Journal of Phytology en-US (Managing Editor) (Managing Editor) Mon, 02 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0530 OJS 60 Nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity of Urtica hyperborea: A phytofood of Trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh, India <p><em>Urtica hyperborea </em>Jacquem. ex Wedd., a perennial plant of Urticaceae family is considered as a wild vegetable in the mountainous region of Ladakh. Due to its application in many forms of traditional culinary in every household during the harsh winter season, the plant ensures the food security. However, the nutritional composition and phytochemical analysis of <em>U. hyperborea </em>responsible for these beneficial features have not been explored widely. The present study aims to determine the nutritional composition (e.g., macromolecules, pigments, minerals, phenolics and flavonoid contents), antioxidant activity and the phytochemical analysis of this plant species present in Ladakh, India. The radical scavenging and antioxidant potential of the plant were evaluated by assays like 2,2‒diphenyl‒1‒picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>), hydroxyl (ºOH), and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) for different extracts prepared in water, methanol, ethyl acetate, and petroleum ether. Macromolecules such as protein, carbohydrate, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in <em>U. hyperborea </em>were found to be 62.28±6.67, 170.80±3.98, 24.47±0.39 and 5.43±0.97 mg g<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. Similarly, dried powder of <em>U. hyperborea </em>was found to be rich in different mineral contents such as potassium, magnesium, sodium, manganese, zinc and iron. Among the various solvents used for exploring scavenging and antioxidant potential, aqueous extracts showed highest activity with 79.2% in DPPH assay as compared to other extracts. Similar trend was observed for other assays where aqueous extracts exhibited higher activity followed by methanolic, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts. Significant positive linear correlations were observed between the radical scavenging/antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts and their content of phenolic/flavonoid compounds. The identification of phenolic compounds such as coumarin, quercetin, and ferulic acid confirm the antioxidative nature of the plant. Overall, rich macromolecule and mineral contents, as well as higher radical scavenging/antioxidant activities in aqueous extracts of <em>U. hyperborea </em>revealed that the plant has significant potential to be utilized as a phytofood source in harsh environmental conditions.</p> Disket Zomba, Mushtaq Ahmad Dar, Rupali Jandrotia, Mansi Sharma, Rishikesh Singh, Shalinder Kaur, Daizy R. Batish Copyright (c) 2023 Disket Zomba, Mushtaq Ahmad Dar, Rupali Jandrotia, Mansi Sharma, Rishikesh Singh, Shalinder Kaur, Daizy R. Batish Thu, 07 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Bioherbicidal potential of Rumex crispus infected with Didymella rumicicola <p>A new foliar disease was observed on a perennial weed <em>Rumex crispus</em> which grows extensively in orchards, pastures, hay crops, lawns and home gardens in Kashmir valley. Repeated Isolation of the pathogen from the infected leaves of <em>Rumex crispus </em>yielded the fungus which on the basis of Cultural and morphological characteristics showed a resemblance to <em>Didymella </em>sp. Pathogenicity was confirmed by the detached leaf technique as well as inoculating whole plants in pots. Precise confirmation of the identity of the pathogen was done by sequencing the reference genes using ITS1 and ITS4 markers and sequenced data was subjected to BLAST which showed 99.80 per cent similarity with <em>Didymella rumicicola</em> which was previously only reported in New Zealand on <em>Rumex obtusifolius </em>prior to this study. Host range, as well as bioherbicidal potential of this pathogen on hosts of five different families of cultivated crops along with Rumex plants, revealed that no disease incidence was found on host plant species of other families of cultivated crops, whereas,100% disease incidence and 80% severity were observed on <em>Rumex crispus </em>at 15 and 25 days after inoculation respectively. Physiological studies showed the newly isolated pathogen <em>Didymella rumicicola</em> showed the best radial growth on Potato dextrose agar at pH 6.5 and at a temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C.</p> K. A. Bhat, G. M. Malik, S. Akhtar Copyright (c) 2023 K. A. Bhat, G. M. Malik, S. Akhtar Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of mixed cropping of water yam (Dioscorea alata) on Ganoderma disease of oil palm <p>Basal stem rot caused by a soil-borne fungus, <em>Ganoderma boninense,</em> is one of the most severe diseases in monoculture oil palm plantations. The effect of mixed cropping with water yam on infection and inoculum potential of <em>Ganoderma boninense</em> on oil palm seedlings was assessed under a pot experiment. Plant inoculation with rubber woodblock (RWB)-colonized <em>Ganoderma</em> induced disease on both mixed cropped hosts (multiple host infection), but with less severe root necrotic and less plant mortality relative to inoculation on a single oil palm host. Inoculum potential of the pathogen was reduced under mixed cropping, as shown by more considerable RWB decay than a single host, and the fungal survival was suppressed to be 55% for 12 months trial. Water yam mixed cropping did not interfere with the growth of the inoculated oil palm seedling. This study revealed the multiple host infection under mixed cropping with water yam suppressed damage caused by <em>Ganoderma boninense</em> to oil palm as the primary host.</p> Rahmad Fadli, Suwandi Suwandi, Nurhayati Nurhayati, A. Muslim, Chandra Irsan Copyright (c) 2023 Rahmad Fadli, Suwandi Suwandi, Nurhayati Nurhayati, A. Muslim, Chandra Irsan Fri, 24 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0530 A comprehensive analysis on the ecosystem services of Elaeocarpus L. (Elaeocarpaceae): a review <p>The <em>Elaeocarpus </em>is considered the largest genus in the family Elaeocarpaceae. It is commonly called ‘Rudraksha’ in India and has a noteworthy attachment with the Indians, mostly Hindus. The plant is known for its beneficial aspects and supply of various ecosystem services, particularly in medicinal sciences. The present study provides a comprehensive review of the genus <em>Elaeocarpus </em>for its ecosystem services in the context of human wellbeing. A literature survey was conducted from 1970 to 2020 on internet scientific databases such as Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science using strings such as, <em>Elaeocarpus</em>, Rudraksha, medicine, conservation, tradition, and services. One hundred two publications were considered for data extraction and finalising the review. Firstly, we classified the ecosystem services under respective classes as provided by MEA (2005), and the remaining benefits that didn’t fit under the classification were presented separately. It has been reported that Rudraksha delivers all categories of ecosystem services: provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services. In addition, the Rudraksha plant owes a high status in medicinal science, ayurveda, and religious mythology. In the last five decades, studies were conducted on various species of <em>Elaeocarpus </em>for their beneficial aspects. It was found that <em>Elaeocarpus </em>plants have a vital role in ayurveda, pharmaceuticals, and pharmacological and astrological science. In addition, they have been used as food, firewood, timber, and the production of secondary metabolites and their role in cultural and religious dimensions are very clearly discussed. The provisioning and cultural services delivered by Rudraksha constitute only 30% and 10% of the services mentioned in MEA (2005). However, only a little research has been conducted on regulatory and supporting services provided by Rudraksha. Therefore, for a long-term sustainability and multifunctionality assessment, the extension of ecosystem services regarding individual plant’s (tree) services should be highly recommended. Hence, the present review investigates the scientific knowledge about the ecosystem services of the <em>Elaeocarpus.</em></p> Sheenu Sharma, Sabir Hussain, Durg Vijay Rai, Anand Narain Singh Copyright (c) 2023 Anand Narain Singh, Sheenu Sharma, Sabir Hussain, Durg Vijay Rai Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Influence of pectin on phenylpropanoid accumulation in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) sprout <p>Buckwheat (<em>Fagopyrum esculentum </em>Monech) contains several secondary metabolites like phenolic chemicals. Pectin has been demonstrated to be an efficient elicitor from the biotic group for triggering the defensive response, which enhances the production of secondary metabolites. In this study, the effect of pectin on the growth of buckwheat sprouts and the production of phenylpropanoid compounds in common buckwheat sprouts was investigated by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pectin treatments of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/L were administered on buckwheat sprouts for ten days to assess the growth characteristics and optimum concentrations. In comparison to the control treatment, 2 mg/L pectin enhances the shoot length by 24%. But when pectin concentration continued to rise, a tendency toward shorter shoots was seen. Pectin treatment decreased the fresh weight of the sprout as compared to the control treatment. The phenylpropanoid accumulation in buckwheat sprouts varied depending on the amount of pectin utilized. Pectin treatment at 6 mg/L resulted in a 15.10% increase in total phenylpropanoid accumulation. The findings of this study indicate that pectin is a possible elicitor, however, more research on how pectin affects the buildup of phenylpropanoids in buckwheat sprouts would be more intriguing to examine the implications of this work.</p> Chang Ha Park, Hyeon Ji Yeo, Minsol Choi, Ramaraj Sathasivam, Md. Romij Uddin, Meenakshi Sundaram Muthuraman, Haenghoon Kim, Sang Un Park Copyright (c) 2023 Chang Ha Park, Hyeon Ji Yeo, Minsol Choi, Ramaraj Sathasivam, Md. Romij Uddin, Meenakshi Sundaram Muthuraman, Haenghoon Kim, Sang Un Park Tue, 14 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Microsatellite marker assisted molecular and morpho-physiological genetic diversity assessment in 38 genotypes of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) <p>Identification of genetic diversity and their relationships among breeding materials is crucial in crop improvement strategies. In this study, 38 sesame genotypes were characterized for their genetic diversity. The results revealed significant variations among various traits such as plant height, maturity, capsule plant<sup>-1</sup> and seeds capsule<sup>-1</sup>. The number of capsule plant<sup>-1</sup> showed significant positive correlation with seeds capsule<sup>-1</sup>. The highest heritability was found for the numbers of capsules plant<sup>-1</sup> (98.67%). The 38 genotypes were separated into six distinct clusters. Comparison within the populations of the cluster IV and those of cluster VI had the highest capsules plant<sup>-1</sup>, seeds capsule<sup>-1</sup> with enormous genetic diversity. For molecular characterization, 7 microsatellite markers and 5 SSR primers with polymorphism were finally chosen for genetic diversity analysis. Altogether, 19 alleles were identified among the 38 genotypes, and the average number of alleles per locus was 3.80. The lowest and the highest numbers of alleles were 3 and 5, respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.3201 to 0.5934 and SI-ssr30 showed to be highest at 0.5934. The UPGMA based clustering depicted a significant variation at molecular level among the sesame genotypes, having a coefficient of similarity between 0.29 and 1.00. The present study confirmed that extensive genetic diversity existed among the sesame genotypes and valuable agronomic traits may result in the development of high yielding genotypes.</p> Reza M. Emon, Md. N. Sakib, Mst. K. Khatun, Md. A. Malek, Md. S. Haque, Md. Amirul Alam Copyright (c) 2023 Reza M. Emon, Md. N. Sakib, Mst. K. Khatun, Md. A. Malek, Md. S. Haque, Md. Amirul Alam Thu, 20 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of media and gelling agents on shoot organogenesis of Liriope platyphylla <p><em>Liriope platyphylla</em> can be multiplied either by planting seeds or dividing its tuberous roots. In this study, a method for <em>L. platyphylla</em> plant shoot organogenesis from meristem explants was developed employing medium and gelling agents. For the selection of optimal medium conditions for shoot organogenesis, the effects of full- and half-strength B5, SH, and MS media were examined. Different concentrations of the gelling agents such as phytagar (6, 7, 8, and 9 g L<sup>-1</sup>) and gellan gum (2, 3, 4, and 5 g L<sup>-1</sup>) were examined for efficient shoot formation. The results revealed the superiority of half-strength MS basal medium in shoot organogenesis and growth of<em> Liriope platyphylla. </em>But the half-strength B5 media performed poorly<em>. </em>Compared to plant agar, gellan gum performed well in terms of shoot regeneration and shoot length. When gellan gum was used at 3 g L<sup>-1</sup> the maximum number of shoots explant<sup>-1</sup> (5.8) and longest shoot (45.8 mm) was observed but the lowest number of shoots explant<sup>-1</sup> (3.2) and shortest shoot (21.4 mm) was registered with 5 g L<sup>-1</sup>. It is proposed from our study that half-strength MS media and gellan gun gelling agent at 3 g/l could be applied in shoot organogenesis and growth of <em>L. platyphylla</em>.</p> Young Chang Kim, Woo Tae Park, Ramaraj Sathasivam, Haeng-Hoon Kim, Jae Kwang Kim, Sang Un Park Copyright (c) 2023 Young Chang Kim, Woo Tae Park, Ramaraj Sathasivam, Haeng-Hoon Kim, Jae Kwang Kim, Sang Un Park Thu, 20 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Holding solution pH and composition consistently improve vase life of rose, lily and gerbera <p>We assessed the influence of postharvest pulsing solutions pH and composition on cut flower quality of rose (<em>Rosa hybrida </em>cvs. Avalanche and Black Magic), gerbera (<em>Gerbera jamesonii </em>cv. Beaudine) and lily (<em>Lilium × elegans </em>cv. Fangio) under room (20±2 °C) and cold storage (4±1 °C) conditions. Cut flowers were placed in different acidic (pH, 3.5 - 4) or basic (pH, 7.0 - 7.5) preservative solutions containing water, sugar 5% (flower food), 100 mg/L silver nitrate (AgNO<sub>3</sub> act as a bactericide), or a commercial product (2% sugar + bactericide and fungicide). Acidic solutions had higher or similar (never lower) vase life at both room and cold storage conditions and across species. In addition, vase life was 3-4 times longer in cold storage when compared to room conditions. Leaf chlorophyll concentrations for rose and lily were inconsistent or not significant across the species at both conditions (room and cold storage). The commercial preservative solution consistently and significantly had higher vase life than water for all tested cut flower species and under both room and cold storage environments. AgNO<sub>3</sub> ranked second in terms of vase life enhancement. Overall, the use of only flower food (sugar) or bactericide (AgNO<sub>3</sub>) had a positive impact on vase life but only the combined use of a preservative substance (specifically at pH, 3.5 - 4.0) consistently guaranteed a high cut flower quality across flower species.</p> Yahia A. Othman, Tala S. A’saf, Malik G. Al-Ajlouni, Muayyad Bany Hani, Rolston St. Hilaire Copyright (c) 2023 Yahia A. Othman, Tala S. A’saf, Malik G. Al-Ajlouni, Muayyad Bany Hani, Rolston St. Hilaire Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Biochemical changes of rice genotypes against blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) disease and SSR marker validation for resistance genes <p>Rice blast caused by <em>Magnoporthe oryzae </em>is a major devastating fungal disease and represents a potential threat to world rice productions. However, information about the genetic and biochemical basis of disease tolerance is still limited. In this study, we tested the presence and diversity of resistant R genes using SSR markers, and the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidise (APX) and guaicol peroxidise (POD), activity and also the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in resistant (BAUdhan 3) and susceptible (BRRIdhan 28) genotype. Molecular marker analysis reveals the presence of all ten studied resistant genes in BAUdhan 3. Among the markers studied, three markers namely RM224, RM72 and RM206 produce distinct band only in resistant genotype BAUdhan 3, which might be used to screen resistant genotypes. The enzymatic activity of APX, CAT and POD increased in the inoculated plant for both cultivars but the increase was more prominent for BAUdhan 3. The <em>M. oryzae </em>infections significantly increased the H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> content in BRRIdhan 28 and not much changed in BAUdhan 3. The MDA concentration was higher in the leaves of inoculated plants of BRRIdhan 28. The higher activities of APX and POD in the leaves of the inoculated plants of BAUdhan 3 resulted in lower H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> accumulation which can minimize the cellular damages possibly caused by reactive oxygen species. The result shows that the presence of more resistance genes and an effective antioxidative system in BAUdhan 3, which limits the damage caused due to fungal infection and thus contributes to greater resistance.</p> Israt Yasmin, Sourav Adhikary, Lutful Hassan, G.H.M. Sagor Copyright (c) 2023 Israt Yasmin, Sourov Adhikary, Lutful Hassan, G.H.M. Sagor Tue, 23 May 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Inselbergs: potential conservation areas for plant diversity in the face of anthropization <p>Faced with the loss of biodiversity, particularly plant diversity, due to anthropogenic pressure, particular ecosystems such as inselbergs can constitute refuge areas. The objective of this study is to determine the conservation potential of plant biodiversity on inselbergs in Burkina Faso. A comparative study was carried out between inselberg’s vegetation and the surrounding plains vegetation. In each of these vegetation types, stratified and random sampling was adopted and data were collected in plots of 900 m² for the woody stratum and 100 m² for the herbaceous stratum. The specific diversity was evaluated through the effective numbers of Hill of order Q = 0; 1; 2. The Hill index does not vary between inselbergs and plains and thus reflects a strong similarity in floristic diversity between the two ecosystems. Sorensen’s similarity coefficient also shows a similarity in terms of floristic composition between inselbergs and surrounding plains. In inselbergs, relict species that have disappeared from the surrounding plains of some phytogeographic sectors occur. The flora of inselbergs is also characterised by indicative species of anthropized ecosystem absence. However, these species are present on the surrounding plains. Indeed, the flora of inselbergs is characterised by 11 endemic species. Inselberg’s vegetation is characterised by unique plant communities such as rock pools and <em>Afrotrilepis pilosa </em>mats. The exploitation and mortality rates of woody plants are significantly higher on the surrounding plains than on the inselbergs. The flora and vegetation of inselbergs show the absence of indicator species of disturbed ecosystems. They present endemic and relict species and stable woody stands. Due to the steep slope, lack of suitable soil for agriculture and sacred status of someones, the inselbergs constitute a refuge for plant species and thus contribute to the conservation of biodiversity like the protected areas.</p> Elycée Tindano, Benjamin Lankoandé, Stefan Porembski, Adjima Thiombiano Copyright (c) 2023 Elycée Tindano, Benjamin Lankoandé, Stefan Porembski, Adjima Thiombiano Sat, 27 May 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Androgenesis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)-Effect of genotypes, microspore development stage, pre-treatments and media composition on induction of haploids <p>Doubled haploid (DH) technology remarkably accelerates the crop breeding by obtaining homozygous lines in a single generation. The present study was targeted in generating haploid plants through androgenesis. Anthers from immature flower buds of six tomato genotypes <em>viz.</em>, LE-1230, LE-1236, LE-1256 TLCV 2, PKM 1 and TNAU tomato hybrid CO 3 were used for induction of haploids. A preliminary study based on callus induction frequency (CIF), more than 5% was helpful in short listing flower bud size, pre-treatments and growth regulator combinations. Subsequently, anthers from two different sized flower buds (4 and 6 mm length), dissected either from fresh or pre-treated flower buds (2 and 5 days in dark at 4 °C or gamma irradiated) were inoculated in MS medium fortified with different growth regulators for callus induction. Among the genotypes, TLCV 2 had recorded the maximum CIF (38.80%) from anthers of 4 mm long flower buds followed by TNAU tomato hybrid CO 3 (34.70%). Throughout the study, anthers from 4 mm long flower buds responded the best for callus induction. Among the pre-treatments, anthers from gamma irradiated flower buds recorded the highest CIF (31.90%) when compared to others. Cold shock (4 °C) in dark to flower buds for 2 days had improved the CIF of anthers when compared to fresh in LE 1230, LE 1238, TLCV2 and TNAU tomato hybrid CO 3, but when the cold shock was increased to 5 days, invariably there was a reduction in CIF in all the six genotypes. TA 8 (MS + 2iP (0.5 mg L-1) + NAA (0.5 mg L-1)) medium was found to be the best for maximum CIF in LE 1230 and PKM1, TA1 (MS + 2iP (1.0 mg L-1) + IAA (2.0 mg L-1)) in LE 1238, LE 1256 and TNAU tomato hybrid CO 3 and TA7 (MS + 2iP (0.5 mg L-1) + Kinetin (1.5 mg L-1) + NAA (1.0 mg L-1)) for TLCV 2 genotypes. The callus induced was sub cultured at monthly intervals in the same medium for proliferation and later transferred to regeneration medium. A good number of shoots got regenerated only from anther calli of TNAU hybrid CO 3 that was sub cultured in MS medium fortified with Zeatin (0.5 mg L-1). The clumps of shoots induced were separated and inoculated in MS medium supplemented with GA<sub>3 </sub>(0.5 mg L-1) for shoot elongation. After 4-6 weeks, the elongated shoots were transferred to half strength MS medium enhanced with IBA (1 mg L-1). Profuse rooting from the base of the shoot was noticed in 4-5 weeks. The stomatal count with leaves from the diploid plants and <em>in vitro </em>plants observed were 3-4 and 1 respectively indicating the haploidy nature of <em>in vitro </em>plants.</p> Rohit Kambale, Gnanam Ramasamy, Rajagopal Balasubramanian, Saraswathi Thiruvenkatasamy, Vinusri Sekar Copyright (c) 2023 Rohit Kambale, Gnanam Ramasamy, Rajagopal Balasubramanian, Saraswathi Thiruvenkatasamy, Vinusri Sekar Mon, 19 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Vermicompost induced growth and yield performance of capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) at sustainable rooftop farming system <p>Rooftop farming is gaining rapid popularity in urban areas, especially since the beginning of the global COVID-19 pandemic. For housebound people rooftop farming is not only a way of potentially management of their time but also the execution of creativity. For rooftop farming vermicompost (VC) can be the most sustainable media for growing high value fruits and vegetables crops. In this regard, an experiment was carried out as a rooftop farming system at Charfassion upzila in the Bhola district of Bangladesh to observe the growth and yield performance of capsicum (<em>Capsicum annuum</em>) grown in different combinations of vermicompost in the winter season (2020-2021). Different agronomic and yield parameters were measured at the intervals of 30, 60, and 90 days and at the final harvest of 120 days after sowing. Among the measured parameters a mixed type of performance was achieved from varied doses of vermicompost applications and inorganic fertilizer treatment. Among the measured valuable parameters; the highest fruit length (8.85 cm), fruit diameter (10.3 cm), no. of fruits (9.51 plant<sup>-1</sup>), total wt. of fresh fruits (405.32 g/plant), fresh fruits yield (11.26 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), no. of branches (30.0 plant<sup>-1</sup>), stem girth (6.3 cm), root fresh wt. (8.80 g/plant), stem fresh wt. (23.35 g/plant), petiole fresh wt. (6.09 g/plant), total fresh biomass (65.54 g/plant), dry wt. of fruits (76.91 g/plant), dry wt. of total fruits: biomass ratio (7.35) and benefit-cost ratio (12.40), respectively, were observed in T<sub>5</sub> (20t VC ha<sup>-1</sup>). So, from the overall findings of this study T<sub>5</sub> with 20t VC application ha<sup>-1</sup> is recommended to achieve better growth and yield of capsicum through the sustainable way of rooftop and urban farming systems and to improve soil fertility status.</p> Md. Amirul Alam, Md. Alauddin, Moomtahina Rahman, Md. Alauddin, Md. Sajedur Rahman, G. M. Mohsin, Md. Khalilur Rahman Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Amirul Alam, Md. Alauddin, Moomtahina Rahman, Md. Alauddin, Md. Sajedur Rahman, G. M. Mohsin, Md. Khalilur Rahman Tue, 25 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Mechanisms used by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to boost plant growth - A Review <p>Several decades after the green revolution, the agricultural industry depended on artificial chemical fertilisers to achieve higher crop yields. This practice, however, contributes to a hazardous impact on the farming ecosystem, causing a smaller deposit of arable land for crop cultivation and production worldwide. Since the 2000s, people, industries, and governments are aware that it is time for everyone to shift to new technology which promotes responsible land use for agriculture. One of the technologies is plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to enhance crop productivity and potentially rehabilitate soil health directly or indirectly. This review paper outlines the mechanisms used by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to promote plant growth. The tools could be opening up new ideas to address one of the recent and urgent world agriculture issues, food security.</p> Amirul H. Muhammad Umar, Fitri A. A. Zakry, Mohammad Fitri A. Rahman, Muhammad I. N. H. Mohammad Sazali, Franklin Ragai Kundat, Masnindah Malahubban, Martini Mohammad Yusoff, Mohammad Hailmi Sajili Copyright (c) 2023 Amirul H. Muhammad Umar, Fitri A. A. Zakry, Mohammad Fitri A. Rahman, Muhammad I. N. H. Mohammad Sazali, Franklin Ragai Kundat, Masnindah Malahubban, Martini Mohammad Yusoff, Mohammad Hailmi Sajili Wed, 16 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Correlation of total phenolic and flavonoid contents on the antioxidant activity of Psychotria gitingensis and Psychotria pilosella <p>The genus <em>Psychotria </em>(Rubiaceae) possesses various biological properties, ranging from phytochemical and pharmacological properties of their chemical constituents to traditional medical applications. Most <em>Psychotria </em>species remain unstudied despite high diversity and endemism in the Philippines. Hence, this study investigates the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of <em>Psychotria gitingensis </em>and <em>Psychotria pilosella </em>methanolic crude extracts, evaluates their antioxidant properties, and assesses their antibacterial properties. Results revealed that <em>P. gitingensis </em>fruit extract exhibited the highest phenolic content (254.45 ± 6.63 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoid content (9.85 ± 0.49 mg QE/g). In addition, it also displayed the highest antioxidant activity (0.993 ± 0.041 mg/mg) in the ABTS assay. <em>P. pilosella </em>leaf extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH (70.53% ± 1.50), and <em>P. gitingensis </em>leaf extract showed the highest iron-reducing antioxidant power (86.06% ± 0.73) in FRAP. Paper disk diffusion tests, however, did not exhibit activity against selected nosocomial pathogens. The results of this study contribute to expanding the field of knowledge on alternative treatments and paving the way for the development of new medicinal products.</p> Mikaela Yakira M. Aureada, Jo Dexter R. Duran, Stephanie Rafaelle A. Falcatan, Kirsten Marla T. Pornillos, Mary Angela G. Villanueva, Jorge Anton D. Ordas, Mario A. Tan Copyright (c) 2023 Mikaela Yakira M. Aureada, Jo Dexter R. Duran, Stephanie Rafaelle A. Falcatan, Kirsten Marla T. Pornillos, Mary Angela G. Villanueva, Jorge Anton D. Ordas, Mario A. Tan Mon, 11 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Antioxidant and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of the extract from Centella asiatica obtained by Ultrasound pre-treatment followed by Microwave-assisted extraction method <p>The extraction of compounds from <em>Centella asiatica </em>a member of the family Apiaceae by adopting Ultrasound assisted Extraction (UAE), Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound pre-treatment followed by Microwave-assisted extraction were reported. The yield of the extract, phenol content, antioxidant activity and Acetylcholine esterase activity were found to be more in the extract obtained by Ultrasound pre-treatment followed by Microwave-assisted extraction method. The yield of the extract is more by 30.8% to the UAE and MAE methods. The phenol content is 1289 ± 0.57 μg GAE/mL which is 27% higher than the MAE method and 46% higher than the UAE method. HPLC analysis showed that the <em>C. asiatica </em>extract comprised of Madecassoside in major quantity followed by madecassic acid, asiatic acid and asiaticoside. In the antioxidant activity by DPPH assay and AChE inhibitory effect the IC50, value for <em>C. asiatica </em>extract obtained by UAE pre-treated and followed by MAE method is 38.24 μg mL<sup>−1 </sup>and 26.7±0.49 mg/mL respectively which are substantially higher than the other two methods. So, Ultrasound pre-treatment followed by Microwave-assisted extraction method is found to be a preferable method to get the desired compounds from <em>C. asiatica.</em></p> G. Sivaneshwaran, Valarpriya Mariappan, Ravi Subban Copyright (c) 2023 G. Sivaneshwaran, Valarpriya Mariappan, Ravi Subban Sat, 23 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Combined application of macro and micro nutrients and Rhizobium inoculation to nodulation and yield response of chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) at Halaba Woreda, Southern Ethiopia <p>The effects of combining the application of recently introduced blended fertilizer with Rhizobium inoculation on chickpea nodulation and productivity are not being studied in Halaba special woreda. Hence, the application of blended fertilizer and rhizobium inoculation for chickpea production under rain-fed conditions at Halaba Special District, Southern Ethiopia is crucial. Factorial combination of eight fertilizers (Control, NP, NPS, NPSB, NPSB+K, NPS+Zn, NPSB+Zn and NPSB+K+Zn) and inoculation and without inoculation of rhizobium biofertilizer was used as an experimental factor laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Fertilizer application significantly influenced crop phenology, nodulation, growth parameters, yield and yield components, except number of seeds pod<sup>-1</sup> and harvest index. Maximum days to 50% flowering (48.33) and 95% physiological maturity (112.3) were obtained on NPSB+K and without fertilizer treatment respectively. The Highest number of nodules (23.25), nodules dry weight (0.13 g), number of branches plant<sup>-1</sup> (17.64) and plant height (43.34 cm) were recorded on NPSB, NPSB+K+Zn, NPSB+Zn and NPS+Zn respectively. Similarly, the higher number of pods plant<sup>-1</sup>(61.6), and hundred seed weight (28.0 g) were observed for blended fertilizer treatments of NPSB+K and NPS+Zn respectively. Maximum grain yield (1.85 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained for blended fertilizer of NPSB+K application with an increment 57.9% over control treatment. Rhizobium inoculation increased the number of nodules plant<sup>-1</sup> (23.29), nodules dry weight (0.11 g), number of branches plant<sup>-1</sup> (17.70), number of pods plant<sup>-1</sup> (59), number of seeds pod<sup>-1 </sup>(1.17) and hundred seed weight (27.7 g). Maximum grain yield (1.84 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded on rhizobium inoculated and it increased chickpea grain yield by 33.3% over uninoculated. Regarding the economic feasibility of fertilizers greater net benefits with acceptable MRR 1802, 866 and 257 were recorded for blended fertilizers of NPS, NPS+Zn and NPSB, respectively. Given the fact that the three fertilizers had statistically similar grain yields, the blended fertilizer NPS is a better choice among the three alternatives. Similarly, a higher net benefit with acceptable MRR (4189%) was recorded for Rhizobium inoculation. Therefore, blended fertilizer; NPS and Rhizobium inoculation were found to be relevant and recommended for chickpea production in the study area.</p> Meklit Tilahun, Walelign Worku, Semira Mohammed, Tatek Tamiru, Girma Wolde, Gashaw Nahusenay Copyright (c) 2023 Meklit Tilahun, Walelign Worku, Semira Mohammed, Tatek Tamiru, Girma Wolde, Gashaw Nahusenay Mon, 16 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0530 GC-MS profiling and antifungal activities of Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract against fungal pathogens of crown rot disease of banana <p>The increasing demand for organic agricultural products especially among the elite stimulated the search for safe and alternative means of crown rot disease control. <em>Morinda citrifolia </em>is one of the listed medicinal plants among the Polynesian countries. This study documented the phytochemical profile of <em>M. citrifolia </em>using GC-MS and their antifungal activities against crown rot pathogens. The key phytochemical constituents of the extract were Phytol 2-Hexadecen-1-ol, (Diterpene) (25.96%), Squalene (Triterpene) (15.13%), 1, 3-Propanediol (Polyphenol) (4.68%), Pyran-4-one 4H-, 9 (Flavonoid), and 2H-1-Benzopyran-6-ol (Vitamins) (5.14%), 2-Cyclohexan-1-one, (Phenol) (2.54%). Fungal pathogens; <em>Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum asianum </em>and <em>Fussarium Longipes </em>isolated from crown rot infected banana fruits during earlier studies were used in this experiment. The poisoned food technique method was adopted in evaluating the inhibitory effect of the leaf extract against the fungal isolates. Results indicated significantly high fungal growth inhibition (<em>P</em>&lt; 0.05) in concentration dependent manner on amended PDA media. 100% pathogen radial growth inhibition in all isolates was recorded at 100 mg/mL concentration<em>. </em>Therefore, findings of this study suggest application of leaf extract of <em>M. citrifolia </em>is a potential safe and alternative control of banana crown rot.</p> Aishatu Haruna Copyright (c) 2023 Aishatu Haruna Wed, 08 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Influence of cytokinins and yeast extract on growth and flavone production in hairy root cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis <p>Hairy roots produce various bioactive chemical compounds than wild-type roots which offer a promising in vitro approach for synthesizing important nutraceutical compounds. The purpose of this study is to increase the production of flavone compounds in hairy root cultures of <em>Scutellaria baicalensis </em>by the addition of elicitors such as cytokinins and yeast extract. Cytokinins such as kinetin (KIN), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), and Thidiazuron (TDZ) were utilized at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/L, whereas for yeast extract treatment 50, 100, and 150 mg/L concentrations were added to the ½ SH medium. Effects of elicitors were measured in terms of dry biomass and flavone contents (baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highest dry weight was achieved in the control hairy root than that of all cytokinins-treated hairy root cultures. In all the cytokinin-treated hairy root cultures, as the concentration increased the dry weight of the hairy root decreased. In contrast, in all the yeast extract-treated hairy root cultures as the concentration increases the dry weight of the hairy root increased, whereas the highest dry weight was achieved in 150 mg/L of yeast extract. Moving to the flavone content, baicalin was detected highest content in all the hairy root cultures supplied with cytokinin and yeast extract. The highest total flavone content was achieved in the hairy root culture treated with 1.0 mg/L of TDZ and 50 mg/L of yeast extract. This result might help the commercial agronomic sector by facilitating the in vitro mass production of nutraceuticals using <em>S. baicalensis </em>hairy root cultures.</p> Haejin Kwon, Haeng-Hoon Kim, Minsol Choi, Bao Van Nguyen, Kihyun Kim, Jae Kwang Kim, Sang Un Park Copyright (c) 2023 Haejin Kwon, Haeng-Hoon Kim, Minsol Choi, Bao Van Nguyen, Kihyun Kim, Jae Kwang Kim, Sang Un Park Sat, 25 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Growth, development and yield of safflower genotypes in response to environmental variations <p>Safflower (<em>Carthamus tinctorius </em>L.) is a crop that is drought tolerant and grown in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) for its commercial utility as vegetable oil, animal feed, cut flower, leafy vegetable, pharmaceuticals, foods colorant, textile dye, cosmetics, and biofuel production. These important attributes make safflower an ideal crop to diversify the economy and improve the socioeconomic status of many smallholder farmers in ASALs. This study evaluated the growth, development, and yield of five safflower genotypes in three different locations in the southern part of Botswana under farmers’ fields during winter and summer. The results showed that there was a significant (P ≤ 0.05) genotypic variability for all phenological development (days to emergence, stem elongation, and flowering), plant growth (plant height and shoot biomass), the yield and yield components (number of branches/plant, number of capitula/plant and 1000-seed weight), oil content and oil yield. However, genotypes did not vary significantly (P ≥ 0.05) in number of primary branches/plant. The results showed that winter planting significantly (P ≤ 0.05) promoted safflower growth and yield than planting in summer. The growth, development, yield, and yield components of safflower genotypes varied across locations with Ramonaka being the most favorable. The GGE biplot revealed that genotype Kenya-9819 was found to be the most stable and adaptable with above-average yields. Sebele winter planting was the best representative environment and most suitable for discriminating genotype performance. The genotype by yield*trait combination (GYT) biplot revealed that genotypes ranked as Kenya9819 &gt; Turkey &gt; Sina &gt; PI537636 &gt; Gila. The results suggested that safflower was best planted in winter and that Kenya9819 was the best genotype to be planted in the greater Gaborone region.</p> Marang Mosupiemang, Vallantino E. Emongor, Goitseone Malambane, Renameditswe Mapitse Copyright (c) 2023 Marang Mosupiemang, Vallantino E. Emongor, Goitseone Malambane, Renameditswe Mapitse Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Entomotoxicity of ZnO NPs synthesized using Clausena anisata Hook.f. ex Benth(ulmaayii) leaf extract against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Mostch (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) <p>The application of leaf extract to synthesize nanoparticles has been taken as a green method. In this study, the potential for synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) from <em>Clausena anisata</em> Hook.f. ex Benth. leaf extract was investigated. The source of zinc was zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>.6H<sub>2</sub>O). The characterization study was done by Ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The crystalline shape of nanoparticles is disclosed inside the XRD result, morphology is confirmed through SEM effects, and consequently, the ZnO NPs scale was predicted. ZnO NPs were synthesized to work against <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> adults. A mortality count was carried out in 14 days and all the 3 dosages (0.2 g, 0.4 g and 0.6 g) were effective in killing <em>S. zeamais</em>. F1 progeny emergence was highly reduced in comparison to untreated control. Maize seeds were successfully germinated after treatment application with ZnO NPs.</p> Adugna Gindaba, Mulugeta Negeri, Abel Saka Copyright (c) 2023 Adugna Gindaba, Mulugeta Negeri, Abel Saka Mon, 04 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530