Climate change vulnerability analysis of smallholder farmers in Enugu state Nigeria: Gender sensitive approach
A study was conducted to understand adaptive capacity profiles of male and female farmers, about the climate change vulnerability. Survey/questionnaire approaches were employed to gather data on livelihood activities, asset holdings, social networks and supports and climate-related threats. Following this, vulnerability analysis (adaptive capacity approach) was employed to capture the vulnerability differential between female and male headed farm households. Using a multi-stage random sample of 120 farm households, gender-based vulnerability levels of male and female farm households in the study area were estimated. In addition to this, Participatory Rural Appraisal was conducted in the form of focus group discussions to understand the underlying drivers of gender-induced adaptation differential among smallholder farmers. Using information gathered from the focused groups, in-depth interviews were conducted with agricultural policymakers to link farmers’ perceptions about gender and climate change adaptation in the area with that of the policy makers. The result of the study showed that female headed households in Enugu state, Nigeria, are more vulnerable to climate change impact than male headed farm households. Cultural systems, policies and practices, and unwarranted assumptions about women are top among the gender relations issues that undermine efforts in building climate change resilience among female headed farm households. Therefore, shelving of the identified beliefs systems that breed gender inequality in the area should be encouraged to enhance the adaptive capacities of female farmers, which would, in turn, reduce their level of climate change vulnerability.