Modern GPS diagnostic technique to determine and map soil hardpan for enhancing agricultural operation management


  • Firas Salim Al-Aani Department of Agricultural Machines and Equipment, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq
  • Omar Hadeb Sadoon Information Technology Center, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq



Field productivity, Fuel consumption, GPS, Slip percentage, Traction power


Among the undesirable effects of soil compaction is a measurable reduction in plant growth and crop yield. The prevailing belief is that compacted tillage pans are caused by repetitive farming practices, heavy tractors, tillage tools, and field traffic. This experiment was conducted to determine and map the hardpan layers across an agricultural field through advanced technologies of precision agriculture. These valuable techniques such as data logger, yield map, and data analysis of performance indicators were linked with accurate global positioning systems (GPS) datasets. These important technologies provided the farmers and helped them to identify and manage areas of the fields with higher compacted layers. Three ground speeds 4.3, 5.2, and 6.4 km h-1 were performed with two tillage depths 25 and 40 cm of a chisel plow. The effects of these two factors were studied to determine slippage percentage, field productivity, traction power, and fuel consumption. For the first shallow 25 cm depth, the results showed that increasing the speed from 4.3 to 5.2 and then to 6.4 km h-1 led to a significant increase in slippage percentage from 7.22 to 10.35 and then to 12.63%, respectively. Increasing the speed increases field productivity from 0.547 to 0.663 then to 0. 749 ha hour-1, and tractive power increases from 9.44 to 11.74, then to 13.24 hp. As a result, there was a significant increase in the fuel consumption rate from 18.44 to 20.15, then to 22.27 L hour-1, respectively. Changing the depth from 25 to 40 cm and increasing the practical speed from 4.3 to 5.2 and then to 6.4 km h-1 led to a significant increase in slippage percentage from 10.14 to 12.77 and then to 15.27%, and a significant increase in field productivity from 0.446 to 0.568 and then to 0.640 ha hour-1, respectively. This led to a significant increase in traction power from 12.72 to 13.36, then to 15.87 hp. Increasing the speed also brought a significant increase in fuel rate from 22.14 to 23.54 and then to 26.14 L ha-1, respectively. Based on this study, it was concluded that the use of this powerful approach was a useful methodology to reflect, determine, specify, and manage the regions of induced and hardpan zones by means of dataset analyses provided by the GPS for the desired field.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdul-Rassoul, M. S., Al-Jalely, B. H., Al-Nuaim, K. T., & Al-Ani, L. K. (2012). First record of red-back spider Latrodectus scelio thorell, 1870 (Araneae: Theridiidae) in Baghdad, Iraq. Bulletin of the Iraq Natural History Museum, 12(2), 1-5.

Adhab, M. A. (2010). Identification of the causal agent of strip shape leaves symptoms on tomato in protective houses. Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology, 9(3), 607-617.

Adhab, M., & Alkuwaiti, N. A. (2022). Geminiviruses occurrence in the middle east and their impact on agriculture in Iraq. In R. K. Gaur, P. Sharma & H. Czosnek (Eds.), Geminivirus: Detection, Diagnosis and Management (pp. 171-185). Massachusetts, United States: Academic Press.

Adhab, M., Finke, D., & Schoelz, J. (2019). Turnip aphids (Lipaphis erysimi) discriminate host plants based on the strain of Cauliflower mosaic virus infection. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 31(1), 69-75.

Aguirre-Rojas, L. M., Khalaf, L. K., & Smith, C. M. (2019). Barley varieties stoneham and sydney exhibit mild antibiosis and antixenosis resistance to the wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella (Keifer). Agronomy, 9(11), 748.

Aguirre-Rojas, L. M., Khalaf, L. K., Garcés-Carrera, S., Sinha, D. K., Chuang, W.-P., & Smith, C. M. (2017). Resistance to wheat curl mite in arthropod-resistant rye-wheat translocation lines. Agronomy, 7(4), 74.

Al-Aani, F. (2020). CAN Bus Technology for Agricultural Machine Management Research and Undergraduate Education. Graduate Theses and Dissertation. Iowa State University.

Al-Aani, F. S., Darr, M. J., Covington, B. S., & Powell L. J. (2016). The performance of farm tractors as reported by CAN-bus messages. ASABE Annual International Meeting (pp. 1-18). ASABE.

Al-Aani, F. S., Darr, M. J., Powell, L. J., & Covington, B. R. (2018). Design and validation of an electronic data logging systems (CAN Bus) for monitoring machinery performance and management-Planting application. ASABE Annual International Meeting (pp. 2-22). ASABE.

Al-Ani, A. N., & Al-Ani, F. S. (2010). The relationship between tractor practical velocity and different moisture content on plowing soil layer. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 41(3), 124-129.

Al-Ani, F. (2012). Studying some technical indicators for a cotton planter under dry conditions. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 43(4), 102-111.

Al-Ani, L. K. K. (2010). Susceptibility of water melon cultivars to infestation by the two spotted spider mites. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 41(4), 86-91.

Al-Ani, L. K., & Al-Jboory, I. (2008). Effect of different temperatures on the biology of the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) on potato. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 26(2), 95-101.

Al-Ani, R. A., Adhab, M. A., & Hamad, S. A. H. (2011a). Evaluation the efficiency of different techniques for extraction and purification of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Baghdad Science Journal, 8(1), 447-452.

Al-Ani, R. A., Adhab, M. A., El-Muadhidi, M. A., & Al-Fahad, M. A. (2011b ). Induced systemic resistance and promotion of wheat and barley plants growth by biotic and non-biotic agents against barley yellow dwarf virus. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(56), 12079-12084,.

Al-Ani, R. A., Sabir, L. J., Adhab, M. A., & Hassan, A. K. (2009). Response of some melon cultivars to infection by Cucumber mosaic virus under field conditions. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 40(6), 1-8.

Al-Jarrah, M. (1998). Loading the tug with two types of plows and measuring indicators of fuel consumption under the conditions of permaculture. Mosul University, College of Agriculture and Forestry.

Al-Neami, K. T., Al-Dorri, O. K., Kahtan, L., & Layth, T. H. (2011). Effect of water extracts of some plants on two-spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acariformes: Tetranychidae). Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 42(1), 111-117.

Al-Sabagh, A., Al-Ani, F. S., & Al-Abadaly, O. A. (2004). Field performance of Fiat New Holland 80-66 tractor with ERMO moldboard plow in middle of Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 35(4), 159-166.

Al-Sahoki, M., & Waheeb, K. M. (1990). Applications in the design and analysis of experiments. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. Baghdad University.

AlShabar, S. H., Timm, A., & Khalaf, L. (2021). Population variation of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) in Baghdad province, central Iraq. 2021 Third International Sustainability and Resilience Conference: Climate Change (pp. 138-141). IEEE.

Al-Shamiry, F. M. S., Al-Qarni, A. M., & Munassar, A. S. (2020). Effect of tillage depth and tractor forward speed on some technical indicators of the Moldboard Plow. International Journals of Progressive Sciences and Technologies, 23(2), 28-37.

Al-Suhaibani, S. A., & Ghaly, A. E. (2010). Effect of Plowing Depth of Tillage and Forward Speed on the Performance of a Medium Size Chisel Plow Operating in a Sandy Soil. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 5(3), 247-255.

Amer, K. Z. (2017). Effect of different speed of two plows types on some machinery unit performance indicators. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 48(4), 1142-1147.

Baazeem, A., Alotaibi, S. S., Khalaf, L. K., Kumar, U., Zaynab, M., Alharthi, S., Darwish, H., Alghamdi, A., Jat, S. K., Al-Barty, A., Albogami, B., Noureldeen, A., & Ravindran, B. (2022). Identification and environment-friendly biocontrol potential of five different bacteria against Aphis punicae and Aphis illinoisensis (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Frontiers in Microbiology, 13, 961349.

Chuang, W.-P., Rojas, L. M. A., Khalaf, L. K., Zhang, G., Fritz, A. K., Whitfield, A. E., & Smith, C. M. (2017). Wheat genotypes with combined resistance to wheat curl mite, wheat streak mosaic virus, wheat mosaic virus, and triticum mosaic virus. Journal of Economic Entomology, 110(2), 711-718.

Khalaf, L. K., Adhab, M., Aguirre-Rojas, L. M., & Timm, A. E. (2023). Occurrences of wheat curl mite Aceria tosichella Keifer 1969 (Eriophyidae) and the associated viruses, (WSMV, HPWMoV, TriMV) in Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 54(3), 837-849.

Khalaf, L., Chuang, W.-P., Aguirre-Rojas, L. M., Klein, P., & Smith, C. M. (2019). Differences in Aceria tosichella population responses to wheat resistance genes and wheat virus transmission. Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 13, 807-818.

Khalaf, L., Timm, A., Chuang, W.-P., Enders, L., Hefley, T. J., & Smith, C. M. (2020). Modeling Aceria tosichella biotype distribution over geographic space and time. PloS One, 15(5), e0233507.

Miu, P. (2015). Combine Harvesters: theory, modeling, and design. (1st ed.). Florida, US: CRC Press

Mohammed, D., Adhab, M., & Al-Kuwaiti, N. (2021). Molecular characterization of viruses associated to leaf curl disease complex on zucchini squash in Iraq reveals Deng primer set could distinguish between New and Old World Begomoviruses. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 93(S3), e20210050.

SAS. (2012). Statistical Analysis System, User's Guide. Statistical. (9.1th ed.). Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.

Schoelz, J., Volenberg, D., Adhab, M., Fang, Z., Klassen, V., Spinka, C., & Al Rwahnih, M. (2021). A survey of viruses found in grapevine cultivars grown in Missouri. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 72, 73-84.

Stafford, J. V. (2013). Precision Agriculture'13. (1st ed.). Wageningen, Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Tekeste, M. Z., Balvanz, L. R., Al-Aani, F., Boesenberg, A., & Hatfield, J. L. (2022). Hardened Edges Effects on Wear Characteristics of Cultivator Sweeps Using Circular Soil Bin Test. Journal of Tribology, 144(2), 024501.

Yang, P., Reijneveld, A., Lerink, P., Qin, W., & Oenema, O. (2022). Within-field spatial variations in subsoil bulk density related to crop yield and potential CO2 and N2O emissions. Catena, 213, 106156.

Zhao, J., Abdelsalam, N. R., Khalaf, L., Chuang, W.-P., Zhao, L., Smith, C. M., Carver, B., & Bai, G. (2019). Development of single nucleotide polymorphism markers for the wheat curl mite resistance gene Cmc4. Crop Science, 59(4), 1567-1575.



How to Cite

Al-Aani, F. S., & Sadoon, O. H. (2023). Modern GPS diagnostic technique to determine and map soil hardpan for enhancing agricultural operation management. Journal of Aridland Agriculture, 9, 58–62.