Discrimination of a selected set of turmeric, ginger, fenugreek and coriander varieties using ISSR markers
DNA fingerprints are unique to individuals and can be used to identify individuals as in the case of conventional fingerprints. Plant DNA fingerprinting make use of various molecular markers for identifying newly released crop varieties and are all the more important in plant variety registration under the PPV&FR Act of 2001. The trade-related intellectual property rights (TRIPS) and the convention on biological diversity (CBD) insist on the establishment of identity and ownership of genotypes for enforcement of their provisions for securing protection to plant varieties as well as for regulating access to germplasm resources. DNA fingerprints, along with morphological markers, can be efficiently utilized for plant varietal identification, detection of duplicates and adulterants. Here in this particular study, the spice samples received at the DNA fingerprinting facility (DNAFF) of ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research (ICAR-IISR) from various centres of All India Coordinated Project on Spices (AICRPS) were DNA fingerprinted using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The DNA profile of a candidate variety vis-a-vis check variety is an essential prerequisite during submission of proposal for release of crop variety to central sub-committee on crop standards notification and release of varieties. The new varieties of turmeric, ginger, coriander and fenugreek were compared with the closely resembling check varieties for establishing distinctness for varietal registration. A total of 118 ISSR primers were screened in the above-given crops, to identify the distinct markers identifying the candidate from the check varieties. Using this technique, the DNAFF at ICAR-IISR could facilitate registration of turmeric varieties, Roma, Rasmi and Suroma; ginger varieties Suruchi, Suravi and Suprabha; coriander varieties, Suguna, Susthira and Suruchi, while varieties of turmeric, Uttara Rupanjana and Uttara Ranjini; fenugreek variety Ajmer fenugreek (AFg-5); coriander varieties Ajmer coriander (ACr-2) and Chhattisgarh Shri Chandra Hasini dhaniya-2 (ICS-4) are in the process of getting registration. ISSR markers were found to be appropriate for establishing distinctness of the new varieties of spices for securing varietal registration.