Journal of Phytology 2022-11-23T15:16:59+0530 Managing Editor Open Journal Systems New method for detecting Collectorichum species found in Korea using image analysis 2021-12-15T16:19:05+0530 JeongHo Baek Nyunhee Kim JaeYoung Kim Younguk Kim Chaewon Lee Song Lim Kim Hyeonso Ji Sang Ryeol Park Inchan Choi Kyung-Hwan Kim <p><em>Colletotrichum acutatum</em> spp. infects various economical crops worldwide and causes massive loss on their yields. Among those, <em>Capsicum</em> spp., which known as chili pepper, is on a critical issue by those pathogens. Due to the lack of their genetic markers in Korea, the unidentifiable various species of <em>C. acutatum</em> obstructs the mechanism studies of these pathogens and the selection of disease resistant breed lines. Therefore, we screened RGB images of the colonization progresses of pathogens to identify the species of Ca40042, K1, NN, AS2, and SW1 by time and temperature. Cultivated pathogens such as Ca40042, K1, and SW1 were detectable on quantified shape and color data of images from specific temperature conditions, while other pathogens were difficult to recognize. Although several limitations exist in identification results of current experiment, but also, we can expect this method can suggest the possibility to replace the genetic marker methods which is now unavailable in Korea.</p> 2022-01-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 JeongHo Baek, Nyunhee Kim, JaeYoung Kim, Younguk Kim, Chaewon Lee, Song Lim Kim, Hyeonso Ji, Sang Ryeol Park, Inchan Choi, Kyung-Hwan Kim Vegetation analysis and species diversity of the invasive plant Heliotropium curassavicum growing naturally in heterogeneous habitats 2021-11-09T14:07:13+0530 Marium Hamdy El‐Sayed F. El‐Halawany Ashraf Elsayed Yasser A. El‐Amier <p><em>Heliotropium curassavicum</em> is an invasive annual weed plant that spreads quickly, especially on disturbed saline soils and coastal locations in arid and semiarid habitats. This study aimed to assess the vegetation composition of invasive plant <em>H. curassavicum</em>. The soil factors and associated species of this plant were studied in natural coastal desert habitats (northern Nile delta coast) and inland habitats (farrow land and canal bank habitats). The floristic composition revealed the occurence of 109 species (67 annuals, 2 biennials and 40 perennials) belonging to 86 genera and related to 29 families. Asteraceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Fabaceae (53.21 % of all species reported) are the most abundant families. Therophytes and cryptophytes are the mainly abundant life forms and the Mediterranean chorotype is the most representative. The cluster analysis of stands expressed four vegetational groups (A, B, C and D). The most dominant species with group A was <em>Polypogon viridis</em>, with group B was <em>H. curassavicum</em>, with group C (the largest one) was <em>Cynodon dactylon</em> and <em>H. curassavicum</em> and with group D was <em>Phragmites australis</em>. Diversity indices expressed more richness and evenness of vegetation group B (<em>H. curassavicum</em> communities). The major soil factors influencing the studied invasive species are soil texture, WHC, organic carbon, cations (Na<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>++</sup>, and Mg<sup>++</sup>), and SAR.</p> 2022-03-01T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Marium Hamdy, El‐Sayed F. El‐Halawany, Ashraf Elsayed, Yasser A. El‐Amier Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of acetone extract from the branches and leaves of Jasminum annamense subsp. annamense (Oleaceae) 2022-03-16T11:40:23+0530 Hong Thien Van Ngoc Hung Ngo Ngoc Thuan Nguyen Ngoc An Nguyen Tan Viet Pham Hanh Thi Dieu Nguyen Gia Linh Thieu Thi Hoai Thuong Dang Quoc Hung Nguyen Thanh Tho Le Van Son Le Sao Mai Dam <p><em>Jasminum annamense </em>subsp. <em>annamense</em> is a rare subspecies of <em>Jasminum annamense</em> belonging to the Oleaceae family. The aims of this study were to address the chemical profiles, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of acetone extract isolated from branches and leaves <em>Jasminum annamense </em>subsp. <em>annamense</em> for the first time. The chemical constituents of acetone extracts of studied samples were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. There were a total of 24 components identified from the leaf extract, including lup-20(29)-en-3-one (27.93%), levodopa (19.68%), <em>trans</em>-cinnamic acid (7.58%), linolenic acid (6.35%) as the major compounds. Meanwhile, 26 components were reported from the branch extracts which are sorbitol (25.74%), lupeol (13.3%), <em>cis</em>-vaccenic acid (6.97%), glycerin (6.35%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (5.86%) were the main components. The two acetone extracts of <em>J. annamense </em>subsp. <em>annamense</em> exhibited antibacterial effect against <em>Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis </em>and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> based on disk diffusion assay. In addition, leaf and branch extracts of the studied species also display notable antioxidant activity in the ABTS assay with IC<sub>50 </sub>values of 311.75±3.39 and 664.46±3.732 µg/ml, respectively. This is the first report on the chemical and biological properties of <em>J. annamense </em>subsp. <em>annamense</em> and provides a promising perspective for developing good sources of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds against both Gram positive and negative bacteria.</p> 2022-03-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Hong Thien Van, Ngoc Hung Ngo, Ngoc Thuan Nguyen, Ngoc An Nguyen, Tan Viet Pham, Hanh Thi Dieu Nguyen, Gia Linh Thieu, Thi Hoai Thuong Dang, Quoc Hung Nguyen, Thanh Tho Le, Van Son Le, Sao Mai Dam Development of traditional medicinal plants on Peatland conditions in Central Kalimantan 2022-03-21T18:33:50+0530 Herry Palangka Jaya Yetrie Ludang Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo <p>Most of the total peatland area in Kalimantan Island and particularly in Central Kalimantan Province is suitable for agricultural development. This condition provides a great opportunity for the development of peatlands for the cultivation of traditional medicinal plants. The local society in their daily lives could not be separated from the inherent elements of tradition even though the development of science and technology is currently very fast. One of the traditional elements that are inherent at this time is the use of medicinal plants as a solution in treating various diseases. The research was conducted in Palangka Raya City, Central Kalimantan Province by conducting interviews to determine the type of selected medicinal plants and carrying out experiments for examining their ability to absorb carbon dioxide and to grow in peatland conditions. The results of the study of four types of traditional medicinal plants show that there is great potential for two types of plants, namely Semar Bags and Karamunting, whose implementation fulfills biodiversity in an agricultural land ecosystem.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Herry Palangka Jaya, Yetrie Ludang, Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo Antioxidant and Phytochemical analysis of selected lichen species from Mizoram, India 2021-07-14T23:25:49+0530 P. C. Lalremruata Rosie Lalmuanpuii Vanlalhruaii Ralte Zothanmawia P. B. Lalthanpuii K. Lalchhandama R. Lalfakzuala <p>Lichens are an important source of biologically active substances, primarily phenols, which are well known for their antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluated phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenols), and the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of the selected lichens species viz. <em>Usnea baileyi,</em>&nbsp;<em>Hypotrachyna cirrhata</em> and<em> Lobaria pulmonaria</em>&nbsp; collected from Tawi Wildlife Sanctuary, Mizoram, India. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid of the various extracts varied from 31.11 to 67.84 mg of Gallic acid equivalent per gram dry weight (GAE/g DW) and from 27.43 to 37.06 mg of Quercetin equivalent per gram dry weight (QE/g DW) respectively. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the methanol extract of tested samples showed a concentration-dependent manner with an IC<sub>50</sub> value ranges from 133.6 µg/ml in&nbsp;<em>L. pulmonaria</em>&nbsp;to 243.9 µg/ml in&nbsp;<em>U. baileyi</em>. A comparison between lichens extract and positive control (BHT) showed a strong antioxidant capacity (IC<sub>50</sub>=10.81 μg/ml) of positive control than the lichens methanolic extract. A high negative and significant negative correlation (P&lt;0.05) was observed between total phenol content and antioxidant activity IC<sub>50 </sub>of DPPH assay. Moreover, a positively high significant correlation was also obtained between total flavonoid and phenol content (P&lt;0.01)<sub>. </sub>The present study showed that bioactive compounds present in the lichen thallus may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and a potential candidate for curing several ailments.&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 P. C. Lalremruata, Rosie Lalmuanpuii, Vanlalhruaii Ralte, Zothanmawia, P. B. Lalthanpuii, K. Lalchhandama, R. Lalfakzuala Effect of silver nitrate and putrescine on in vitro shoot organogenesis of Polygonum multiflorum 2022-03-10T17:42:14+0530 Woo Tae Park Yeon Bok Kim Ramaraj Sathasivam Haeng-Hoon Kim Sang Un Park <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Polygonum multiflorum</em> is a flowering plant that belongs to the family Polygonaceae and it is commonly used for medicinal and ornamental purposes. Few studies have been studied about the regeneration of this species. Therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable protocol for regeneration and subsequent growth of shoots by comparing the silver nitrate (AgNO<sub>3</sub>) (ethylene inhibitor) and the putrescine (polyamine). Internode explants were cultured on shoot regeneration media (Murashige and Skoog (MS) media containing 2 mg L<sup>-1</sup> of 6-benzylaminopurine). To analysis, the effect of AgNO<sub>3 </sub>and putrescine on shoot regeneration and length, different concentrations (mg L<sup>-1</sup>) of AgNO<sub>3 </sub>(0, 1, 5, 7, 10, and 20) and putrescine (0, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 200) were added to the MS media. The result showed that at highest concentration (20 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) of AgNO<sub>3</sub> treatment decrease number of shoots (NOS) (1.4 ± 0.2 mm) and shoot length (9.7 ± 1.6 mm) was observed. Putrescine considerably increased the regeneration efficiency, NOS per explant, and shoot length in all the concentrations when compared to AgNO<sub>3</sub> treatment. Among the different concentrations, the highest NOS (2.52 ± 0.2 mm) was obtained in cultures supplemented with 30 mg L<sup>-1 </sup>putrescine, whereas the further increase in putrescine concentration reduced shoot regeneration. The longest shoots (20.5 ± 1.7 mm) were achieved in cultures supplemented with 200 mg L<sup>-1 </sup>putrescine. The findings of this study indicate that the addition of putrescine to the media could be suitable for <em>P. multiflorum</em> micropropagation and plant transformation<em>.</em></p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Woo Tae Park, Yeon Bok Kim, Ramaraj Sathasivam, Haeng-Hoon Kim, Sang Un Park Chemical profiles and biological activities of essential oils of Arisaema and Homalomena species (Araceae) – A review 2022-03-16T11:35:40+0530 Sao Mai Dam Hong Thien Van <p>In this review, the chemical compositions and bioactivities of the essential oils isolated from <em>Arisaema</em> and <em>Homalomena</em> species, two large genera belonging to the Araceae family, have been reported for the first time. Accordingly, the essential oils isolated from the plants of two genera consisted of some chemical groups, including monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes, etc. In addition, the essential oils and their major compounds isolated from <em>Arisaema</em> and <em>Homalomena</em> plants possessed biological activities, including antimicrobial, insecticidal, nematicidal, antiproliferative, larvicidal and anthelmintic activities. This review mainly provides information on the <em>Arisaema</em> and <em>Homalomena</em> oils which are able to use as a guide for the collection of the species with the best chemical composition and biological activities.</p> 2022-04-08T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Sao Mai Dam, Hong Thien Van Inflorescence appearance timing and production rate traits in wild Zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp) 2021-09-08T07:02:54+0530 Gyung Deok Han Ji Hyeon Jung Yong Suk Chung <p>Zoysiagrass (<em>Zoysia</em> spp.) has excellent turf quality and can be applied to various uses for personal space to public sports areas or commercial landscapes. However, it has disadvantages such as slow growth rate, cold hardiness, low seed yield, and hard to establish from seeds, which cannot be improved with agricultural practices. Therefore, breeding a new cultivar as a hybrid could be an efficient strategy to improve the Zoysiagrass cultivar. In fact, hybrid zoysiagrass shows mixed traits of both parents in morphology and heterosis in growth. However, inflorescence appearance and its rate are known to make a hybrid. Thus, the variety of inflorescence appearance timing and production rate were investigated among 549 genetic resources. As a result, only 5.38% of the variety among survived zoysiagrass after transplanting showed more than 30% inflorescence appearance within the given period. During that, some varieties showed a reduction of total inflorescence. Hence, we report the diversity of inflorescence appearance timing and production rate that could be useful for breeders and researchers breeding new Zoysiagrass cultivars.</p> 2022-05-14T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Gyung Deok Han, Ji Hyeon Jung, Yong Suk Chung Purification and partial characterization of a novel lectin from Ruta montana roots 2022-01-13T22:10:14+0530 Alima Messai Youcef Necib <p>Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins, which participate in various biological processes. The purpose of this study was to purify new lectin from <em>Ruta montana</em> roots. Lectin of <em>Ruta montana</em> has been purified from roots using ultrafiltration and precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by gel filtration chromatography whereas protein estimation was done by Bradford’s method. Within sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) analysis, the extract exhibited three bands and one band after purification. The molecular weight of lectin was determined by SDS–PAGE and gel filtration chromatography, which was found to be a monomeric protein of approximately 28.8 kDa. The agglutination activity of <em>Ruta montana</em> lectins was stable within a temperature range from 4 to 50° C for 30 min and the pH range from 4.2 to 9. This study presents a natural source of lectins that can be used in several other studies due to its different biological activities.</p> 2022-06-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Alima Messai, Youcef Necib Expression analysis of diosgenin pathway genes and diosgenin accumulation in fenugreek sprouts after exposure to copper sulfate 2022-06-10T17:33:33+0530 Do Yeon Kwon Ramaraj Sathasivam Yeon Bok Kim Haeng-Hoon Kim Sang Un Park Byung Bae Park <p><em>Trigonella foenum-graecum</em> L. is an annual herb belonging to the family Fabaceae commonly called Fenugreek. It is rich in various secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and steroidal saponins. In recent years, diosgenin has much attention in the cosmetic, functional food, and pharmaceutical industries. In this study we aimed to examine the effect of different concentrations of copper sulfate (CuSO<sub>4</sub>) on growth, diosgenin biosynthetic (DB) gene expression, and diosgenin accumulation in <em>T. foenum-graecum</em> sprouts. Results showed that the seed germination, fresh weight, shoot length, and root length were gradually decreased with increasing the CuSO<sub>4</sub> concentrations. In contrast, the expression level of DBGs i.e., <em>TfSQS</em>, <em>TfSQLE</em>,<em> TfCAS</em>, and <em>TfSTRL</em> were gradually upregulated with increasing the CuSO<sub>4</sub> concentrations. Among all those tested concentrations, the expression levels of all those genes were significantly higher in 0.5 mM CuSO<sub>4</sub> treated sprouts. The highest expression level was obtained in the <em>TfCAS</em> gene, which was 3.25-fold higher than the unexposed sprouts. The diosgenin content was significantly influenced in the CuSO<sub>4</sub> exposed sprouts. The highest diosgenin content was achieved in the 5.0 mM followed by 1.0, 10.0, and 0.5 mM CuSO<sub>4</sub> exposed concentrations, with a reduction of 41%, 39%, 36%, and 35%, respectively. From these results, it is shown that exposure of fenugreek sprout to CuSO<sub>4 </sub>is one of the suitable strategies to enhance the accumulation of diosgenin content.</p> 2022-07-08T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Do Yeon Kwon, Ramaraj Sathasivam, Yeon Bok Kim, Haeng-Hoon Kim, Sang Un Park, Byung Bae Park Facile synthesis and optimization of nickel oxide nanoparticles using Polianthes tuberosa extract and its anticancer activity 2022-07-16T18:17:53+0530 Kaveri Sundaram Santhosh Kumar Mohanrao <p style="text-align: justify;">NiO nanoparticle has been synthesized by a greener method using Polianthes tuberosa plant extract. The nanoparticle was characterized by UV-Visible, FT-IR, XRD and SEM instrumental techniques. The absorption band appeared at 269 nm in UV-Visible spectrum supported the formation of NiO nanoparticles. The IR spectrum analysis showed a broad band at 554 cm-1 characteristics of NiO nanoparticles. From the XRD results, the crystalline size and shape of NiO nanoparticles was determined to be 3.23 nm with a face centered cubic crystal. The NiO nanoparticles has been distributed well. From SEM results, the synthesized NiO sample has particle size between 5 and 11 nm range. The cytotoxic results showed significant activity of the synthesized NiO nanoparticles against MM2 and HeLa cells.</p> 2022-07-22T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Kaveri Sundaram, Santhosh Kumar Mohanrao Molecular phylogeny of Annonaceae species from Binh Chau-Phuoc Buu Nature Reserve based on two chloroplast gene regions 2021-11-30T08:32:19+0530 Ngoc Duyen Nguyen Thao Nguyen Luu Ngoc Nam Trinh Van Son Le Hong Thien Van <p>In this study, based on molecular biology techniques, the matK and trnL-F regions of ten Annonaceae species grown in Binh Chau-Phuoc Buu Nature Reserve, Vietnam were successfully amplified and sequenced for the first time. Along with other highly homologous DNA sequences from the GenBank database, the molecular phylogeny of ten studied species was also established. By using the alignment tool of NCBI database, the percentage of identity among sequences of studied species was also presented. The study aims to partially contribute to the further understanding of the evolutionary relationships among Annonaceae species.</p> 2022-07-22T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Ngoc Duyen Nguyen, Thao Nguyen Luu, Ngoc Nam Trinh, Van Son Le, Hong Thien Van Molecular docking analysis on 16 therapeutic ligands of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (Tulasi) and their prospects in drug design for COVID-19 2022-07-07T07:28:31+0530 Guruprasad Anantharam S. Geetha P. Santhana Pandi N. Krithika C. V. Chittibabu <p>The PyRx software and Discovery studio were used in the present molecular docking studies of the 16 ligands of <em>Ocimum tenuiflorum </em>L., selected based on their high therapeutic potentials, viz., (E)-6-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylhept-3-en-2-one, Apigenin, Bieugenol, Cirsilineol, Cirsimaritin, β-Caryophyllene epoxide, Dehydrodieugenol B, Eugenol, Ferulaldehyde, Isothymonin, Isothymusin, Linalool, Luteolin, Ocimarin, Rosmarinic acid, and Thymol. Saquinavir was used as a positive control. The binding affinities of the 16 ligands to the main proteases of COVID-19 6LU7 and 6Y2E (critical for viral replication) and their ability to arrest the virus replication were recorded. The binding affinities of the ligands to 6LU7 and 6Y2E ranged from -4.3 and -4.7 kcal/mol (for (E)-6-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylhept-3-en-2-one) to -7.6 (for Rosmarinic acid to both target proteins). While the corresponding values for the control drug Saquinavir were -7.8 and -7.6 respectively. The Rosmarinic acid, in binding with both the proteases (-7.6 and -7.6 kcal/mol) showed six conventional hydrogen bonds, one carbon hydrogen bond (ASP 153 had one conventional hydrogen bond and one carbon hydrogen bond), one Pi-alkyl bond, one Pi-Pi stacked bond, eight van der waals bonds for 6LU7 protease; it formed three conventional hydrogen bonds, two Pi-alkyl bonds, one unfavourable donor – donor bond and 14 van der waals bonds with 6Y2E protease. The control drug – Saquinavir in binding with 6LU7 protease showed 12 van der waals, one alkyl, one Pi-alkyl, one Pi-cation, one Pi-stacked and four conventional hydrogen bonds, which indicates that it has less affinity when compared with Rosmarinic acid. Similarly, the control drug on binding with 6Y2E protease exhibited ten van der waals, four Pi-alkyl, one cation and three hydrogen bonds. The results are in conformity to similar other studies, and herald a promising scope for Rosmarinic acid as lead molecule in the drug discovery for COVID-19.</p> 2022-07-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Guruprasad Anantharam, S. Geetha, P. Santhana Pandi, N. Krithika, C. V. Chittibabu Effect of Temperature induction response on Cell viability, Cell Survivability, Malondialdehyde content and total soluble protein content of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes 2022-06-01T11:54:52+0530 D. Suneel S. Vincent V. Babu Rajendra Prasad R. Anandham M. Raveendran S. Rajeeswari <p>“Temperature Induction Response” (TIR) technique was employed to investigate the effect of temperature on popular 20 cotton (<em>Gossypium hirsutum </em>L.) genotypes in a laboratory experiment conducted at the Department of Crop Physiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2020-2021. Identical sized ten days old cotton seedlings were selected and subjected to inductive temperature (gradual temperature raised from 28 to 40℃) for 4 h and non-inductive temperature (46℃ for 3 h, 47℃ for 3 h, 48℃ for 3 h and 48℃ for 4 h) for specific time duration. KC3 and SVPR6 recorded highest thermotolerance among the genotypes and TSH325 and TSH357 showed moderate thermotolerance while TSH375 and TSH383 were sensitive, in terms of seedling survival, cell viability, total soluble protein and malondialdehyde compared to remaining genotypes under non-inductive temperature.</p> 2022-08-05T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 D. Suneel, S. Vincent, V. Babu Rajendra Prasad, R. Anandham, M. Raveendran, S. Rajeeswari Genetic variation of morphological and yield-related traits in backcrossed and selfed population of maize 2022-08-23T15:06:29+0530 Iman Saha Krishnakumar Rathinavel Bharani Manoharan Adhimoolam Karthikeyan Vellaikumar Sampathrajan Ravikesavan Rajasekaran Muthurajan Raveendran Natesan Senthil <p>The number of genes controlling the morphological and yield-related traits and their mode of action plays a vital role in selecting traits and favourable progenies in a segregating population. In this study, we analysed the skewness and kurtosis in the backcrossed and selfed populations of SC11-2×UMI1230β1<sup>+</sup>. Negative skewness refers to redundant gene activity, positive skewness is connected to complementary gene action. Positive kurtosis suggests the existence of gene activity controlled by a smaller number of genes. Negative kurtosis shows a lack of gene activity and is controlled by a large number of genes. The BC2F2 population of plant height and single plant yield showed positive skewness and platykurtic distribution, suggesting that the genes were governed by complementary gene action and controlled by the large number of genes. This implied need for rigorous selection to achieve a genetic gain in later generations. Cob length and kernel weight showed a duplicate gene action which implied that mild selection can fix these traits and accelerate genetic gain.</p> 2022-09-21T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Iman Saha, Krishnakumar Rathinavel, Bharani Manoharan, Adhimoolam Karthikeyan, Vellaikumar Sampathrajan, Ravikesavan Rajasekaran, Muthurajan Raveendran, Natesan Senthil GC-MS-based metabolomics analysis unravels the therapeutic potential of Neolamarckia cadamba fruit peel 2022-08-21T17:55:44+0530 Divya Selvakumar Paranidharan Vaikuntavasan Vellaikumar Sampathrajan Bharani Manoharan Karthikeyan Adhimoolam Saranya Nallusamy Balasubramanian Arunachala Kalaiselvi Senthil Senthil Natesan <p>Kadam (Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) is an evergreen tropical tree widely grown in Asia, particularly in India. Neolamarckia cadamba commonly known as kadam, cadamba or burflower tree. The roots, leaves, barks, and fruits of N. cadamba possess medicinal properties and are commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry. Fruit peels are the main waste and may contain various biologically active compounds. However, no prior knowledge about the therapeutic compounds of the peel. The objective of the present study was to unveil therapeutic compounds from the peel by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics analysis. Metabolites from the kadam fruit peel were isolated and derivatized using MSTFA, characterized by the GC-MS analysis. Raw spectral data were pre-processed, and peak identification was performed using SHIMADZU Postrun analyse software. The metabolites in N. cadamba fruit peel were identified by comparing the peaks with the mass spectral reference database NIST v20. The results showed that the peel of kadam fruit contains 149 metabolites, which were further categorized into 46 different metabolite classes, with 52 different metabolic pathways and 63 biological functions. The principal roles of the metabolites were identified by functional annotation and enrichment analysis. It revealed that metabolites were responsible for anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer properties. In summary, the peel of kadam fruit also contains various therapeutic compounds like other cadamba parts (i.e., roots, leaves, barks, and fruits). Further, comparing the peel with other parts discloses the peel-specific metabolites. The results obtained in this study could be useful for the pharmaceutical industry.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Divya Selvakumar, Paranidharan Vaikuntavasan, Vellaikumar Sampathrajan, Bharani Manoharan, Karthikeyan Adhimoolam, Saranya Nallusamy, Balasubramanian Arunachala, Kalaiselvi Senthil, Senthil Natesan Metabolomics characterization of Senna tora (L.) Roxb. using different approaches 2022-03-09T10:11:09+0530 Bhavna Kabila M. C. Sidhu A. S. Ahluwalia <p>The present study aimed to investigate the variety of elements, chemical compounds and their corresponding functional groups in the whole plant, leaves, and seeds of Senna tora. A preliminary phytochemical analysis has revealed the presence of secondary metabolites including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, cardiac active glycosides, phenolics, etc. Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis of leaves and seeds of S. tora has depicted 31 and 27 compounds, respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy has further unveiled the presence of different functional groups such as amines, aromatic compounds, carboxyl groups, ketones etc. associated with different metabolites. Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WD-XRF) has revealed the presence of more than 20 elements (macro and micro) including Ca, Mg, Fe, K, etc. This study has highlighted the detailed account of the chemical compounds and elements present in the plant species under investigation and substantiated its medicinal importance in the traditional health care system.</p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Bhavna Kabila, M. C. Sidhu, A. S. Ahluwalia In vitro cytotoxic potential of Gymnema sylvestre fractions on HT-29 cell line 2022-08-26T12:01:31+0530 Shanmugapriya Arumugam Sangilimuthu Alagar Yadav Abinaya Krishnan Sowmya Priya Manoharan Suvathika Gnanaselvan <p>The HT-29 colon cancer cell line was used in the current work to investigate the anti-cancer efficacy of <em>Gymnema sylvestre </em>extracts. The viability, apoptosis, flow cytometry, and mode of action of the active fraction were also evaluated. The active fractions of <em>G. sylvestre </em>caused cell cycle arrest at the S phase and G2/M phase, and also caused programmed cell death. The alcoholic fractions showed anti-cancer effect in HT-29 cancer cells. By applying methanolic fraction of <em>Gymnema sylvestre to </em>the HT-29 cells, IC<sub>50</sub> was observed at 140.39 μg/mL, whereas for chloroform fraction of Gymnema sylvestre showed IC<sub>50</sub> at 154.44 μg/mL. The herbal extract for colon cancer treatment may be developed with the help of researchers due to <em>G. sylvestre</em>’s anti-cancer properties.</p> 2022-11-18T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Shanmugapriya Arumugam, Sangilimuthu Alagar Yadav, Abinaya Krishnan, Sowmya Priya Manoharan, Suvathika Gnanaselvan Enhancement of shoot organogenesis in Polygonum tinctorium by sucrose and gelling agents 2022-10-26T11:10:06+0530 Sang Un Park Ki Jung Kil <p>Indigo (<em>Polygonum tinctorium</em>), though it is a medicinal and dye crop, can also be grown in temperate areas, especially because it is commonly disseminated in Japan. To date, much research has been considered under investigation, especially for the regeneration of the indigo plant. Here in this study, we investigated the response of sucroses and gelling agents on the shoot organogenesis of the indigo plant. Micropropagation in terms of shoot regeneration and its growth was highly responded to sucrose and gelling agents. While culturing of internode explants on initial shoot regeneration media supplemented with sucrose and gelling agents of phytagar and gelrite significantly upgraded the regeneration efficiency as well as shoot growth. The regeneration capacity of the shoot was augmented with increased levels of sucrose up to 40 g L-1 and then started to decrease, whereas the increasing pattern continued even at the highest concentration (50 g L-1). The highest shoot regeneration (6.0 ± 0.5) was achieved by the treatment of 40 g L-1 giving 7.5 times higher shoot regeneration compared to the control. The increasing pattern for shoot length was more pronounced than that of shoot regeneration. The shoot length ranged from 10.2 mm to 23.5 mm within the sucrose treatments. In this study, the highest shoot length (23.5± 0.21) was observed by the treatment of 50 g L-1 exhibiting 2.3 times higher shoot length compared to the control. Gelling agent gelrite performed better than phytagar for both regeneration and shoot length growth. The shoot regeneration among the phytagar treatments ranged from 3.8 to 6.0 shoots/explant whereas the shoot regeneration ranged from 6.6 to 7.2 among the gelrite treatments. The highest shoots/explant (7.2) and the longest shoot length (22.4 mm) were observed due to the treatment of gelrite 3. The lowest shoot regeneration and shoot length were denoted when phytagar 9 was applied. It is proposed from our study that sucrose and gelling agent especially gelrite 3 could be applied in shoot organogenesis and plant transformation of any plant species, especially for <em>P. tinctorium.</em></p> 2022-11-22T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Sang Un Park, Ki Jung Kil Determining genetic variability of traits in backcross populations of sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata (L.) 2022-11-23T15:16:59+0530 Krishnakumar Rathinavel Sarankumar Chandran Bharani Manoharan Uma Doraiswamy Ravikesavan Rajasekaran John Kenedy Zachariah Senthil Natesan <p>To understand the nature of the traits in breeding programme, knowledge on heritability, genetic advance and genetic variability are inevitable. The paramount aim of the present study was to estimate the heritability, genetic advance and genetic variability of the backcross and selfed population of sweet corn and β carotein rich inbred combinations <em>viz</em>., USC1-2-3-1× UMI1230β<sup>+</sup> and SC1107× UMI1230β<sup>+ </sup>in order to identify the plants with superior trait combinations. The study involved the recording of fourteen biometrical traits in both the cross combinations which revealed that in both backcross and selfed populations, the phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was found to be greater than the genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) indicating the probable influence of environment in the expression of the traits evaluated. High heritability was recorded for the important trait single plant yield in both the cross combinations of BC<sub>2</sub>F<sub>2</sub> generation. Further, high heritability and high genetic advance as percent of mean was noticed for the traits like plant height, cob length, leaf length and single plant yield under both the cross combinations of BC<sub>2</sub>F<sub>2</sub> generation indicates the governance of additive genes in expression of these traits. Hence, selection for these traits would be effective in developing a genotype with improved yield.</p> 2022-12-02T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Krishnakumar Rathinavel, Sarankumar Chandran, Bharani Manoharan, Uma Doraiswamy, Ravikesavan Rajasekaran, John Kenedy Zachariah, Senthil Natesan