The effect of rearing system and cooking method on the carnosine and anserine content of poultry and game meat


  • Darren Juniper Division of Animal, Dairy and Food Chain Science, School of Agriculture Policy and Development, University of Reading, UK
  • Caroline Rymer Division of Animal, Dairy and Food Chain Science, School of Agriculture Policy and Development, University of Reading, UK



Chicken, Pheasant, Carnosine, Anserine, Cooking


Poultry meat has been shown to be a rich source of carnosine and anserine (CRC) but little is known of the effects of bird species and the system under which it is reared have on the concentrations of CRC. Retail samples of breast meat from conventional chicken, free range chicken and pheasant, and breast meat from wild caught pheasant were procured and subjected to five different cooking methods: frying, grilling, boiling, microwaving and roasting. CRC were greater in uncooked pheasant than chicken (P< 0.05) and greater in free range than conventionally reared chicken (P<0.05). There were no differences in CRC between retail and wild caught pheasant. Cooking method affected CRC content; boiling and microwaving resulted in lower CRC contents than grilling, roasting or frying (P < 0.05). Pheasant is a richer source of CRC than conventionally reared chicken, although free range chicken produces meat of similar CRC content to pheasant.


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