Chemical Composition, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Myorelaxant, Antibacterial and Antifungal activity of Rabdosia rugosus Wall. (Syn. Plectranthus rugosus Wall.)

  • Prakash Singh, Ravendra Kumar
  • Om Prakash, Anil Kumar Pant Department of Chemistry, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, 263145 Uttarakhand, India
  • Mahesh Kumar Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, 263145 Uttarakhand, India
  • Valary A. Isidorov, Lech Szczepaniak Institute of Chemistry, Division of Environmental Chemistry, UL, Bialystok University, Hurtowa 1,15-399 Bialystok, Poland


For the present investigation Rabdosia rugosus Wall. Syn. Plectranthus rugosus Wall.  was collected from Pancheshwar, Uttarakhand on the way to Badrinath. The GC and GC-MS analysis, revealed the presence of more than forty compounds out of which 35 compounds were identified amounting to 97.3% of the total oil. The essential oil of R. rugosus was rich in sesquiterpinoids (~90%) and was poor in monoterpenoids (8.1%). α-bisabolol (41.9%) was the major constituent of the oil and the other identified major compounds were germacrene-D (9.7%), β-caryophyllene (7.6%), dehydroabietane (5.2%), ar-curcumene (5.0), trans-ferruginol (3.3%) α-cadinol (3.2%), τ-muurolol (2.3%),   p-Cymene (3.2%) and  γ-terpinene (2.0%). The  essential  oil  of  Rabdosia rugosus showed insignificant  anti-inflammatory  and  analgesic  activity  but  shows  significant  antipyretic,   myorelaxant and  antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Rabdosia rugosus; ?-bisabolol; anti-inflammatory activity; myorelaxant activity; antimicrobial activity


Download data is not yet available.


1. Ascensao L, Figueiredo AC, Barroso JG, Pedra LG, Schripsema J, Deans SG, Scheffer JJC. Plectranthus madagascariensis: morphology of the glandular trichomes, essential oil compositions, and its biological activity. International Journal of Plant Sciences. 1998; 159:31–38.
2. Cantino PD, Harley RM, Wagstaff SJ. Genera of Labiatae: status and classification. In R.M. Harley & T. Reynolds (Eds.), Advances in Labiate Science (p. 511). Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens; 1992.
3. Dash VB, Kashyap VL. Materiamedica of Ayurveda based on Ayurveda saukhyan of todarananda (p. 711). New Delhi, India: Concept Publishing Company; 1987.
4. Lukhoba CW, Simmonds MSJ, Paton AJ. Plectranthus: a review of ethno botanical uses. Journal of Ethanopharmacology. 2006; 1031–24.
5. Purseglove JW. Tropical Crops. Dicotyledons (p. 719). Burnt Mill, Harlow, England: Longman Scientific and Technical; 1987.
6. Hooker SJD. The Flora of British India. /By J.D. Hooker assisted by various botanists. Published under the authority of the Secretary of State for India in Council. London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. A. parviflora pp. 703, R. mellisoides pp. 620 and R. rugosus pp. 620-621. 1875.
7. Flora of China. R. rugosus Wall. 17: 280.
8. Padalia RC, Verma RS. Comparative study of volatile oil compositions of two Plectranthus species from Northern India. Natural Product Research .2011; 25(18):1727-1732.
9. Tiwari A, Padalia RC, Mathela CS. Sesquiterpene rich essential oil from Plectranthus rugosus Wall. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2008; 11,58–61.
10. Muhammad I, Shaid A, Habib-ur-Rehman HH. GC-MS analysis and antifungal activity of essential oils of Angelica glauca, Plectranthus rugosus and Valeriana wallichii. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants.2012; 15(1):15-21.
11. Weyerstahl P,Kaul VK, Meier N, Weirauch M, Marschall H. Volatile constituents of Plectranthus rugosus leaf oil. Planta Medica.1983; 48(2):99-102.
12. Razdan TK, Kachroo V, Harkar S,Koul GL. Plectranthoic acid A and B: Two new triterpenoids from Plectranthus rugosus. Tetrahedron.1982a; 38(7):991-992.
13. Maisonneune, S.A., 1975. European Pharmacopoeia. Vol. 3. Saint-Ruffine, France.
14. Adams, R.P. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ mass Spectrometry, 4th Edition. Allured Business Media Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream, Illinois, USA. 2007.
15. Mitchell RN,Cotran RS. In: Robinson’s Basic Pathology. 7thEdn. Harcourt (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi;2000:33-42.
16. Henriques MG, Silva PM, Martins MA, Flores CA, Cunha FQ, Assreuy-Filho J, Corderio RB. Mouse paw oedema, a new model for inflammation. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research.1987; 20:243-249.
17. Selye H. Further studies concerning participation of the adrenal cortex in the pathogenesis of the arthritis. British Medical Journal.1949; 2:1129-1135.
18. Collier HDJ, Dinnin LC, Johnson CA, Schneider C. The abdominal response and its suppression by analgesic drugs in mouse. British Journal of Pharmacology. 1968; 32:295-310.
19. Langerman L, Zakowski MI, Piskoun B, Grant GJ. Hot plate versus tail flick: Evaluation of acute tolerance to continuous morphine infusion in rat model. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods. 1995; 34:23-27.
20. Rao RR, Babu RM, Rao MRV,Babu MGV. Studies on antipyretic, analgesic and hypoglycaemic activities of root of Gynandropsi sgynandra Linn. Indian Drugs, 1997; 34(12):690-694.
21. Karaman I, Sahin F, Gulluce M, Ogutcu H, Sengul M, Adiguzel A. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus L. Journal of Ethanopharmacology. 2003; 85:231-235.
22. Deba F, Xuan TD, Yasuda M, Tawata S. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oils from Bidens pilosa Linn. var. Radiata. Food Control. 2008; 19:346-352.
23. Irshad M, Aziz S, Rehman H, Hussain H. GC-MS analysis and antifungal activity of essential oils of Angelica glauca, Plectranthus rugosus and Valeriana wallichii. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2012; 15(1):15-21.
24. Hiruma-Lima CA, Gracioso JS, Bighetti EJB, Robeneou GL, Souza Brito ARM. The juice of the fresh leaves of Boerhaavia diffusa L. (Nyctainaceae) markedly reduces pain in mice. Journal of Ethanopharmacology. 2000; 71:267-274.
25. Hoffman BB, Taylor P. Neurotransmission: The autonomic and somatic motor nervous system. In: Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Eds.: Hardman, J.G.; Limbird, L.E.; Molinoff, P.B. and Gilman, A.G. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York; 2001. pp. 115-153.
26. Hoffman DJ. Catecholamines, sympathomimetic drugs and adrenergic receptor antagonists. In: Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Eds.: Hardman, J.G. and Limbird, L. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York; 2001. pp. 215-268.
27. Bazerra M, Leal CJH, Coelho AN, Criddle DN, Fontlelles MC. Myorelaxant and antispasmodic effects of the essential oil of Alpinia speciosa on rat ileam. Phytotherapy Research. 2000; 14:549–551.
28. Helander IM, Alakomi HL, Latva-KalaK, Mattiala-Sandholm T, Pol I, Smid EJ, Gorris LGM, Wright AV. Characterization of the action of selected essential oils components on Gram-negative bacteria. Journal of Agricutural and Food Chemistry.1998; 46:3590-3595.
29. Hatice Z, Ayse HB. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of essential oil terpenes against pathogenic and spoilage-forming bacteria and cell structure-activity relationships evaluated by SEM Microscop. Molecules, 2014; 19:17773-17798.
30. Singh P, Kumar R, Prakash O, Kumar M, Pant AK, Isidorov VA, Szczepaniak L. Reinvestigation of Chemical Composition, Pharmacological, Antibacterial and Fungicidal Activity of Essential oil from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. Research Journal of Phytochemistry. 2017; 11:129-41.
31. Gangawar N, Singh S, Kumar A, Kasana VK. In Vitro pharmacological studies of dihydropyrimidine derivatives on rat duodenal smooth muscle. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2009; 8(1-2): 73-5.
64 Views | 72 Downloads
How to Cite
Ravendra Kumar, P. S., O. P. Anil Kumar Pant, M. Kumar, and V. A. I. Lech Szczepaniak. “Chemical Composition, Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Myorelaxant, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Rabdosia Rugosus Wall. (Syn. Plectranthus Rugosus Wall.)”. Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine, Vol. 5,  , pp. 08-15, doi:
Research Article