Effects of yoga - pranayama practices on metabolic parameters and anthropometry in type 2 diabetes
India being the diabetic capital of the world, there is a rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with the increase in age, physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyle. So, the present study was undertaken to assess the strength of association of these factors and the effects of yoga-pranayama in type 2 diabetes. We selected 44 uncomplicated type 2 diabetic patients in the age group of 40-55 years with diabetes duration of 1-10 years. They were divided into test group and control groups with 22 patients in each group. The test group (T1 and T2) were taught yoga and pranayama for 3 continuous months, 1 hour every day in the morning by yoga expert. The results showed significant decrease inÃ‚Â metabolic parameters, with p < 0.001 in FBS of both the T1 and T2 sub groups [T1- 182.87 + 45.55Ã‚Â to 135.77 + 38.88, T 2 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 160.64 + 41.22 to 130.82 + 36.11], PPBS with p< 0.001 [ T1- 270.64Ã‚Â + 76.6 toÃ‚Â 196.90 + 64.67, T 2 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 230.62 + 71.32 to 183.46 + 52.20], Hb A 1c with p < 0.001 inÃ‚Â both the T1 and T2 sub groups, [T1- 9.77 + 0.5 % toÃ‚Â 7.68 + 0.4% and T 2 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 8.46 + 0.3% to 7.23 + 0.3%]. There was significant decrease with p < 0.001 in triglycerides of both the T1 and T2 sub groups, [T1- 170Ã‚Â + 70.55 toÃ‚Â 132.2 + 60.6, T 2 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 164 + 80.66 to 1143.1 + 28.89]. There was significant decrease with p < 0.001 in LDL of both the T1 and T2 sub groups [T1- 108 + 36.24toÃ‚Â 98 + 33.2, T 2 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 101.28 + 32.34 to 86.21 + 27.2]. However,Ã‚Â no significant change in HDL levels in test groups (T1 and T2). ItÃ‚Â also showed significant decrease in weight, BMI and waist- hip ratio in test group. Addition to above benefits there was significant decrease in the requirement of insulin per day in the T2, from 36.42 + 4.2 units toÃ‚Â 31.48 + 3.2 units. There were no significant changes in the control group. Thereby concludingÃ‚Â that, there are significant benefits of yoga- pranayama practices on metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements in uncomplicated type 2 diabetes.