Journal of Phytology 2024-01-20T15:39:01+0530 Managing Editor [email protected] Open Journal Systems The Effect of solvent, pH, extraction time and temperature on the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Carpobrotus edulis 2023-05-31T08:27:50+0530 N. Laloo [email protected] U. Terblanche [email protected] C. C. Ssemakalu [email protected] M. Pillay [email protected] <p>Two 2<sup>3</sup> factorial design studies were performed to determine the effect of solvent, pH, extraction time and temperature on the extraction of phenolics and radical scavenging activity contained in crude leaf extracts of <em>Carpobrotus edulis. </em>For the aqueous model, pH 9, 72 h and 40 °C provided the highest yield (31.03 ± 0.58%), while the highest yield for the methanolic extracts was obtained using the same temperature and pH, but with a longer extraction time of 168 h (64.21 ± 2.12%). Quantitative phytochemical analysis was performed to determine the amount of phenolics, tannins and flavonoids contained in the crude extracts. When water was used as an extraction solvent, the highest concentration of phenolics was obtained using pH 9 and extracting for 72 h at 40 °C (6.42 ± 0.03 milligrams Gallic Acid Equivalent per gram of extract). However, when methanol was used as a solvent, the highest concentration of phenolics was obtained when the same pH and time of extraction was used, but at a lower temperature (25 °C) – 7.44 ± 0.50 mg GAE/g of extract. Antioxidant activity was determined using the ABTS and DPPH assays. For both, methanol extracts produced lower IC<sub>50</sub> values than the aqueous extracts. The best combination of extraction conditions for aqueous extracts is pH 9, and 72 h of extraction at 40 °C. This produced the lowest IC<sub>50</sub> values for both assays (298.28 μg/mL for DPPH and 140.77 μg/mL for ABTS assay). When methanol is used as a solvent, the extraction conditions producing the lowest IC<sub>50</sub> values were pH 9, 72 h and 25 °C for the DPPH assay (109.84 μg/mL), and pH 5, 168 h and 25 °C for the ABTS assay (26.79 μg/mL). These values are all higher than for the positive control, ascorbic acid. A positive correlation exists between phenolic content and radical scavenging activity – higher phenolic content resulted in higher radical scavenging activity. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was higher for the aqueous extracts than for the methanol extracts. Thus, extraction conditions must be modified to maximise extraction of phenolics, to obtain maximum radical scavenging activity.</p> 2023-02-06T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 N. Laloo, U. Terblanche, C. C. Ssemakalu, M. Pillay Influence of medium and gelling agents concentration on in vitro rooting of Polygonum tinctorium 2024-01-19T12:51:35+0530 Minsol Choi [email protected] Haeng-Hoon Kim [email protected] Hyewon Seo [email protected] Ramaraj Sathasivam [email protected] Jae Kwang Kim [email protected] Sang Un Park [email protected] <p><em>Polygonum tinctorium </em>has long been employed in the medical and dye industries in many nations, particularly in Korea and Japan, for traditional fabric staining as a source of blue color. The plant tissue culture method has proven to be a rapid and sustainable approach for the regeneration of various plant species, particularly those with medicinal or ornamental value. In this study, we explored the in vitro root regeneration and growth of <em>P. tinctorium </em>in response to different growth media and gelling agents. Among the tested media, Schenk and Hildebrandt medium (SH medium) demonstrated superior performance, resulting in the highest number and length of roots per explant. SH media produced about 53 and 18% higher root per explant and a 40% and 14% increase in root length compared to B5 and MS media, respectively. Half strength of SH medium proved to be the optimal condition for both root number (7.46 roots per explant) and root length (3.81 mm). Among the gelling agents, 2 g/L of Gelrite medium was most effective in promoting the highest and tallest roots. These findings have the potential to enhance rooting abilities in various crops, particularly in the case of medicinal and ornamental plants, and may offer valuable insights for future industrial-scale root production of <em>P. tinctorium</em>.</p> 2024-02-07T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Minsol Choi, Haeng-Hoon Kim, Hyewon Seo, Ramaraj Sathasivam, Jae Kwang Kim, Sang Un Park Phytochemical analysis of root extracts of Rhynchostylis retusa (L.) Blume from the Eastern Ghats of India 2023-12-22T14:55:32+0530 Shaik Noorjahan [email protected] M. Rahamtulla [email protected] S. M. Khasim [email protected] <p><em>Rhynchostylis retusa </em>(Orchidaceae) is an important ethnomedicinal herb in Indian systems of medicine. Tribal healers commonly employ the roots of this epiphytic orchid to treat various ailments. In the present study, the shade-dried root powder of <em>R. retusa </em>was subjected to cold extraction with four solvents, such as n-hexane, acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The crude root extracts were then taken for qualitative phytochemical screening. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis of ethyl acetate and methanol root extracts was carried out. The methanol root extract of <em>R. retusa </em>showed a positive result for all the phytochemicals tested except for saponins. GC-MS analysis of <em>R. retusa </em>methanol root extract revealed the presence of 16 phytoconstituents. Major phytoconstituents such as 9-Hexadecenoic acid, methyl ester, [Z] Heptadecanoic acid, 16-methyl-, methyl ester, Ethanone,1-[4-(4-morpholyl benzylidene amino)phenyl]-, are recorded in the methanol root extract. In the present study, both methanol and ethyl acetate root extracts showed the presence of9-Hexadecenoic acid, methyl ester, [Z] as the major phytocompound. The phytocompounds identified in methanol and ethyl acetate root extracts exhibit various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. Based on the findings of the current study, it can be inferred that the roots of <em>R. retusa </em>contain diverse bioactive compounds with medicinal properties. Further investigation of these <em>R. retusa </em>root extracts holds the potential for the discovery and development of innovative pharmaceuticals.</p> 2024-02-14T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Shaik Noorjahan, M. Rahamtulla, S. M. Khasim Exploring genetic diversity and trait associations with foliar blast disease among parental lines in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R Br] 2024-01-20T15:39:01+0530 R. Rasitha [email protected] R. Kalaiyarasi [email protected] K. Iyanar [email protected] N. Senthil [email protected] I. Johnson [email protected] <p>Thirty-seven pearl millet genotypes were evaluated for morphometric traits and disease incidence and severity during summer and kharif, 2022. Pooled ANOVA revealed significant variation were present in all genotypes across different season. Association studies identified high positive correlations between grain yield and traits such as single earhead weight, single ear head threshed weight, and test weight, with direct and indirect effects on grain yield through key characters. E2 (kharif – 2022) showed favourable conducive weather parameters for disease infection throughout the growing season compared to E1. The higher PCV relative to GCV for disease incidence underscores the environmental influence in disease resistance programs. Negative correlations between disease metrics and yield traits highlight blast disease’s detrimental effect on grain yield. Disease severity indirectly suggests environmental factors may enhance its impact. Disease incidence exhibited a direct negative impact on yield, supported by negative genotypic correlations. The line, PT 6679, exhibit both high yield and highly resistant to blast. Restorer lines (PT 6029, PT 6067, PT 6300, PT 6707, PT 7068) and B lines (ICMB 01666, ICMB 02777) showed promising yield attributes with high to moderate disease resistant for future breeding programs. In D2 analysis, five clusters revealed distinct genetic diversity with Clusters II and V indicating strong hybrid vigor, while Clusters IV (PT 6946, ICMB 06111) and V (ICMB 93111, ICMB 95444) excelled in disease resistance. Clusters I (PT 6029, PT 7068) and II (GMR 58) exhibited superior grain yield, particularly Cluster I, had potential restorer lines for future breeding. Clear differentiation between B and R lines underscored genetic distinctions in trait expression, validating the use of morphological data for assessing genetic diversity.</p> 2024-03-05T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 R. Rasitha, R. Kalaiyarasi, K. Iyanar, N. Senthil, I. Johnson Combination of composted poultry manure and inorganic fertilizers enhance growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in a rooftop growing system 2023-12-06T20:46:57+0530 Moomtahina Rahman [email protected] Md Alauddin [email protected] G. M. Mohsin [email protected] Md. Amirul Alam [email protected] M. K. Rahman [email protected] <p>Rooftop vegetable productions are becoming an important part of the recent rejuvenation of urban agriculture particularly in densely populated urban areas. However, due to weight limits often associated with rooftop growing systems, rooftop plant growing media including soil, may not contain optimal fertility levels required to maximize plant growth and productivity. Therefore, the success of rooftop vegetable production often depends on proper fertility management schemes to create optimal plant growing conditions. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to investigate combine impacts of composted poultry manure (CPM) and inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of tomato under rooftop growing conditions. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with eight treatments and three replications. The treatments included T<sub>1</sub>: Control (no CPM and no NPK), T<sub>2</sub>: 4 ton CPM ha<sup>-1</sup>, T<sub>3</sub>: N<sub>55</sub>P<sub>15</sub>K<sub>50</sub> kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, T<sub>4</sub>: N<sub>110</sub>P<sub>30</sub>K<sub>100</sub> kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, T<sub>5</sub>: N<sub>165</sub>P<sub>45</sub>K<sub>150</sub> kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, T<sub>6</sub>: 4 ton CPM ha<sup>-1</sup>+ N<sub>55</sub>P<sub>15</sub>K<sub>50</sub> kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, T<sub>7</sub>: 4 ton CPM ha<sup>-1</sup>+ N<sub>110</sub>P<sub>30</sub>K<sub>100</sub> kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, and T<sub>8</sub>: 4 ton CPM ha<sup>-1</sup>+N<sub>165</sub>P<sub>45</sub>K<sub>150</sub> kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. The results showed that NPK fertilizers alone and CPM combined with NPK fertilizers greatly improved tomato plant growth and fruit yield. However, maximum plant growth and tomato yields (68 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and economic benefits (benefit: cost ratio 6.9) were achieved with 4 t ha<sup>-1</sup> CPM amendment and 100% recommended doses of NPK fertilizers. Control treatment (T1: -CPM, -NPK) had the lowest tomato yield (6.2 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). Composted poultry manure alone contributed for around 15.0 t ha<sup>-1</sup> tomato yield and supplemented for around 30 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N fertilizer. Combine application of 4 t ha<sup>-1</sup> CPM and 100% RDF of NPK fertilizers indicated as the agreeable combination in this study for optimal tomato plant growth and yield under rooftop growing conditions.</p> 2024-03-10T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Moomtahina Rahman, Md Alauddin, G. M. Mohsin, Md. Amirul Alam, M. K. Rahman Chemical profiles of essential oils of two cultivars of Melaleuca cajuputi leaves and flowers 2023-04-11T10:33:11+0530 Hong Thia Le [email protected] Nguyen Tuong An Huynh [email protected] <p>In the present study, the differences between the chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained from the leaves and flowers of two cultivars of M. cajuputi collected from Moc Hoa district, Long An province. By using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, a total of 105 components have been identified in the essential oils of four samples of two M. cajuputi cultivars such as “Tràm gió” leaves, “Tràm gió” flowers, “Tràm cừ” leaves and “Tràm cừ” flowers. The Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster (AHC) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were performed to show the similarities/dissimilarities in chemical compositions among the four studied samples. As a result, the components of the essential oils of four studied samples were divided into two clusters. Cluster I included two samples such as “Tràm gió” leaf and “Tràm gió” flower with high presence of 1,8-cineole (35.12 and 17.69%), linalool (3.31 and 5.03%), (R)-α-terpinyl acetate (9.17 and 8.1%). Cluster II comprised “Tràm cừ” leaf and “Tràm cừ” flower with the high concentration of α-pinene (9.87 and 12.19%), γ-terpinene (10.48 and 11.3%), p-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (8.8 and 12.7%).</p> 2024-03-14T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Hong Thia Le, Nguyen Tuong An Huynh Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial potential of Bauhinia tomentosa leaf extracts 2023-06-26T12:57:57+0530 Subana Suyambumani [email protected] Jeevan Pandiyan [email protected] Ling Shing Wong [email protected] Sinouvassane Djearamane [email protected] Maghimaa Mathanmohun [email protected] Suresh Sagadevan [email protected] <p>Herbal medications have high demand in both advanced and budding nations because of their increased bioavailability and minimal side effects. In the present study, the ethanolic and acetone extracts from <em>Bauhinia tomentosa </em>leaf were investigated for their antibacterial potential against Gram-positive (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>), Gram-negative bacteria (<em>Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli</em>, and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>) and yeast (<em>Candida albicans</em>). Phytochemical examination revealed the presence of diverse secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, tannins, and saponins in leaf extracts. GC-MS analysis detected 15 chemical constituents in the extracts, with the major compounds such as 2-Phenyl-1-3- Oxazol, Caryophyllne, dodecanoic acid, d-glycero-d-galacto-haptose, Phytol, Tetradecanoic acid, 1-Hexacosanol, Isophytol, Oleic acid, 7H-Purine-2-amine,7-methyl, and eicosane. Antibiotics study have been used to explore drug resistance in pathogens. These extracts exhibited concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. The acetone displayed higher antibacterial activity than the ethanol extract, which could be attributed to the efficiency of the solvent extract in extracting the bioactive compounds. The findings of this study offer valuable information regarding the phytochemical composition and antibacterial potential of <em>B. tomentosa </em>leaf extract. The bioactive compounds identified through GC-MS analysis may be responsible for the observed antibacterial activity. Furthermore, the leaf extracts were non-toxic, and their potent antibacterial effects may be attributed to the presence of bioactive phytoconstituents. Future studies may contribute to the development of <em>B. tomentosa </em>based antimicrobial agents with potential therapeutic applications.</p> 2024-03-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Subana Suyambumani, Jeevan Pandiyan, Ling Shing Wong, Sinouvassane Djearamane, Maghimaa Mathanmohun, Suresh Sagadevan Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant potential of Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia 2023-12-27T01:52:56+0530 Indra Sen Singh [email protected] Derrick Sitali Kwalyambumu [email protected] <p><em>Pseudolachnostylis maproneifolia </em>is a popular medicinal plant, particularly revered in the eastern province of Zambia, especially within Petauke District. Despite its widespread application in traditional medicine, the chemical composition of this plant has not been studied so far. Consequently, there was a pressing need to investigate the medicinal potential of its leaf extract. This study was carried out through preliminary phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extract. The phytochemical profile revealed various secondary metabolites endowed with antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-cancer, antibacterial, antiviral, and antioxidative properties. To quantify its medicinal potential, the total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The methanolic extract exhibited a TFC of 157.20 mg QE/g and a TPC of 63.75 mg GAE/g, with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 45.57 μg/mL, signifying a strong antioxidant capability. Notably, the IC<sub>50</sub> value of the standard (ascorbic acid) was 23.19 μg/mL. Further analysis involved quantifying the mineral elements crucial for treating anemia, such as iron, copper, zinc, and manganese. AAS based analysis revealed concentrations of these elements to be relatively higher, indicating their suitability for treating anemia. Complementing these findings, <em>in silico </em>molecular analysis and ADMET analysis of five selected phytochemicals, along with a reference cancer drug, yielded promising results such as a highest binding energy of -9.01 Kcal/mol, high gastrointestinal absorption and the lowest inhibition constant of 249.88 nM. These outcomes strongly advocate for subsequent <em>in vitro </em>and <em>in vivo </em>studies on these molecules, supporting their importance as potential drug candidates for cancer drug development.</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Indra Sen Singh, Derrick Sitali Kwalyambumu Effect of abscisic acid on rice defense mechanism against Fusarium oxysporum 2024-01-04T18:38:04+0530 Guo Peng [email protected] Yang Ming Xiu [email protected] Li Yun Peng [email protected] Haseeb Younis [email protected] Ni Zhe [email protected] Xu Xiao Feng [email protected] Liu Qing Ran [email protected] Xiong Tian Liang [email protected] Zhang Jun Hua [email protected] <p><em>Fusarium oxysporum </em>is one of the most destructive pathogens which causes rice seedling blight. ABA is part of a large signaling system that provides an effective system against microbial and environmental manipulations. The role of ABA in plant defense mechanisms is not clear. In this experiment, we prove the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in boosting rice plant resistance against <em>F. oxysporum </em>and optimizing ABA concentrations against <em>F. oxysporum</em>. This study is divided into two experiments. In the first experiment, we used various ABA concentrations of 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.25 mmol/L under <em>F. oxysporum </em>stress. In the second experiment, we use Fluridone FLD as an ABA inhibitor with the following treatments, (F) is only applied with <em>F. oxysporum </em>(ABA+F), abscisic acid with <em>F. oxysporum </em>(ABAI+F), ABA inhibitor Fluridone with <em>F. oxysporum </em>(ABAI), where only ABA inhibitor Fluridone was applied and CK was used as a control. The results revealed that all the plants treated with ABA exhibit better performance against <em>F. oxysporum, </em>except those treated without ABA. ABA concentrations of 0.2 mmol/L effectively decreased the disease index and disease incidence rate as well as improved the quality of seedlings. ABA effectively increased the activity of defense-related enzymes like PPO, POD, PAL and SOD. ABA also lowers down the MDA content which proves its effectiveness against <em>F. oxysporum</em>. ABA resistance was also proved by plants treated with the abscisic acid inhibitor ABAI (Fluridone FLD). The ABA inhibitor reduced the rice resistance to <em>F. oxysporum, </em>by conforming the expression of defense-related genes PRB1-3, PRBI-2 and <em>Xa39(t)</em>. These gene expressions indicate the involvement of ABA in plant defense system.</p> 2024-04-12T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Guo Peng, Yang Ming Xiu, Li Yun Peng, Haseeb Younis, Ni Zhe, Xu Xiao Feng, Liu Qing Ran, Xiong Tian Liang, Zhang Jun Hua Macroalgae of the sandy cays of Alacranes Reef: Gulf of Mexico 2023-10-10T23:12:23+0530 Daniel Torruco [email protected] M. Alicia González-Solis [email protected] <p>In the summer of 2018, a field trip to the five sandy cays on the leeward edge of the Alacranes reef was made: Pájaros Island, Chica Island, Pérez Island, Muertos or Desertora Island and Desterrada Island. The total area recorded for the 5 islands is 530,407 m<sup>2</sup>, representing 1.7% of the reef area. In the keys, an extensive collection of macroalgae was carried out in the supralittoral zone (0-80 cm), mesolittoral (81-140 cm), and beginning of the infralittoral zone (150-330 cm). All keys have a maximum height of 3-4 m. A total of 175 species, 4 growth forms, 8 varieties, and one subspecies were recorded. The sandy cays of this reef have been recognized as important nesting areas for turtles and seabirds, hence the importance of their description for their conservation. To try to understand its dynamics, the database obtained was subjected to a divisive classification analysis considering 19 attributes including substrate, protection, reproductive status, and depth. The system reached a total diversity of 425.99 beles Ind<sup>-1</sup>. The analysis presents that depth and substrate are mainly responsible for the largest drops in information in the system. The spatial analysis given by a biplot analysis shows an ecotonal continuum from the center of origin to the right, influenced by the substrate and by wave protection. This analysis gives an explained variance of 60.03% in the first three components. The high diversity of flora recorded in this work can be an important support for protecting and conserving the reef.</p> 2024-04-17T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Daniel Torruco, M. Alicia González-Solis