Current status of viral diseases affecting black pepper and cardamom
Black pepper and cardamom are the important spice crops grown in India and other countries. Viruses are one of the major yield limiting factors in both these spice crops. Viral diseases spread at a faster rate in these spices, as they are vegetatively propagated. Lack of sensitive detection methods has led to the widespread distribution of viral diseases in all black pepper and cardamom growing regions. The viruses infecting these two spice crops have now been identified; characterized and sensitive diagnostics have been developed. Integration of various approaches like use of resistant varieties, virus-free planting materials, vector control and cultural methods are required for the management of viral diseases. Rejuvenation of viral disease affected black pepper plantations through proper soil and plant health management were proved to be successful. The present review deals with characterization, diagnosis and management of viral diseases affecting black pepper and cardamom.