 45(2), 221-226.

Devender, R., Ramakrisha, H., & Niranjan, S. (2019). Melissopalynological Analysis of Honeys from Paderu Forest Division of Visakhapatnam District in Andhra Pradesh, India. In Modern Beekeeping-Bases for Sustainable Production. London, UK: IntechOpen Limited.

Feller-Demalsy, M.-J., Parent, J., & Strachan, A. A. (1987). Microscopic analysis of honeys from Alberta, Canada. Journal of Apicultural Research, 26(2), 123-132.

Kamble, K. D., Pandit, R. S., & Rao, K. L. (2015). Melittopalynological investigations of honey from Sunderban region, West Bengal, India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences, 85, 101-106.

Louveaux, J., Maurizio, A., & Vorwohl, G. (1978). Methods of melissopalynology. Bee World, 59(4), 139-157.

Pal, P. K., & Karmakar, P. (2013). Pollen analysis in understanding the foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera in Gangetic West Bengal. Geophytology, 42(2), 93-114.

Sahney, M., & Rahi, S. (2015). Pollen analysis of honey samples from Allahabad district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Geophytology, 45(1), 21-30.

Sahney, M., & Seth, K. H. (2013). Melissopalynological analysis of winter honeys of Rewa District, MP, India. Indian Journal of Aerobiology, 6(1&2), 1-10.

Sahney, M., Rahi, S., Kumar, A., & Jaiswal, R. (2018). Melissopalynological studies on winter honeys from Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Palynology, 42(4), 540-552.

Sharma, G. C., & Saharia, D., (2011). Important winter bee plant of Sonapur area, Kamrup District, Assam. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 1(3), 166-171.

Sharma, M., & Nair, P. K. K. (1965). Pollen analysis of some honeys from Uttar Pradesh. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 22(1), 46-51.

Shubharani, R., Sivaram, V., & Roopa, P. (2012). Assessment of honey plant resources through pollen analysis in Coorg honeys of Karnataka state. The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology, 4(1), 31-39.

Suryanarayana, M. C., Seethalakshmi, T. S., & Phadke, R. P. (1981, July). Pollen analysis of Indian honeys-1. Honeys from Litchi (Nephelium litchi) and Jamun (Syzygiumcumini). In Proc. IV Int. Palynol. Conf. Lucknow (Vol. 3, pp. 491-498).

Tiwari, P., Tiwari J. K., & Ballabha, R. (2010). Studies on sources of bee- forage for Rock Bee (Apisdorsata F.) From Garwal Himalaya, India: A melissopalynological approach. Nature and Science, 8(6), 5-15.



How to Cite

Mehdi, J., Yadav, R. K., & Gupta, A. K. . (2023). Analysis of pollen in honey samples in the district of Prayagraj, India. Current Botany, 14, 67–71.



Regular Articles