Journal of Phytology https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/jp Update Publishing House en-US Journal of Phytology 2075-6240 Phytochemical analysis and biological activities of three wild Mesembryanthemum species growing in heterogeneous habitats https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/jp/article/view/6403 <p style="text-align: justify;">The objective of this study was to analyze the phytochemicals and to determine the antioxidant, antibacterial and allelopathic potential of three wild <em>Mesembryanthemum</em> species (<em>M. crystallinum</em> L., <em>M. forsskaolii</em> Hochst. Ex Boiss and <em>M. nodiflorum</em> L.). The phytochemical composition of the methanolic extract of studied species revealed the considerable quantities that might be responsible for their powerful antioxidant activity. The IC<sub>50</sub> values were 386.51, 592.97, and 752.23µg/ml for <em>M. nodiflorum</em>, <em>M. crystallinum</em> and <em>M. forsskaolii</em> extracts respectively. The antibacterial activity index was calculated for each extract in comparison with the standard antibiotics<em>. M. nodiflorum</em> showed higher potency than ampicillin and penicillin G against against <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>. The allelopathic potential showed that the studied <em>Mesembryanthemum</em> species expressed a significant phytotoxic activity against <em>Chenopodium murale </em>weed in a dose dependent manner. <em>M. nodiflorum</em> sample showed the most phytotoxic effect among the studied species.</p> Yasser A. El-Amier Suliman M. Alghanem Oday N. Al-hadithy Alaa A. Fahmy Mustafa M. El-Zayat Copyright (c) 2021 Yasser A. El-Amier, Suliman M. Alghanem, Oday N. Al-hadithy, Alaa A. Fahmy, Mustafa M. El-Zayat 2021-02-12 2021-02-12 1 8 10.25081/jp.2021.v13.6403 Phytoremediation of zinc polluted soil using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/jp/article/view/6872 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aimed at assessing the ability of sunflower to remediate zinc (Zn) impacted soils and the partitioning factors of Zn in soil-plants interactions. The research method used ex situ experiments using teddy bear sunflower seeds with 8 different treatments for each. This began with the preparation of the sample soil media on garden soil, and the seeding of sunflower seeds. This research was carried out for six months starting in August - December 2020, with <em>Helianthus annuus</em> plants with variations of the Zn. Various concentrations of Zn were applied, ranging from 50 ppm to 350 ppm. Laboratory analysis of Zn was carried out using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) method. The research results have revealed that roots have the ability to translocate more Zn than shoots, which suggests a phytoremediation mechanism. Sunflower plants are able to translocate Zn, which proves it reliable for phytoremediation of Zn-polluted soil.</p> Elda Soares Abdul Hamid Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo Copyright (c) 2021 Elda Soares, Abdul Hamid, Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo 2021-02-19 2021-02-19 9 12 10.25081/jp.2021.v13.6872 Effect of seed invigoration with inorganic nanoparticles on seed yield in chilli (Capsicum annum) https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/jp/article/view/6560 <p style="text-align: justify;">An experiment was conducted to study the effect of seed invigoration with inorganic nanoparticles on plant growth and seed yield of chilli. Seed invigoration with nano particles of ZnO and TiO2 was found to be beneficial in improving yield and yield attributes. Seed treatment with nano ZnO @ 1300 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> of seed and nano TiO<sub>2</sub> @ 900 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> exhibited increased plant height, fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit yield, number of seeds per fruit and seed yield.</p> Riya Mary Mathew Dijee Bastian Rose Mary Francies Cherian. K Anita K. Raja Milu Herbert Copyright (c) 2021 Riya Mary Mathew, Dijee Bastian, Rose Mary Francies, Cherian. K Anita, K. Raja, Milu Herbert 2021-02-27 2021-02-27 13 15 10.25081/jp.2021.v13.6560 Effect of the temperature and relative humidity in stored sotol (Dasylirion cedrosanum Trel.) seeds on fungi biodiversity https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/jp/article/view/6603 <p style="text-align: justify;">The objective of the research was to identify the fungi in sotol seeds at different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Seeds were collected at Buñuelos, municipality, and taken to the Laboratory of the Center for Training and Development in Seed Technology (CCDTS) at Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro. The seed was stored for a period of 90 days, whit conditions of 60, 75, 80 and 85% of relative humidity kept at 5, 15 and 25 °C. Fungi identifying by morphological criteria. A completely randomized experiment using R software, with factorial arrangement whit two replications. Pathogens identified were: <em>Aspergillus glaucus</em>, <em>Aspergillus niger</em>, <em>Fusarium</em> sp., <em>Penicillium</em> sp., <em>Aspergillus</em> <em>candidus</em>, <em>Cladosporiun</em> sp., <em>Alternaria</em> sp. and <em>Aspergillus chraceus</em>, the results showed that the higher the humidity, temperature and storage time, the incidence of fungi tends to be higher. Fungi with a higher presence in sotol seeds were: <em>Aspergillus glaucus</em> and <em>Penicillium</em> sp. Safe storage environments for sotol seeds reported in this work are 5 °C and a relative humidity of 60-75%. Sotol seeds tolerates conditions of 15 °C and a relative humidity up to 75%.&nbsp;</p> A. Antonio-Bautista M. E. Vazquez-Badillo Ma. E. Galindo-Cepeda A. Flores-Naveda E. Benítez-Neri A. Sánchez-Arizpe J. L. Arispe-Vázquez Copyright (c) 2021 A. Antonio-Bautista, Ma. E. Vázquez Badillo, Ma. E. Galindo-Cepeda, A. Flores-Naveda, E. Benítez-Neri, A. Sánchez-Arizpe, J. L. Arispe-Vázquez 2021-03-17 2021-03-17 16 20 10.25081/jp.2021.v13.6603 Adjusting planting time of Binadhan-17 in boro season https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/jp/article/view/6840 <p style="text-align: justify;">Boro rice (grown in winter under irrigated condition) contributes to the major portion of rice production (over 50%) in Bangladesh. Binadhan-17 is a green super rice developed by BINA which requires 30% less nitrogenous fertilizer and water which is grown in aman season (primely produced under rainfed). Due to it’s increasing popularity and adoption rice growers are keen to cultivate it in boro season also. Taking account of the above situation, two field trials were conducted at Magura during November 2019 to May 2020 to investigate the effect of variety, sowing dates and their interaction. Factorial RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design) was applied for experimentation. Two rice varieties: Binadhan-17 (V<sub>1</sub>), BRRI dhan58 (V<sub>2</sub>) and three sowing times: 30<sup>th</sup> November (T<sub>1</sub>), 10<sup>th</sup> December (T<sub>2</sub>), 20<sup>th</sup> December (T<sub>3</sub>) were used as treatments. 35 days old seedlings were transplanted in main field. Relevant agronomic and morphological data were statistically analyzed through Statistix 10.0. Combined effect of the above factors at farm exposed that, T<sub>1</sub>×V<sub>1</sub> required longest days (159.33 days) to mature. but, comparatively short life cycle (149.97 days) was observed by T<sub>3</sub>×V<sub>2</sub>. Maximum grain was yielded (7.70 t/ha) by T<sub>2</sub>×V<sub>1 </sub>and minimum (5.74 t/ha) by T<sub>1</sub>×V<sub>1 </sub>treatment combination. Outcomes of on station revealed that, T<sub>1</sub>×V<sub>1</sub> needed more days (158.00 days) to mature; conversely, alike duration was noted with T<sub>2</sub>×V<sub>2 </sub>(147.20 days) and T<sub>3</sub>×V<sub>2 </sub>(145.43 days) which matured quite earlier. T<sub>2</sub>×V<sub>1 </sub>produced the highest grain yield (7.41 t/ha) and T<sub>1</sub>×V<sub>2 </sub>the lowest (5.94 t/ha). Our results indicate that, planting of Binadhan-17 on 10<sup>th</sup> December may give insect-disease free grains with optimum yield in context of Magura region. Farmers will be financially benefited if they cultivate this variety in the boro season in lieu of aman; due to higher yield</p> Shampa Rani Ghosh Sushan Chowhan Snigdha Roy Dinesh Chandra Roy Md. Khan Jahan Ali Kamrun Nahar Md. Moshiur Rahman Md. Imdadul Hoque Majharul Islam Copyright (c) 2021 Shampa Rani Ghosh, Sushan Chowhan, Snigdha Roy, Dinesh Chandra Roy, Md. Khan Jahan Ali, Kamrun Nahar, Md. Moshiur Rahman, Md. Imdadul Hoque, Majharul Islam 2021-03-18 2021-03-18 21 27 10.25081/jp.2021.v13.6840 Indoor phytoremediation using decorative plants: An overview of application principles https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/jp/article/view/6866 <p style="text-align: justify;">A healthy and sustainable indoor space was one of the goals of a building, which was an important concern of architects in designing and using it. Design arrangements can be approached physically, such as the use of air vents, lighting, and layout arrangements. However, now the paradigm of using a natural approach has been intensive. In this regard, this paper focuses on the greening of indoor spaces, both for the prevention and restoration of indoor room quality. The study methodology was a survey of existing research results in many countries, and a selection of up-to-date, current data. The results of the literature research obtained are related to the purpose of indoor greening, which is none other than to achieve the goal of green building. Its main target was biodiversity in the prevention of negative health effects and indoor phytoremediation.</p> Harida Samudro Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo Copyright (c) 2021 Harida Samudro, Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo 2021-03-18 2021-03-18 28 32 10.25081/jp.2021.v13.6866 Halogenation for improvement of seed yield and quality in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/jp/article/view/6574 <p>Freshly harvested seeds of chilli variety Anugraha were treated with halogens namely Calcium oxy chloride (CaOCl<sub>2</sub>) and Iodine crystal (I<sub>2</sub>) indirectly through a carrier Calcium carbonate (CaCO<sub>3</sub>). The treatments included Control (Untreated), CaOCl<sub>2</sub> + CaCO<sub>3</sub> (2g each/kg seed), CaOCl<sub>2</sub> + CaCO<sub>3</sub> (4g each/kg seed), Iodine crystal + CaCO<sub>3</sub> (50mg each/kg seed) and Iodine crystal + CaCO<sub>3</sub> (100mg each/kg seed). &nbsp;Seed treatment with CaOCl<sub>2</sub> + CaCO<sub>3</sub> @2g each/kg seed registered significantly higher values for fruits per plant, fruit weight, seed yield per plant and hundred seed weight followed by CaOCl<sub>2</sub> + CaCO<sub>3</sub> @4g each/kg seed. The treatments, CaOCl<sub>2</sub> + CaCO<sub>3</sub> @2 g each/kg seed and Iodine crystal + CaCO<sub>3</sub> @100mg each/kg seed performed superior in seed quality with higher seedling vigour and lower electrical conductivity of seed leachates over other treatments, while untreated control recorded least seedling vigour indices and highest electrical conductivity.</p> Milu Herbert Dijee Bastian Rose Mary Francies K. Anita Cherian P. Prameela Riya Mary Mathew Copyright (c) 2021 Milu Herbert, Dijee Bastian, Rose Mary Francies, K. Anita Cherian, P. Prameela, Riya Mary Mathew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-14 2021-04-14 33 35 10.25081/jp.2021.v13.6574 Differential expression profiles of anthocyanidin biosynthesis gene during black rice seed development https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/jp/article/view/6919 <p>The black rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em> cv. Heugjinju) is rich in anthocyanins which is beneficial to human health. To correlate the biosynthesis of the pigments with relevant genes, the mRNA level of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) during seed development of black rice. The mRNA level of F3’H, DFR, and ANS, key enzymes in anthocyanidin biosynthesis, peaked at 10 days after flowering. In general, the absolute level of ANS was approximately one order higher than F3’H, F3’5’H, and DFR in 10 days after flowering. The transcript level of major seed protein gene GluA-3, taken as reference, was also at the highest on the 10 days after flowering. However, the level of CHS isogenes was highest at 15 or 20 days after flowering. The highest transcript level of the genes, except CHS, preceded the highest anthocyanidin content by 5 days. This pattern coincided with an increase of anthocyanin content between 10 and 15 days after flowering. From these findings, it is suggested that particular CHS isoforms might be responsible for the anthocyanin production in black rice.</p> Yeon Bok Kim Ramaraj Sathasivam Soo-Un Kim Sang Un Park Copyright (c) 2021 Yeon Bok Kim, Ramaraj Sathasivam, Soo-Un Kim, Sang Un Park http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-14 2021-04-14 36 40 10.25081/jp.2021.v13.6919 Uraria picta: A comprehensive review on evidences of utilization and strategies of conservation https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/jp/article/view/7028 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Uraria&nbsp;picta&nbsp;</em>(Jacq.) DC. (Prishnaparni) is one of the most important medicinal plants used in different traditional systems of medicines including the Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese medicine. The major use of this plant was found in the most popular Ayurvedic formulation “Dashmula” and in several many other important Ayurvedic formulations. IUCN placed this woody herb in the least concern category as per version 3.1. It has extensive therapeutic uses and pharmacological activities. Though this plant is a source of many phytochemicals, the uses are uncertain because the raw plant parts or crude extracts are being used in all formulations. Therefore, extensive investigations are necessary to focus on the identification of these phytochemicals. It is an urgent need to give special attention to collecting various aspects and more efforts are required in all areas for utilization and conservation of this valuable medicinal herb. Herein, a compilation of all information with various aspects has been presented, including the authors published work on <em>Uraria picta</em>. This review pursues attention towards biological activity, phytochemical profile, utilization, propagation and conservation of <em>Uraria picta</em>.</p> B. P. Bhusare M. L. Ahire C. K. John T. D. Nikam Copyright (c) 2021 B. P. Bhusare, M. L. Ahire, C. K. John, T. D. Nikam http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-17 2021-04-17 41 48 10.25081/jp.2021.v13.7028 Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Indigofera cordifolia leaf extract and their pharmacological potential https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/jp/article/view/7048 <p style="text-align: justify;">Biologically the silver nanoparticles were synthesized from <em>Indigofera cordifolia </em>leaves extract. The absorbance of the silver nanoparticles centered at four hundred and twenty nm, with respect to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles wavelength. XRD method proves<strong>, </strong>biosynthesized NPs would retain the face centered cubic (fcc) structure. In TEM image analysis, silver NPs morphology was spherical in shape. The composition of the silver nanoparticles was obtained by EDAX analysis method. FTIR analysis concluded that biosynthesis Ag NPs was observed at 1384 cm<sup>-1</sup>, with respect to –NO<sub>3</sub> stretching arises from AgNO3. Ten types of bands are present in the broad emission because of organic matrix bound to silver nanoparticles, which reveals as the result of photoluminescence measurements. The silver NPs possess more antibacterial activity as compared to the standard drug, Amoxicillin.</p> P. K. Siva M. Sathish T. Parvathi M. Kamaraj R. Bhuvaneswari M. Arumugam Copyright (c) 2021 P. K. Siva, M. Sathish, T. Parvathi, M. Kamaraj, R. Bhuvaneswari , M. Arumugam http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 48 54 10.25081/jp.2021.v13.7048 Morphological characterization and nutrient assessment of wild pepper, Piper umbellatum L. (Piperaceae) grown in Sarawak, Malaysia https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/jp/article/view/6995 <p>Wild pepper, <em>Piper umbellatum </em>L. is traditionally consumed as a leafy vegetable by the indigenous Kenyah tribesmen of Belaga, Sarawak, Malaysia. The shoots are normally harvested from secondary forest floors. The present study was carried out to determine the morphological and nutritional characteristics of <em>P. umbellatum</em>, i.e., proximate, mineral, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), vitamin C, and anti-nutrients, i.e., oxalate and phytate<em>. </em>The results showed that <em>P. umbellatum</em> possesses an ovate, alternate, entire and non-glandular trichome on its leaf surface. The inflorescence comprises an oblongoid spike attached to a peduncle and the ripened berries were orange and red in color. The results also revealed that the leaves of <em>P. umbellatum</em> had a high moisture content (63.27%), other recorded nutrient values were ash (8.62%), crude fiber (19.32%), K (1280.20 mg/100 g), Ca (570.60 mg/100 g), Mg (323.80 mg/100 g) and P (291.14 mg/100 g), TPC (510.63 mg/100 g), TFC (377.82 mg/100 g) and phytate (411.67 mg/100 g). Thus the consumption of the <em>P. umbellatum</em> as a leafy vegetable supplies a good dose of various essential nutrients.</p> Noorasmah Saupi Philip Lepun Ribka Alan Muta Harah Zakaria Ainul Asyira Saidin Nurul Aisyah Yusli Copyright (c) 2021 Noorasmah Saupi, Philip Lepun, Ribka Alan, Muta Harah Zakaria, Ainul Asyira Saidin, Nurul Aisyah Yusli http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 55 63 10.25081/jp.2021.v13.6995 Synthesis, physicochemical characterization and biological activity of synthesized Silver and Rajat Bhasma nanoparticles using Clerodendrum inerme https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/jp/article/view/7026 <p>Bhasmais Metallo-medicine and made from metals and minerals. Rajatbhasma or Silver Bhasma belongs to a group of nanoparticles that have medicinal values and are used in Ayurveda as Drugs against various ailments. <em>Clerodendrum inerme</em>a traditionally well-accepted plant is used extensivelyin ayurvedic therapeutic formulations, but till date no major steps have been carried out to validate the scientific relevance of synthesized nanoparticles from Rajatbhasma using <em>C. inerme.</em> Therefore, in the present study biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, SEM, FESEM and EDX analysis whereas, a comparative study has also been made to check the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of synthesized silver and rajatbhasma nanoparticle. The SEM and FESEM analysis revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles are well shaped and the average particle size ranges between 30–90 nm and 10-50 nm respectively. In the case of EDX analysis, the highest peak at ~3Kev in the case of synthesized silver and rajatbhasma nanoparticle supports the formation of silver nanoparticles. Subsequently, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the synthesized nanoparticles showed excellent results when compared to the standard. The obtained results may provide support in the field of therapeutics and drug delivery and might prove beneficial as a novel drug candidate against bacterial infection in the future.</p> Pallab Kar Swarnendra Banerjee Avhijit Chhetri Arnab Sen Copyright (c) 2021 Pallab Kar, Swarnendra Banerjee, Avhijit Chhetri, Arnab Sen http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-15 2021-05-15 64 71 10.25081/jp.2021.v13.7026 Some nutritional properties of Taiwan Napier grass leaves (Pennisetum purpureum) harvested at different time https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/jp/article/view/6847 <p>The effect of different harvesting time on Napier grass's nutrient composition (<em>Pennisetum purpureum</em>) leaves was investigated. Taiwan Napier grass grown under field conditions were harvested at day-15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 after planting. The leaves samples subjected for analyses on dry matter, moisture, ash, crude fibre, crude fat, crude protein and acid detergent fibre, and the data expressed as a percentage. The present study found that the different harvesting time had changed all nutrients composition, except, crude protein where no variation in crude protein during any harvesting time observed. The present study recommends harvesting time for Taiwan Napier grass between 45 and 60 days after planting was the best. This finding is useful as baseline data that provides information on Taiwan Napier's nutritional composition grown at a particular cropping site. It helps plan and strategy for new planting activity, especially when determining the best time for harvesting.</p> Masnindah Malahubban Nur Zahirah Abd Jalil Fitri Ab Aziz Zakry Juriah Kamaludeen Mohammad Nasir Hassan Noorasmah Saupi Copyright (c) 2021 Masnindah Malahubban, Nur Zahirah Abd Jalil, Fitri Ab Aziz Zakry, Juriah Kamaludeen, Mohammad Nasir Hassan, Noorasmah Saupi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-04 2021-06-04 72 74 10.25081/jp.2021.v13.6847