• Arundhati Ghosh Vidyasagar University
  • Prakash Karmakar



During the present investigation pollen morphological studies of 66 species belonging to 19 families of monocots in Paschim Medinipur district have been worked out by light microscopy. The studied families are Agavaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Arecaceae, Asphodelaceae, Cannaceae, Colchicaceae, Commelinaceae, Costaceae, Cyperaceae, Hemerocallidaceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Limnocharitaceae, Musaceae, Poaceae, Pontederiaceae, Typhaceae and Zingiberaceae. The apertural patterns are mostly belong to two different categories viz. monosulcate form (Agavaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Arecaceae, Asphodelaceae, Colchicaceae, Commelinaceae, Costaceae, Hemerocallidaceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Limnocharitaceae, Musaceae, Poaceae, Pontederiaceae) and anaporate type (Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Typhaceae). The shape of the pollen grains with monosulcate apertures are mostly oblate to peroblate type whereas taxa showing anaporate apertures are more or less spheroidal. Regarding the mode of pollen dispersal plant taxa with monosulcate apertures and apiculate surface ornamentations (e.g., reticulate, rugulate, spinulate, verrucate) are entomophilous (mainly melittophilous) whilest anaporate with smooth or minutely apiculate surface features are anemophilous. Here, entomophilous taxa provide rewards as pollen grains and nectar to the honeybee speecies, therefore, contribute as resource mobilizer for sustainance of honeybee colonies. 


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Arundhati Ghosh, Vidyasagar University

Assistant Professor, 

Department of Botany & Forestry, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721102


Andersen STH Bertelsen F. Scanning electron microscope studies of pollen of cereals and other grasses. Grana 1972; 12: 79-86.

APG III. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot J Linn Soc 2009; 161: 105–121.

Chaturvedi M Yunus D and Datta K. Pollen morphology of Sorghum Moench-Sections Eu- sorghum and Para-sorghum. Grana 1994; 33: 117-123.

Chaturvedi M Datta K Nair PKK. Pollen morphology of Oryza (Poaceae). Grana 1998; 37(2): 79-86.

Crane PR. Form and function in wind dispersed pollen. In: Blackmore, S and Ferguson, IK, editors. Pollen and Spores: Form and Function. London: Academic Press; 1986. p. 179-202.

Dahlgren RMT Clifford HT. The monocotyledon, a comparative study. New York: Academic Press; 1982.

Dahlgren RMT Clifford HT Yeo PF. The families of the monocotyledons. Berlin: Springer;1985.

Erdtman G. Pollen morphology and Plant taxonomy. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell; 1952.

Erdtman G. The Acetolysis method - a revised description. Sven Botan Tidskr 1960; 54: 561-564.

Ethirajan AS. Pollen grains in Saccharum and certain allied genera. Curr Sci 1953; 22: 385-386.

Faegri K Iversen J. Textbook of pollen analysis. Copenhagen, Denmark: Munksgaard; 1975.

Furness CA Rudall PJ. Aperture absence in pollen of monocotyledons. In: Harley, MM Morton, CM Blackmore S, editors. Pollen and spores: Morphology and Biology. Kew: R Bot Gards; 2000. p. 249-257.

Furness CA Rudall PJ. Aperture with lids: Distribution and signifcance of operculate pollen in monocotyledons. Int J Pl Sci 2003; 164: 835-854.

Ghosh A Karmakar P. Studies in the pollen morphology of some members of Acanthaceae in Paschim Medinipur District, West Bengal. Ind J Bio Sci 2012; 18: 26-34.

Goldblatt P Manning JC Bari A. Sulcus and operculum structure in the pollen grains of Iridaceae subfamily Ixioideae. Ann Mo Bot Gard 1991; 78: 950-961.

Gornall RJ. Notes on the size and exine ornamentation of Avena pollen grains. Canad J Bot 1977; 55: 2622-2629.

Halbritter H Hesse M. Sulcus morphology in some monocot families. Grana 1993; 32(2): 87-99.

Jones MD Newwell LC. Size variability and identification of grass pollen. J Am Soc Agron 1948; 40: 136-143.

Kawarase AD Kunjalwar SG. Pollen morphological studies in five species of Cyperus from Cyperaceae of Wardha district, Maharashtra, India. Int J Sci Res 2016; 5(5): 2106-2109.

Kohler E Lange E. A contribution to distinguishing cereal from wild grass pollen grains by LM and SEM. Grana 1979; 18: 133-140.

Kremp GOW. Encyclopaedia of Pollen Morphology. Tuscon USA: Univ Arizona Press; 1965.

Layek U Bhakat RK Karmakar P. Foraging behavior of Apis florea Fabricius during winter and spring-summer in Bankura and Paschim Medinipur districts, West Bengal. Global J Biosci Biotech 2015; 4(3): 255-263.

Layek U Karmakar P. Bee plants used as nectar sources by Apis florae Fabricius in Bankura and Paschim Medinipur districts, West Bengal. Geophytology 2016; 46(1): 1-14.

Linder HP. Morphology and the evolution of wind pollination. In: Owens, SJ Rudall, PJ editors. Reproductive Biology in Systematics, Conservation and Economic Botany. Royal Bot Gard Kew; 1998. p. 123-35.

Meerow AW Dehgan B. The auriculate pollen grain of Hymenocallis quitoensis Her. (Amaryllidaceae) and its systematic implications. Am J Bot 1985; 72: 540-547.

Nair PKK Sharma M. Pollen morphology of Liliaceae. J Palynol 1965; 1: 38-61.

Nair PKK. Pollen morphology of angiosperms: a historical and phylogenetic study. Lucknow: Scholar Pub House; 1970.

Nair TS. Pollen flora of Maharashtra State, India. New Delhi: Today & Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers; 1990.

Pal PK Karmakar P. Pollen analysis in understanding the foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera in Gangetic West Bengal. Geophytology 2013; 42(2): 93-114.

Perveen A. A contribution to the pollen morphology of family Gramineae. World Appl Sci J 2006; 1(2): 60-65.

Prain D. Bengal Plants, Vol. I and Vol. II. Calcutta: 1903.

Rowley J. Exine structure of cereal and wild type grass pollen. Grana Palynol 1960; 2: 9-15.

Sampath S and Ramanathan K. Pollen grain sizes in Oryza. J Ind Bot Soc 1951; 30: 40-48.

Sharma M. Pollen morphology of Indian Monocotyledons. J Palynol Special Vol 1967.

Siddiqui T Qaiser M. A palynological study of the family Gramineae from Karachi. Pak J Bot 1988; 20: 161-176.

Thanikaimoni G. Contribution to the pollen morphology of Eriocaulaceae. Pollen et spores 1965; 7: 181-291.

WalkerJW Doyle JA. The bases of angiosperm phylogeny; Palynology. Ann Miss Bot Gard 1975; 62: 664-723.

Willmer P. Pollination and Floral Ecology. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2011.

Wodehouse RP. Pollen grains. Their structure identification and significance in science and medicine. New York: Hafner; 1935.

Zavada MS. Comparative morphology of monocot pollen and evolutionary trends of apertures and wall structure. Bot Rev 1983; 331-379.



How to Cite




Regular Articles