Anatomical studies on the leaf and stem of Tinospora formanii Udayan & Pradeep (Menispermaceae), an endemic species to Southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India
Keywords:Anatomical studies, Leaf, Stem, Endemic species
The anatomical studies on leaf and stem of T. formanii Udayan & Pradeep an endemic species to southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India was carried out focusing on its macroscopic, microscopic, maceration along with organoleptic evaluation. Distinguishing characters of the stem revealed the presence of calcium oxalate crystals, simple and compound starch grains and pitted lignified fibers. Leaf anatomy showed the anomocytic and paracytic stomata, pitted lignified fibers, spiral vessels, non-glandular small trichomes, C or half-moon shaped vascular bundle, surrounded with sclerenchymatous tissues and rosette and prism shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Whereas, maceration studies revealed the presence of spiral and scalar form vessel, fibers, calcium oxalate crystals, simple starch grains. These anatomical studies are vital in the present-day trade scenario not only helpful in the proper identification of the genuine materials in use but also to distinguish different species of Tinospora, where the stem and leaf are often admixed with other species of Tinospora in the crude drug markets.
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Copyright (c) 2021 Patturaj Raj, S. Noorunnisa Begum, K. Ravikumar, P. Sheema Dharmapal, P. S. Udayan
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