Assessment of threatened status, phytochemical composition and biological properties of three Aconitum species from Kashmir Himalaya - India
Genus Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) is represented by 6–8 species from Kashmir Himalaya. Traditionally Aconitum species are used to treat a wide array of diseases, but their ethnopharmacological validation and phytochemistry are hitherto unreported from Kashmir Himalaya. The present study was undertaken to bring insights into the traditional use and distribution pattern of three Aconitum species from the region. An ethnobotany-directed approach was employed to study the conservation status of three Aconitum species. Their phytochemical profiles and biological properties were screened under in vitro conditions. Folin–ciocalteu and Aluminium chloride assays were employed to measure their total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, respectively. Plant extracts were evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Three Aconitum species, viz. Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle, Aconitum violaceum Jacquem. ex Stapf and Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. ex Holmes showed dwindling conservation status in Kashmir Himalaya. Aconitum extracts showed significant variations in total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Antioxidant activity of Aconitum chasmanthum methanolic extract was studied to be comparatively higher (80.115%). Aconitum chasmanthum DCM & methanolic extracts showed a good MIC value of 0.125 mg/ml against Candida albicans and Streptococus pyogenes, respectively. The percent inhibition of NLRP inflammasome was found significant in Aconitum violaceum ethyl acetate extract (74.61%). The present study revealed that Aconitum species are constantly declining at least in investigated habitats of Kashmir Himalaya and hence need strategic conservation planning. The results also emphasized the utility of Aconitum species as an antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent that could be used to manage various health problems.
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Copyright (c) 2021 Sabeena Ali, Dilpreet Kour, Augustin Ntemafack, Nitika Kapoor, Phalisteen Sultan, Ajay Kumar, Sumit G. Gandhi, Qazi Parvaiz Hassan
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