Host specificity and phytochemical constituents of mistletoe and twigs of parasitized plants: Implications for blanket application of mistletoe as cure-all medicine

  • E.M. Isikhuemen Department of Forest Resources and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
  • U. O. Olisaemeka Department of Forest Resources and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
  • G. O. Oyibotie Department of Forest Resources and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria


A study on host specificity and phytochemical constituents of leaves of mistletoe and parasitized twigs of seven host trees/shrubs was conducted in University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Plant height and location were measured with Nikon Laser Rangefinder (Forestry 550) and GPS respectively while occurrence and count of mistletoe on host plants was largely anecdotal/visual. Phytochemical analyses were conducted at Faculty of Agriculture Science/Soil Laboratory, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria while data were subjected to One-way Analysis of Variance and means separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (p=0.05). Results revealed mistletoe were largely generalists, and contained more phytochemicals than host plants. Tapinanthus ogowensis from Moringa oleifera was richest in alkaloid; Phragmanthera nigritana on Citrus sinensis, Tapinanthus ogowensis on Moringa oleifera and Phragmanthera capitata on Calliandra portoricensis recorded highest phenol content and differences among them were not significant (p<0.05). Phragmanthera capitata on Spondias mombin had significantly higher tannins than other mistletoe and host plants (p<0.05). P. capitata on S. mombin recorded best for saponin and flavonoid while P. capitata on Psidium guajava, Loranthus micranthus on Persia americana and P. capitata on C. portoricensis recorded more anthraquinone and were not  significantly different from each other p<0.05. While the marked variation in phytochemicals in leaves of mistletoe and twigs of host plants is noteworthy; the study sufficiently established that ecological idiosyncrasies, time/season and varied environmental phenomena strongly influence incidence and/or buildup of secondary metabolites. The foregoing should serve as benchmark in selection and/or use of mistletoe for resolving infirmities.

Keywords: Mistletoe, ethnomedicine, generalists, host preference, parasitized plants,


Download data is not yet available.


[1] Norton DA, Carpenter MA. Mistletoe as parasites: host specificity and speciation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 1998; 13: 101-105.
[2] Okubamichael DY, Griffiths ME, Ward D. Host specificity in parasitic plants— perspectives from mistletoes. AoB PLANTS 2016; 8: plw069; doi: 10.1093/aobpla/plw069
[3] Visser J. South African parasitic flowering plants. Juta, Cape Town, South Africa; 1981.
[4] Tomilov AA, Tomilova NB, Abdallah L and Yoder JI. Localized hormone fluxes and early haustorium development in the hemiparasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor. Plant physiology. 2005; 138: 1469-1480.
[5] Kuijt J. The Biology of Parasitic Flowering Plants. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1969. xvi + 248p
[6] Calder DM, Bernhardt P. (eds.). The Biology of Mistletoes. Sydney, Australia: Academic. 1983; 348. pp 1-18.
[7] Nickrent DL and Musselman LJ. Parasitic flowering plants. American Photo pathological Society. APSnet Education Center, the Plant Health Instructor web publication. The Plant Health Instructor. 2004. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2004-0330-01.
[8] Polhill R, Wiens D. Mistletoes of Africa. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Richmond, UK. 1998.
[9] Fadini RF. Non-overlap of hosts used by three congeneric and sympatric Loranthaceous mistletoe species in an Amazonian savanna: host generation to extreme specialization. Aota Botanica Brasilica. 2011; 25: 337-345.
[10] Tizhe TD, Alonge SO and Aliyu RE. Mistletoe presence on five tree species of Samaru area, Nigeria. African Journal of Plant Science. 2016; 10 (1):16-22. DOI: 10.5897/AJPS2015.1335
[11] Monteiro RF, Martins RP, Yamamoto K. Host specificity and seed dispersal of Psittacanthus robustus ( Loranthaceae) in South-East Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 1992;8:307-314.
[12] Ishizu T, Winarno, Tsujino E, Monta T & Shibuya H. Indonesian Medicinal Plants. XXIV. Stereochemical structure of Perseitol-K complex isolated from the leaves of Scurrula fusca ( Loranthaceae), Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2002; 50(4): 489-492.
[13] Osadebe PO, Okide GB, Akabogu IC. Study on anti-diabetic activities of crude methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) sourced from different host trees. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 95 (2-3): 133-138.
[14] Adodo A. Mistletoe: The wonder herb. The Nation Newspaper. Pax Herbal Clinic Research Laboratories, St. Benedict Monastery, Ewu, Edo State. 2014
[15] Adesina SK, Illoh HC, Johnny II, Jacobs IE. African mistletoes (Loranthaceae); Ethnopharmacology, Chemistry and Medicinal values. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines (AJTCAM). 2013; 10(4):161-170.
[16] Dibong SD, Engone ONL, Din N, Priso RJ, Taffouo VD, Fankem H, Salle G, Missoup AD, Boussim IJ, Amougou A. An assessment on the uses of Loranthaceae in ethnopharmacology in Cameroon; A case study made in Logbessou, North of Douala. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2009; 30:1839-1844.
[17] Fukunaga T, Nishiya K, Kajikawa I, Takeya K, Hokawa H. Studies on the constituents of Japanese mistletoes from different host trees and their antimicrobial and hypotensive properties. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo). 1989; 37(6):1543-1546.
[18] Amico GC, Vidal-Russell R, and Nickrent DL. Phylogenetic relationships and ecological speciation in the mistletoe Tristerix (Loranthaceae): the influence of pollinators, dispersers and hosts. American Journal of Botany. 2007; 94:558-567.
[19] Yoder J I. Parasitic plant responses to host plant signals: a model for subterranean plant-plant interactions. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 1999; 2:65-70.
[20] Mathiasen RL, Nickrent DL, Shaw DC and Watson DM. Mistletoes: pathology, systematics, ecology and management. Plant Disease. 2008; 92:988-1006.
[21] Wahab OM, Ayodele AE and Moody JO. TLC phytochemical screening in some Nigerian Loranthaceae. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy. 2010; 2(5):64-70.
[22] Nina A, Taufik F, and Akhmad D. Bioactivities evaluation of Indonesian mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.)Miq.) leaves extracts. Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia. 2012.
[23] Moghadamtousi SZ, Hajrezaei M, Abdul KH and Zandi K. Loranthus micranthus Linn: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013, Article ID 273712, 9p.
[24] Osadebe PO, Omeje EO, Uzor PF, David EK and Obiorah DC. “Seasonal variation for the antidiabetic activity of Loranthus micranthus methanol extract,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2010; 3(3):196–199.
[25] Osadebe PO and Ukwueze SE. “A comparative study of the phytochemical and anti-microbial properties of the Eastern Nigerian specie of African Mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus) sourced fromdifferent host trees,” Bio-Research. 2004; 2(1):18–23.
[26] Osadebe PO, Dieke CA and Okoye FBC. “A study of the seasonal variation in the antimicrobial constituents of the leaves of Loranthus micranthus sourced from Percia americana,” Planta Medica. 2007; 73: 205–210.
[27] Isikhuemen EM and Bamawo, OP. Effect of forest understorey shade on vegetative growth and development of Thaumatococcus daniellii, (Benn.) Benth. Nigerian Journal of Forestry. 2013; 43 (1 & 2): 45 – 52.
[28] Odjugo PA, Enaruvbe GO, Isibor HO. Geospatial approach to spatio-temporal pattern of urban growth in Benin City, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2015; 9 (3):166-175.
[29] Edeoga HO, Okwu DE and Mbaibie BO. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005; 4 (7):685 – 688.
[30] Boham BA, Kocipai-Abyazan R. Flavonoids and condensed tannins from leaves of Hawaiin Vaccinium vaticulatum and Vaccinium calycynium. Pacific Science. 1994; 48:458-463.
[31] Van-Burden TP, Robinson T. The biochemistry of alkaloids, 2nd edition. Springer, Heidelberg, New York. 1981.
[32] Obadoni BO, Ochuko PO. Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extract of some homeostatic plants in Edo and Delta states of Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science. 2001; 8:203-208.
[33] Soladoye MO, Chukwuma EC. Quantitative phytochemical profile of the leaves of Cissus populnea Guill. & Perr. (Vitaceae) - an important medicinal plant in central Nigeria. Archives of Applied Science Research. 2012; 4 (1):200-206.
[34] Piero NM, Joan MN, Richard OO, Jalemba MA, Omwoyo OR. Determination of cyanogenic compounds content in transgenic acyanogenic Kenyan cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) genotypes: Linking molecular analysis to biochemical analysis. Journal of Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques. 2015; 6:264-271.
[35] Overfield D, Riches C, Samoah AM, Sarkodie O, Baah F. A farming system analysis of the mistletoeproblem in Ghanaian Cocoa. Cocoa Grower’s Bulletin. 1998; 51:42-50.
[36] Dibong SD, Din N, Priso RJ, Taffouo VD, Fankem H, Salle G and Amougou A. Parasitism of host trees by the Loranthaceae in the region of Douala (Cameroon). African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2008; 2(11):371-378.
[37] Asare-Bediako E, Addo-Quaye AA, Tetteh, J. P, Buah JN, Van Der Puije GC, Acheampong RA. Prevalence of mistletoe on citrus trees in the Abura-Asebu-Kwamankese district of the central region of Ghana. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research. 2013; 2(7):122-127.
[38] Norton DA, de Lange PJD. Host specificity in parasitic mistletoe (Loranthaceae) in New Zealand, Functional Ecology. 1999; 13:101-105.
[39] Barlow BA, Wiens D. Host-parasite resemblance in Australian mistletoe: the case for cryptic mimicry. Evolution. 1997; 31:69-84.
[40] Downey PO. An inventory of host species of each aerial mistletoe species (Loranthaceae and Viscaceae) in Australia. Cunninghamia. 1997; 5:685-720.
[41] Rahmad ZB, Addo-Fordjour P, Asyrafl P and Rosely NFN. Mistletoe abundance, distribution and associations with trees along roadsides in Penang. Tropical Ecology. 2014; 55(2):255-262.
[42] Buen LL and Ornelas JF. Frugivorous birds, host selection and the mistletoe Psittacanthus schiedanus in central Veracruz, Mexico. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 1999; 15:329-340.
[43] Roxburgh L and Nicolson SW. Patterns of host use in two African mistletoes: the importance of mistletoe-host compatibility and avian disperser behavior. Functional Ecology. 2005; 19:865-873.
[44] Burkill HM. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew: 1985; pp 548-560.
[45] Pattanayak SP, Sunita P. Wound healing, anti-microbial and antioxidant potential of Dentrophthoe falcate (L.f) Ettingsh. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008; 120:241-247.
[46] Didier DS, Laurier EON, Din N, Jules PR, Victor T, Henri F, Georges S and Akoa A. Artificial infestations of Tapinanthus ogowensis (Engler) Danser (Loranthaceae) on three host species in the Logbessou Plateau (Douala, Cameroon). Africa Journal of Biotechnology. 2009; 8(6):1044-1051.
[47] Buen LL, Ornelas JF and García-Franco JG. Mistletoe infection of trees located at fragmented forest edges in the cloud forests of Central Veracruz, Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management. 2002; 164:293-302.
[48] Overton JM. Dispersal and infection in mistletoe metapopulations. Journal of Ecology. 1994; 82:711-723.
[49] Clay K, Dement D, Rejmanek M. Experimental evidence for host races in mistletoe (Phoradendron tomentosum). American Journal of Botany. 1985; 72:1225-1231.
[50] Adodo A. Nature Power: A Christian Approach to Herbal Medicine. St. Benedict Monastery, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria. 2002. 207p.
[51] Preston AL, An M, Watson DM. Chemical Profile differences in Endemic Parasitic Weeds: a Study of host-parasite chemical Profiles in Selected Mistletoe and Eucalyptus species. 17th Australian Weed Conference; 2010.
[52] Ibrahim JA, Egharevba HO, Iliya I, Tarfa F and Ayodele EA. Chemical Profiles as Chemotaxonomic tools for Loranthaceae in Nigeria. African Journal of Plant Science. 2014; 8(7):343–352.
[53] Dibong SD, Taffouo VD, Ndiang Z, Ngotta B, Mony R, Engone Obiang NL, Din N, Priso JR, Issaka BJ and Amougou A. The study of sodium and potassium distribution in five host species of Phragmanthera capitata (Sprengel) S. Balle in the littoral region of Cameroon. J. Appl. Biosci. 2010; 30:1839-1844.
[54] Williams SS. Mistletoe. Garden Line Porpouri Miscellaneous/Mistletoe. 1990. Available from: Http://
[55] Apori SO, Castro FB, Shand WJ and Orskov ER. Chemical composition, in saccodegradation and in vitro gas production of some Ghanaian browse plants. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 1998; 76(1–2):129–137.
[56] Abo KA, Ogunleye VO and Ashidi JS. Antimicrobial potential of Spondias mombin, Croton zambesicus and Zygotritonia crocea. Phytotherapy Research. 1999; 13:494–497
[57] Caraballo A, Caraballo B and Rodriguez-Acosta A. Preliminary assessment of medicinal plants used as antimalarials in the South-Eastern Venezuelan Amazon. Revista-da-Soci edade-Brasileira-de-Medicina-Tropical. 2004; 37(2):186 – 188.
[58] Ayoka AO, Akomolafe RO, Akinsomisoye OS and Ukponmwan OE. Medicinal and Economic Value of Spondias mombin. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2008; 1:129 – 136.
[59] Akubue PI, Mittal GC and Aguwa CN. Preliminary pharmacological study of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1983; 8:53–63.
[60] Offiah VN and Anyanwu II. Abortifacient activity of an aqueous extract of Spondias mombin leaves. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1989; 26:317–320.
[61] Ayoka AO, Akomolafe RO, Iwalewa EO, Akanmu MA and Ukponmwan OE. Sedative, antiepileptic and antipsychotic effects of Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiacaea) in mice and rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006; 103:166–175.
[62] Corthout J, Pieters LA, Claeys M, Vanden Berghe DA and Viletinck AJ. Antibacterial and molluscicidal phenolic acid from Spondias mombin. Planta Medica. 1994; 60:460–463.
[63] Corthout J, Pieters LA, Claeys M., VandenBerghe DA and Viletinck AJ. Antiviral Caffeoyl; Esters from Spondias mombin. Phytochemistry. 1992; 31, 79.
[64] Pauly G and Fleury M. Cosmetic containing plant extracts, Official Gazette of US patents and trademark Office Patents. 2002; 1259(3).
[65] Ajao AO and Shonukan O. Antibacterial effect of aqueous and alcohol extracts of Spondias mombin and Alchomea cordifolia: 2 local antimicrobial remedies. International Journal of Crude Drug Research. 1985; 23:67–72.
[66] Raji Y, Gbadegesin MA, Osonuga OA, Adisa RA, Akinsomisoye OS, Awobajo FO, Kunle-Alabi OT, Esegbue Peters, P. R. C., Osonuga I. O.,Lamidi A. F. Reproductive, Haematologic and Biochemical profiles of male rats treated with aqueous extract of Spondias mombin bark. International Journal of Pharmacology. 2006; 2 (1): 126 – 130
[67] Ademola IO, Fagbemi BO, and Idowu SO. Anthelmintic activity of extract of Spondias mombin against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep; studies in vitro and in vivo. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2005; 37 (3), 223 – 235
[68] Abad MJ, Bermejo P, Carretero E and Martinez-Acitores C. Anti-inflammatory activity of some medical plant extracts from Venezuela. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1996; 55 (1), 63 – 68.
[69] Ayoka AO, Akomolafe RO, Iwalewa EO and Ukponmwan O. E. Studies on the anxiolyticeffects of Spondias mombin L. (Anacardicaea) extracts. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2005; 2 (2), 153 – 165.
[70] Aguwa CN. and Lawal AM. Pharmacologic studies on the active principles of Calliandra portoricensis leaf extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 1988; 22(1):63-71.
[71] Orishadipe AT, Okogun JI, Mishelia E. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of
the hexane extract of Calliandra portoricensis and its antimicrobial activity. Afr J Pure
Appl Chem. 2010; 4(7):131-134.
[72] Onyeama HP, Ahmed MS, Ofemile PY, Ibekwe HA, Nwankpa P. Effects of Calliandra
portoricensis extracts on the lipid profile of wistar rats challenged with venom of carpet
viper. J Med Med Sci. 2012; 3(10):674-678.
[73] Amujoyegbe OO, Agbedahunsi JM, Akanmu MA. Antisickling Properties of Two
Calliandra Species: C. portoricensis and C. haematocephala (Fabaceae). Eur J Med Pl.
2014; 4(2):206.
[74] Akah PA, Nwambie AI. Nigerian plants with anti-convulsant property. Fitoterapia. 1993;
[75] El-ghani M. Traditional medicinal plants of Nigeria: an overview. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 2016, 2151-7517
[76] Adesina SK. Studies on some plants used as anticonvulsant in Amerindian and African
traditional plant medicines. Fitoterapia. 1982; 53: 147-162.
[77] Agunu A, Abdurahman EM, Shok M, Yusuf SA. Analgesic activity of the roots and leaves extracts of Calliandra portoricensis. Fitoterapia. 2005; 76 (5):442-445.
[78] Trease G.E., Evans WC. Pharmacognosy, Edn 11, Bailliere Tindall, 1989. London.
[79] Omotayo FO, Omoyeni OA. Phytochemical, anti-nutritive and mineral composition of extracts of leaves of Waltheria Americana L. (syn. W. indica L.) and bark of Okoubaka aubrevillei Pellegr and Normand. Bull Biol. Sci. 2009; 7(1):1-6
[80] Bouayad N, Rharrabe K, Lamhamdi M, Nourouti NG and Sayah F. Dietary effects of harmine, a ß-carboline alkaloid, on development, energy reserves and a amylase activity of Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2011; 19(1): 73-80.
[81] Reus GZ, Stringani RB, Goncalves CL, Scaini G, Carvalho-Silva M, and Jeremias GC. Administration of harmine and imipramine alters creatine kinase and mitochondrial respiratory chain activities in the rat brain. Depress Res Treat 2012: 397-987.
[82] Trease GE, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy, Edition 14. Elsevier, 2005; New Delhi, India.
[83] Madziga HA, Sanni S and Sandabe UK. Phytochemical and Elemental Analysis of Acalypha wilkesiana Leaf. Journal of American Science. 2010; 6 (11): 510-514.
[84] Krapcho A.P., Petry M.E., Getahun Z., Landi J.J., Stallman J., Polsenberg J.F., Gallagher C.E., Maresch M.J., Hacker M.P., Giuliani F.C., Beggiolin G, Pezzoni G., Menta E., Manzotti C, Olivia A., Spinelli S., and Tognella S. A novel class of chromophore modified antitumor anthracene-9, 10-diones: synthesis and antitumor evaluations. Journal of Medical Chemistry, 1994; 37(6): 828-837.
[85] Winter RW, Kenneth AC, Linda LJ, Marina I, David JH, Micheal KR. Potentiation of the antimalarial agent rufigallol. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1996; 40:1408-1411.
[86] Okwu D.E., Josiah C. Evaluation of chemical composition of two Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology; 2006); 5(4): 357-361.
[87] Yamamoto Y., Gaynor RB. Therapeutic potential of inhibition of the NF.Kb pathway in the treatment of inflammation and cancer. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2001; 107(2): 135-142.
[88] Cazarolli LH, Zanatta L, Alberton EH, Figueiredo MS, Folador P, Damazio RG, Pizzolatti MG, and Silva FR. Flavonoids: Prospective drug candidates. Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, 2008; 8(13):1429-1440.
[89] Halilu ME, AhmedA, Ugwah-Oguejofor, CJ, and Ibrahim G. Comparative Pharmacognostic and Anti-bacterial Studies of Moringa oleifera leaf, flower and its mistletoe (Tapinanthus gloiferus). Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research, 2016; 1 (1): 22 – 27.
[90] Mohammed S. Anticancer agents from medicinal plants. Bangladesh. Journal of Pharmacology. 2006; 1: 35-41.
[91] Bagchi D, Garg A, Krohn RL, Bagchi M, Bagchi DJ, Balmoori J. and Stohs SJ. Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins and selected antioxidants against TPA-induced hepatic and brain lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, and peritoneal macrophage activation in mice. General Pharmacology. 1998; 30: 771-776.
[92] Ye X, Krohn R. and Liu W. The cytoxic effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on cultural human cancer cells. Mol Cell Biochemistry. 1999; 196:99.
[93] Uji T, Sunrayo Rachman E.. Keanekavagaman Jenis Benalu Parasit Pada Tanaman Koleski Di Kebun Raya Eka Karya, Bali. Berki. Penel. Hayati. 2007; 13:1-5.
[94] Siddiqui S, Verma A, Rather AA, Jabeen F, Meghvansi MK. Preliminary phytochemicals analysis of some important medicinal and aromatic plants. Advanced in Biological Research. (2009); 3(5-6): 188-195.
[95] Dixon RA, Sumner LW. Legume natural products: Understanding and manipulating complex pathways for human and animal health. Plant Physiology. 2003; 131:878-885.
[96] Soetan KO, Oyekunle MA, Aiyelaagba OO and Fafunso MA. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of saponins extract of Sorghum bicolor L. Moench. African Journal Biotechnology. 2006; 5: 2405-2407.
[97] Asami, Danny K. Comparison of the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content of freeze-dried and air-dried marionberry, strawberry, and corn grown using conventional, organic and sustainable agricultural practices. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2003; 51(5): 1237-1241.
[98] Khanna SK, Viswanathan PN, Krishnan PS, Sanwal GG. Extraction of total phenolics in the presence of reducing agents. Phytochemistry. 1968; (9): 1513-1517.
[99] Salatino A, Kraus JE, Salatino MLF. Contents of tannins and their histological localization in young and adult parts of Struthanthus vulgaris Mart. (Loranthaceae). Annals of Botany. 1993; 72: 409-414.
[100] Islamiyat FB, Moruf OO, Sulaiman AO and Adeladun SA. A review of cyanogenic glycosides in edible plants. Toxicology- New Aspects to This Scientific Conundrum. 2016; 8: 180-186.
[101] Rosling H. Measuring effects in humans of dietary cyanide exposure from cassava. Acta Hortic. 1994; 375: 271-283.
0 Views | 0 Downloads
How to Cite
Isikhuemen, E., U. O. Olisaemeka, and G. O. Oyibotie. “Host Specificity and Phytochemical Constituents of Mistletoe and Twigs of Parasitized Plants: Implications for Blanket Application of Mistletoe As Cure-All Medicine”. Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine, Vol. 6, Mar. 2020, pp. 30-37, doi:
Research Article