Prevalence of seed-borne fungi of different vegetables seeds in Bangladesh
Keywords:Vegetables seeds, seed-borne fungi, incidence, prevalence, blotter method
The experiment was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of seed-borne fungi of ten selected vegetables seeds e.g. amaranth, Indian spinach, bottle gourd, sweet gourd, snake gourd, okra, bitter gourd, cucumber, brinjal and country bean. Untreated and unknown grower’s bulk vegetables loose seeds were collected from three different seed sources of Rangpur district, Bangladesh e.g. New Bangla Seeds; Islam Seeds and Rafiq Traders. The high level of infection was found in the seeds of Rafiq Traders and the lowest infection was observed in the seeds of New Bangla Seeds. Islam Seeds provided moderate infection of fungal pathogens. Fungal fruiting bodies, mycelium (white and cottony) and acervuli were found under microscopic observation. The observed physical abnormalities viz. deformed, shrinkage, swelling, spotted and undersized seeds were recorded from all seed sources. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp., Chaetomium sp., Rhizopus sp. and unidentified bacteria were observed by blotter method. Aspergillus flavus showed maximum incidence (9.0%) in okra and minimum incidence (5.50%) in brinjal. Aspergillus niger was the most predominant (9.0%) in sweet gourd and minor (5.0%) in bottle gourd. Incidence of Fusarium sp. (5.0%) and Rhizopus sp. (8.75%) were predominant in bottle gourd. The lowest incidence for Fusarium sp. (2.50%) and Rhizopus sp. (3.0%) were found in snake gourd and amaranth respectively. The highest incidence of Alternaria sp. (4.75%) and Chaetomium sp. (9.0%) were found both in sweet gourd and bitter gourd but minimum incidence of Alternaria sp. (2.0%) and Chaetomium (3.75%) were recorded in amaranth and okra respectively. In case of unidentified bacteria, maximum incidence (4.50%) was recorded in bottle gourd.
2. Anjorin ST, Mohammed M. Effects of Seed-borne Fungi on Germination and Seedling Growth of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Journal Agriculture and Social Science. 2009:5:77-80
3. Habib A, Sahi ST, Ghazanfar MU, Ali S. Location of Seed borne Mycoflora of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) in different Seed Components and Impact on Seed Germinability. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 2007:9(3):514-516.
4. Munkvold GP. Seed Pathology Progress in Academia and Industry. Annual Review of Phytopathology. 2009:47: 285-311
5. Hossain GMK, Ahsan SM, Ahmed T. Management of seed borne fungal pathogens of okra collected from seed companies. Asian Journal of Medical and Biology Research. 2015:1(3):628-640.
6. Niaz I, Dawar S. Detection of seed borne mycoflora in maize (Zea mays L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2009:41(1):443-451.
7. Hajihasani M, Hajihassani A, Khaghani S. Incidence and distribution of seed-borne fungi associated with wheat in Markazi Province, Iran. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2012:11(23):6290-6295.
8. Makelo MN. Assessment of seed borne pathogens for some important crops in Western Kenya, Machakos Kenya. 2010: PP1-7.
9. Than P, Prihastuti H, Phoulivong S, Paul W, Taylor J, Hyde KD. Chilli anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species. International symposium on fungal diversity.2008. October 16-19 Hangzhou China.
10. Ora N, Faruq AN, Islam MT, Akhtar N, Rahman MM, 2011. Detection and Identification of Seed Borne Pathogens from Some Cultivated Hybrid Rice Varieties in Bangladesh. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 2011:10(4):482-488
11. Sultana N, Ghaffar A. Seed borne fungi associated with bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Mol.). Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2009:41(1):435-442.
12. Yesuf M, Sangchote S. Survival and transmission of Colletotrichum lindemuthiarum from naturally infected common bean seeds to the seedlings. Tropical-Science. 2007:47(2):96-103
13. Senthamarai MP, Subramanian KS, Sudheer MJ. Nematode-fungal disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Macrophomina phaseolina on medicinal coleus, Coleus forskohlii Briq. Indian Journal of Nematology. 2011:38(1):30-33.