Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of mango ginger rhizome extracts against bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum
The Indian mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a perennial rhizomatous herb with a raw mango flavour. It is resistant to bacterial wilt disease. In order to understand the disease resistance mechanism of mango gingerthe hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts (5, 10, 25, 50 and 100mg/ml) and essential oils (1%, 5% and 10%) were tested against the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum by agar well diffusion method. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts showed more or less the same level of antimicrobial activity with a zone of inhibition ranging from 3-9 mm. The essential oils exhibited a zone of inhibition ranging from 3-7 mm.The major constituents of the essential oils were ?-myrcene and ?-pinene. The results indicated that the rhizome of mango ginger may contain compounds that are toxic to the pathogen. The extracts of mango ginger could be explored further for developing a natural bactericide against R. solanacearum.
Adams R P 2007 Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Ed 4), Allured publishing corporation, Carol stream, USA.
Dohroo N P 1991 New record of bacterial wilt of ginger in Himachal Pradesh. In: Indian Phytopathology, North Zone Meeting, 29-30 April 1991 (pp.16). Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla, India.
Hayward A C 1991 Biology and epidemiology of bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 29:65–87.
Jatoi S A, Kikuchi A, Gilani S A & Watanabe K A 2007 Phytochemical, pharmacological and ethnobotanical studies in mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb; Zingiberaceae). Phytotherapy Res. 21: 507–516.
Kang J H, Liu G, Shi F, Jones A D, Beaudry R M & Howe G A 2010 The tomato odorless-2 mutant is defective in trichome-based production of diverse specialized metabolites and broad-spectrum resistance to insect herbivores. Plant. Physiol. 154: 262–272.
Kumar A, Bhai R S, Sasikumar B, Anandaraj M & Parthasarathy V A 2006 Curcuma amadaRoxb. A bacterial wilt evading species in Zingiberaceae- A potential source of valuable genes for bacterial wilt resistance. In: Saddler G, Elphinstone J & Smith J (Eds.) The 4th International Bacterial wilt symposium, 17–20 July 2006 (pp.85). The Lakeside conference centre, CSL, York, UK.
Mathew J, Abraham K, Indrasenan G & Samuel M 1979 A new record of bacterial wilt of ginger incited by Pseudomonas solanacearum E.F. Smith from India. Curr. Sci. 48: 213–214.
Mitscher L A, Drake S, Gollapudi S R & Okwute S K 1987 A modern look at folkloric use of anti-infective agents. J. Nat. Prod. 50: 1025-1040.
Montesinos E 2007 Antimicrobial peptides and plant disease control. Microbiol. Lett. 270: 1–11.
Paret ML, Sharma SK & Alvarez A M 2012 Characterization of biofumigated Ralstonia solanacearum cells using micro-Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy. J. Phytopathol. 102: 105-113.
Policegoudra R S & Aradhya S M 2007 Biochemical changes and antioxidant activity of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizomes during postharvest storage at different temperatures. Postharvest. Biol. Technol. 46: 189-194.
Policegoudra R S, Divakar S & Aradhya S M 2007 Identification of difurocumenonol, a new antimicrobial compound from mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome. J. Appl. Microbiol. 102: 1594–1602.
Prasath D, El-Sharkawy I, Sherif S, Tiwary K S & Jayasankar S 2011 Cloning and characterization of PR5 gene from Curcuma amada and Zingiberofficinale in response to Ralstonia solanacearum infection. Plant Cell. Rep. 30: 1799–1809.
Ravindran P N, Babu K N & Shiva K N 2005 Botany and crop improvement of ginger. In: Ravindran P N, Babu K N (Eds.) Monograph on ginger (pp.15–85). CRC Press, Boca Raton.
Rodriguez A, San Andres V, Cervera M, Redondo A, Alquezar B, Shimada T, Gadea J, Rodrigo M J, Zacarias L, Palou L & Lopez M M 2011 Terpene down-regulation in orange reveals the role of fruit aromas in mediating interactions with insect herbivores and pathogens. Plant. Physiol. 156: 793–802.
Savary S, Teng P S, Willocquet L & Nutter F W 2006 Quantification and modeling of crop losses:a review of purposes. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 44: 89–112.
Siddaraju M N & Dharmesh S M 2007 Inhibition of gastric H, K-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori growth by phenolic antioxidants of Curcuma amada. J. Agri. Food. Che. 55: 7377-7386.
Singh G, Singh O P & Maurya S 2002 Chemical and biocidal investigations on essential oils of some Indian Curcuma species.Prog. Crystal. Growth. Character. Mater. 45: 75–81.
Singh G, Singh O P, de Lampasona M P & Catalan C 2003 Curcuma amada Roxb – chemical composition of rhizome oil. Indian Perfumer 47: 143–146.
Srinivas Rao A, Bandaru R & Ramachandran S 1989 Volatile aroma components of Curcuma amada Roxb. J. Agri. Food. Chem. 37: 740–743.
Valgas C, de Souza S M, Smania E F A &Smania A 2007 Screening methods to determine antibacterial activity of natural products. Braz. J. Microbiol. 38: 369-380.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.