Survey for incidence of coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes (Chevrolet) on robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner) plantations at Kodagu region of Karnataka state, India
Coffee is an important commercial crop attacked by various insect pests. Among them, coffee white stem borer (CWSB), Xylotrechus quadripes (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is the most serious and economically important pest of arabica coffee. The incidence of CWSB has been noticed in arabica coffee, whereas the other commercial variety, viz., robusta, has been tolerant against this pest so far. Of late, the incidence of CWSB is reported regularly in robusta plantations in the Kodagu region of Karnataka State, India. To understand the extent of CWSB incidence in robusta coffee, a systematic survey was conducted in 40 estates of Polibetta and Siddapura liaison Zones during the year 2019. CWSB infestation and the details on the percentage of CWSB, cultivar types, and age of the plants were recorded. The results of the survey revealed that the incidence was more in aged plants of Old Peridenia and S.274 (>50 years) compared to young plants and C × R hybrid (Coffea congensis × Coffea canephora). Data on the percentage infestation was found more in Old Peridenia (16.81%), followed by S.274 (4.8%) and C × R (0.88%). The infested plants of Old Peridenia and S.274 showed typical symptoms as in the case of arabica plants like ridge formation, drooping and yellowing of leaves, wilting, defoliation, exit holes and death of branches and whole plants. Hence, Indian coffee farmers are shifting slowly from arabica to robusta coffee because of CWSB infestation. This survey emphasized that a complete shift from arabica to robusta cultivation may face a similar infestation problem unless management practices are followed promptly.
Beeson, C.F.C. 1941. The Ecology and Control of the Forest Insects of India and the Neighouring Countries. Vasant Press, Dehra Dun, India, pp. 1007.
The Coffee Board of India. 2019. Export Information. Abstract on Both Indian and Re- exported coffee. Available online at: https://www.indiacoffee.org/ExportInfo_ Archives.aspx (accessed August 16, 2020).
The Coffee Board of India. 2020. Database on Coffee, January 2020. Available online at: https://www.indiacoffee.org/ database-coffee.html (accessed August 16, 2020).
Coffee Guide. 2003. Central Coffee Research Institute, Coffee Research Department, Balehonnur, India.
Chang, C. H., Karanth, K. K., and Robbins, P. 2018. Birds and beans comparing avian richness and endemism in arabica and robusta agroforests in India’s Western Ghats. Scientific Reports 8: 3143.
Hall, D. R., Cork A., Phythian S. J., Chittamuru S., Jayarama B. K., Venkatesha M. G., Sreedharan K., Kumar P. K. V., Seetharama H. G. and Naidu, R., 2006. Identification of components of the male-produced pheromone of coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes. Journal of Chemical Ecology 32: 195-219.
Joy, C.V. 2004. Small Coffee Growers of Sulthan Bathery, Wayanad. Discussion Paper No. 83, Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development Centre for Development Studies Thiruvananthapuram.
Kung, P.C. 1977. Studies on two long-horned beetles infesting coffee trees in Kwangsi Autonomous Region. Acta Entomologica Sinica 20:49-56.
Raphael, P. K.and Surekha K., 2000. Survey of coffee white stem borer incidence on robusta in Kodagu. International Scientific Symposium on Coffee, pp. 57-62.
Karanth, K. K., Sankararaman, V., Dalvi, S., Srivathsa, A., Parameshwaran, R., Sharma, S., 2016. Producing diversity agroforests sustain avian richness and abundance in India’s Western Ghats. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4:111.
Le Pelley R. H., 1968. Pests of Coffee. Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd, London, pp. 590.
Lee, H. L., and Lee, C. Y., 2007. Building Supply Chain Excellence in Emerging Economies. Springer Science & Business Media Vol. 98.
Lan, C.C. and Wintgens, J.N. 2004. Major Pests of Coffee in the Asia-Pacific region. pp. 459-473.
Reddy, A., 2011. Studies on behaviour and management of coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Cerambycidae: Coleoptera). Ph.D. Thesis University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru.
Rhainds, M., ChinChiew L., MoLi Z. and Gries G., 2002. Incidence, symptoms, and intensity of damage by three coffee stem borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in South Yunan, China. Journal of Economic Entomology 95: 106-112.
Robbins, P., Chhatre, A., and Karanth, K., 2015. Political ecology of commodity agroforests and tropical biodiversity. Conservation Letters 8: 77-85.
Robert, A. H., 2017. Cerambycid pests in forest and urban trees, In: Cerambycidae of the World: Biology and Pest Management, Ed. Qiao Wang, Boca Raton, NY: CRC Press, pp. 305-320.
Subramaniam, T.V. 1941. The coffee white stem borer. Bulletin:Department of Agriculture, Mysore State, Entomology Series. 11pp.
Suresh Kumar, V. B., Sambamurthy Reddy, A.G. and Ramachandran, M., 1992. A leguminous shade tree for coffee. Indian Coffee 56: 3-9.
Shylesha, A. N. and Veeresh G. K., 1995. Incidence of coffee white stem borer Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat in major coffee growing tracts of Karnataka. Journal of Hill Research 8: 239-241.
Seetharama, H. G., Vasudev V., Kumar P. K. V. and Sreedharan K., 2005. Biology of coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Journal of Coffee Research 33: 98-107.
Samuel, S.D., Norman, S.J., and. Kumar, P.K.V., 2013. Effect on crop due to coffee white stem borer infestation. Journal of Coffee Research 41(1&2): 40-46.
Tscharntke, T., Clough, Y., Bhagwat, S. A., Buchori, D., Faust,
H. and Hertel, D., 2011. Multifunctional shade-tree management in tropical agroforestry landscapes - A review. Journal of Applied Ecology 48: 619-629.
Veeresh, G. K., 1995. Bio-ecology and Management of the Coffee White Stem Borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat. University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore. Deposited at Cornell University Library, NY, pp. 56.
Venkatesha, M. G. B., 2010. Sustainable coffee cultivation in India: challenges and management. In: Proceedings of the 16th Asian Agricultural Symposium and 1st International Symposium on Agricultural Technology (Bangkok: King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang), pp. 492-495.
Venkatesha, M. G. and Dinesh, A. S., 2012. The coffee white stem borer Xylotrechus quadripes (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Bioecology, Status and Management. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 32: 177-188.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Plantation Crops
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.