Journal of Scientific Agriculture 2021-05-21T11:58:53+0530 Editorial Office Open Journal Systems <p><em>Journal of Scientific Agriculture (JSA)</em>&nbsp;is an international, peer-reviewed, open-access journal, published by the Update Publishing House.</p> Alternative screening method for drought tolerance in barley genotypes 2021-04-08T00:14:07+0530 Javan Omondi Were Julius Onyango Ochuodho Nicholas Kipkemboi Rop Sanjaya Gyawali <p style="text-align: justify;">Lack of genetically stable and durable drought tolerant winter and spring barley genotypes is one of the main contributing to low and unpredictable yields in Kenya and other parts of the world despite annual release of new and high yielding varieties. Therefore, the study was set to identify genotypes exhibiting tolerance to drought through physiological and phenotypic approaches. A total of 32 genotypes were planted in split-plot arrangement in completely randomized design replicated thrice. Genotypes were maintained under 20% and 80% field capacities. Phenotypic and physiological data were collected, converted to ratios then analyzed on Genstat version 14.1 VSN International Ltd at a 5% level of significance. Significant differences were observed in winter and spring barley in terms of growth, tillering ability, grains formed per spike, 1000 seed weight and MSI (p &lt; 0.05). Spring barley expressed higher tolerance to drought than winter barley especially in terms of height, number of grains per spike and seed weight. Water deficiency in cells and tissues might have altered and inhibited physiological and biochemical processes. The phenotypic and physiological methods corresponded and confirmed tolerance to drought in most winter and spring genotypes grown in Kenya.</p> 2021-03-04T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Javan Omondi Were, Julius Onyango Ochuodho, Nicholas Kipkemboi Rop, Sanjaya Gyawali Variability in cooking time, iron and zinc content in common bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) genotypes 2021-04-08T00:14:06+0530 Irene Mughi M. Ochwo-Ssemakula R. Edema C. Mukankusi <p style="text-align: justify;">Prolonged cooking time leads to structural changes at the grain cellular level, resulting in loss of nutrients such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) which are among the main nutrients important in addressing micronutrient malnutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of cooking time, Fe and Zn content in a total of 152 common bean (<em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em>) genotypes from around Eastern Africa, in order to identify short cooking genotypes with high Fe and Zn content. Field trials were conducted at CIAT-Uganda research station over two seasons in 2016. Cooking time was estimated using an automated Mattson cooker at CIAT-Uganda while Fe and Zn content was determined using XRF analysis at Rwanda Agricultural Board (RAB) in Rubona. A wide variability was evident from the test genotypes both for cooking time and mineral concentration. Cooking time exhibited a continuous distribution ranging from 35-100 minutes for the first season and 43–122 minutes for the second season. Seventy-three percent of the test genotypes had Fe levels higher than the low Fe check, CAL 96 (55mg/kg) which is popularly known as ‘Nambale’ and a popular commercial variety in Uganda. A total of 15 genotypes (Amahunja, Awash melka, Bihogo, CAB 2, ECAPAN021, G858, Icaquimbaya, KK20, NABE12C, NABE4, NABE6, ROBA-1, RWR1873, RWV3006) were consistent in short cooking time for the two seasons and had a Fe content above the low Fe check (CAL96 – 55mg/kg). A high correlation (r = 0.71) was observed between Fe and Zn whereas a low correlation between cooking time and Fe (r = -0.04) and Zn (r = 0.04) was observed. Great variability was evident for both traits indicating possible improvement by breeding and thus the possibility of having short cooking common bean genotypes with high Fe and Zn content.</p> 2021-03-04T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Irene Mughi, M. Ochwo-Ssemakula, R. Edema, C. Mukankusi Evaluation on dry forage yields and nutritional characteristics of introduced herbaceous legumes in Myanmar 2021-04-08T00:14:06+0530 Gyue Gyue Nang Kham Hline Nan Thida Aye Bo Hein Myo Thet Naung Myo Thura Htun Myint Soe Min Thein Lwin Naing Oo Moe Thida Htun Khin San Mu Aung Aung <p style="text-align: justify;">The study was carried out to evaluate the forage yields, nutritive values and <em>in vitro</em> fermentation parameters of herbaceous legumes. Five varieties of introduced herbaceous legumes; <em>Stylosanthes guianensis</em> cv. Ubon stylo, <em>Macrotyloma axillare</em> cv. Archer, <em>Centrosema brasilianum</em> cv. Ooloo, <em>Stylosanthes guianensis</em> cv. Stylo 184 and <em>Macroptilum bracteatum</em> cv. Cadarga were evaluated at the research farm, University of Veterinary Science, Yezin, Myanmar. No fertilizer and no irrigation were applied for cultivation to test drought resistance. Dry forage yield, nutritive values and gas production at four harvesting times were measured with 4×5 factorial arrangement (5 legumes and 4 harvesting time) in randomized complete block design. There was no interaction between legumes and harvesting time on forage yield, nutritive values and fermentation parameters but they were affected by the main effects of legume types and harvesting time. Among the legume forages, the highest dry forage yields were found in Ooloo, Ubon stylo, and Stylo 184, and followed by the DM yield of Archer and Cadarga. The DM yield of the second harvest was significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) than those of the first, third and fourth harvest which were not significantly different from each other. As a chemical composition, the DM content of Archer was lower (p&lt;0.05) than those of other varieties. Among the legumes forages, the lower CP content was found in Cadarga. The higher NDF was observed in Ooloo. Ooloo, Ubon stylo and Cadarga showed higher ADF in comparison with the other two varieties. Among the harvesting time, the lowest DM content was found at the first harvest. The highest CP content was found at third harvest. The NDF content was not significantly different. The lowest ADF content was found in fourth harvest. According to the dry forage yield, Ubon stylo and Ooloo had the highest dry forage yield and in term of nutritive values, Stylo 184 and Archer had higher nutritive values. As the main effect of forages, Stylo 184 and Archer had higher gas production in comparison with the other varieties. As the main effect of harvesting time, the fourth harvest had the highest gas production in comparison with other harvesting time. It could be better for cultivation by application of fertilizer and irrigation to get more forage yield and quality.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-03-04T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Gyue Gyue, Nang Kham Hline, Nan Thida Aye, Bo Hein, Myo Thet Naung, Myo Thura, Htun Myint, Soe Min Thein, Lwin Naing Oo, Moe Thida Htun, Khin San Mu, Aung Aung Soil test crop response based phosphorus calibration study for bread wheat in Kofele District, West Arsi Zone Oromia, Ethiopia 2021-04-08T00:14:05+0530 Abdurahman Husien Tilahun Firomsa Tilahun Abera <p style="text-align: justify;">Nowadays, a balanced fertilizer recommendation is of paramount importance in order to confirm the security and sustainably increase crop productivity for farmers and other stakeholders. Soil test crop response based phosphorus calibration study in two years (2017 and 2018) was done for bread wheat in kofele district with objectives to assess and evaluate yield response of bread wheat to phosphorus-fertilizer applications in soils that have initial high/medium/low levels of phosphorus on Eutric Vertisols. A composite soil samples collection were made in zigzag method from farmer’s land and analyzed for available P in order to identify the level of the required parameters in the soil to select farmland for actual experiment. Accordingly, phosphorus calibration study treatments include application of 0, 10,20,30,40 and 50 kg P ha<sup>-1</sup> with recommended nitrogen 69 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> with RCBD design was used with two replications. The plot size of 5mx4m with a seed rate of 150 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and Ogolcho variety which had been recommended for the area was used. So that the result showed that phosphorus fertilizer application significantly affects yield and yield components of bread wheat. Similarly, phosphorous fertilizer application at different rates increased grain yield of bread wheat by 28 to 44% compared to the control. Furthermore, the study was revealed that phosphorus critical (Pc) point for bread wheat was 19, and phosphorus requirement factor was also 3.30. Therefore, future research should focus on verification of the result on farmland before disseminating the technology to the end-user.</p> 2021-04-03T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Abdurahman Husien, Tilahun Firomsa, Tilahun Abera Response of giant foxtail and wild proso millet to artificial light quality alteration 2021-03-30T12:17:42+0530 Jenipher Bisikwa Roger L. Becker Vince A. Fritz Kevin Natukunda Martha I. Natukunda <p>Light is an essential requirement for proper plant growth and development. Growth chamber experiments were conducted to determine whether artificial alteration of light quality (reducing the red to far-red ratio-R:FR) differentially affected the growth and development of giant foxtail and wild proso millet, two troublesome annual grass weeds in the United States. Growth phenotypes of both weeds were examined under two R:FR regimes (0.28-reduced R:FR and 1.12-unaltered R:FR) in the absence of competition (control conditions) and under intraspecific and interspecific competition. The reduced R:FR simulated shaded (below-canopy) R:FR conditions in the field while the unaltered R:FR treatment simulated direct sunlight (above-canopy) conditions. Averaged across weed species, reducing the R:FR increased plant height, but reduced tiller production and above-ground biomass under no plant competition (P&lt;0.05). In the presence of competition, reducing the R:FR increased plant height and internode length but reduced the number of tillers and leaf area across weed species. No phenotypic differences were observed for weeds tested under intraspecific or interspecific competition. Our study has shown that the response of both weeds to artificial R:FR alteration is similar to that observed under shaded field conditions. Therefore, by replacing bordering plants with a crop, controlled experiments can be used to test the effect of crop canopies on weed suppression when selecting cultivars to be planted in areas where certain weed species are prevalent, minimizing weed-related yield losses.</p> 2021-04-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Jenipher Bisikwa, Roger L. Becker, Vince A. Fritz, Kevin Natukunda, Martha I. Natukunda ‘Chemlali Mhassen’: New olive cultivar derived from crossbreeding program in Tunisia with high oil quality and productivity 2020-03-16T06:30:16+0530 I. Guellaoui F. Ben Amar M. A. Triki M. Ayadi M. Boubaker <p>The new olive cultivar ‘Chemlali Mhassen’ was derived from the autopollination of the Tunisian oil cultivar ‘Chemlali Sfax’. The main morphological differences between the two cultivars were observed on the endocarp (symmetry, position of maximum diameter, apex, base and surface). On the agronomic plan, this cultivar is distinguishable from the original cultivar due to its medium earliness of bearing (4 years), medium alternate bearing (0.44), early ripening, moderate sensitivity to verticillium and its high olive production per tree (7.7 kg). Concerning oil quality, ‘Chemlali Mhassen’ had higher performances than the original cultivar for oleic acid content (70 to 77 %) and lower contents for palmitic acid (9.2 to 11.5 %) and linoleic acid (9.3 to 14.7 %). Similar performances were recorded between the new and the original cultivars for rhizogenesis behavior and pollen compatibility.</p> 2021-07-02T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 I. Guellaoui, F. Ben Amar, M. A. Triki, M. Ayadi, M. Boubaker Transportation of Chromium (VI) to Bombyx mori L. from mulberry Plant (Morus alba L.) grown at soil irrigated with Chromium (VI) containing effluents 2020-03-16T06:27:55+0530 Majid Ali Muhammad Alamgeer Mirza Abdul Qayyum Khuram Zia Muhammad Ashfaq Muhammad Asad Saleem <p>The research was conducted to determine Chromium (VI) toxicity in population <em>Bombyx mori</em>. The synthetic wastewater used to irrigate soil to evaluate the impact of pH (4 to 8) at 100 mg/L and initial Chromium (VI) concentrations (25 mg/L to 300 mg/L) at 5 pH in its bioaccumulation in <em>B. mori</em> foodchain. By using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) analysis the amount of Chromium (VI) determined in soil, mulberry plants, <em>B. mori</em> larvae, silk glands and silkworm feces. The results showed that local cobalt pollution can be indicated by using <em>B. mori</em> as a template as its body length, body weight and the mortality rate were found to be strongly related to Chromium (VI) concentration. Higher the Chromium (VI) amount in mulberry leaves causes more toxicity to <em>B. mori</em> population. At 300 mg/L Cr (VI) concentration and pH 4 there was maximum deposition of Chromium (VI) in soil, mulberry plants, <em>B. mori</em> larvae, faeces and silk glands from the synthetic effluent. The maximum deposition was 123.5±0.03 mg/kg, 89.76±.031 mg/kg, 23.31±0.019 mg/kg, 41.32±0.069 mg/kg and 35.67±0.04 mg/kg observed respectively.</p> 2021-07-07T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Majid Ali, Muhammad Alamgeer, Mirza Abdul Qayyum, Khuram Zia, Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Asad Saleem Optimum planting date for the maximum tuber yield of tropical sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) genotypes in the Old Brahmaputra Floodplain 2021-02-23T18:38:51+0530 M. M. Hossain M. A. Kader M. A. Kashem <p>Planting dates for a crop is a non-monetary input but plays a significant role in increasing the yield crop. Therefore, identifying genotype-specific planting dates is essential for obtaining the economic yield of tropical sugar beet. From this perspective, a field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University in &nbsp;Bangladesh, from November 2015 to April 2016. Five sugar beet genotypes: Shubhra, Cauvery, EB-0616, EB-0626, and EB-0809 planted on four dates: 10, 20, 30 November, and 10 December. Treatments were laid out in a split-plot design replicated three times. Data revealed that planting on 10 November date, genotype EB-0809 produced the highest tuber yield, which was significantly superior to any other genotype combined with other planting dates. It was found that every ten days delay of planting from 10 November to 30 December reduced the tuber yield by 30, 43, and 55%, respectively. Results confirmed that planting the EB-0809 genotype on 10 November is ideal to obtain the highest tuber yield of tropical sugar beet in Bangladesh.</p> 2021-07-17T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 M. M. Hossain, M. A. Kader, M. A. Kashem Assessment of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used for livestock treatment in five selected Kebeles of Kersa District, Jimma Zone, South Western Ethiopia 2021-05-21T11:58:53+0530 Emiru Chimdessa Gemechu <p>Plants have been a source of medicine in Ethiopia from time immemorial to treat different human and livestock ailments. The purpose of this study was to identify the medicinal plant species and associated indigenous knowledge in livestock treatment. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess indigenous knowledge of local people on medicinal plants used for livestock treatment in five selected kebeles of kersa district from March to June 2014. A total of 40 traditional healers (33 male and 7 male) 7-9 from each study sites were selected purpouvely with the help of knowledgeable elders, local authorities and kebele leaders. Ethno botanical data regarding plant species, plant parts used, livestock disease treated, and method of preparation and route of administration were collected through structured interview and field observation. A total of 33 plant species distributed in 24 families were identified in the study area. The majority of the medicinal plants 63.63% were collected from the wild and 33.33% from home garden. The major growth habit of the medicinal plants identified in the study area were herbs 39.39%, followed by shrubs 33.33%.The most frequently harvested plant parts were leaves and roots with proportion of 57.7% and 21.21%, respectively followed by seeds (9.09%) and fruits (6.06%). Pounding and crushing were the most commonly used method of remedies preparation whereas the widely used method of administration is oral. The study reveals that the local people of the study area harvest medicinal plants used to treat livestock health problem from the wild habitat. Therefore, awaring the local people of the study area to conserve medicinal plants in their home garden is recommended.</p> 2021-07-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Emiru Chimdessa Gemechu