Journal of Phytology 2021-11-30T22:13:05+0530 Managing Editor Open Journal Systems Phytochemical analysis and biological activities of three wild Mesembryanthemum species growing in heterogeneous habitats 2021-02-12T11:43:56+0530 Yasser A. El-Amier Suliman M. Alghanem Oday N. Al-hadithy Alaa A. Fahmy Mustafa M. El-Zayat <p style="text-align: justify;">The objective of this study was to analyze the phytochemicals and to determine the antioxidant, antibacterial and allelopathic potential of three wild <em>Mesembryanthemum</em> species (<em>M. crystallinum</em> L., <em>M. forsskaolii</em> Hochst. Ex Boiss and <em>M. nodiflorum</em> L.). The phytochemical composition of the methanolic extract of studied species revealed the considerable quantities that might be responsible for their powerful antioxidant activity. The IC<sub>50</sub> values were 386.51, 592.97, and 752.23µg/ml for <em>M. nodiflorum</em>, <em>M. crystallinum</em> and <em>M. forsskaolii</em> extracts respectively. The antibacterial activity index was calculated for each extract in comparison with the standard antibiotics<em>. M. nodiflorum</em> showed higher potency than ampicillin and penicillin G against against <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>. The allelopathic potential showed that the studied <em>Mesembryanthemum</em> species expressed a significant phytotoxic activity against <em>Chenopodium murale </em>weed in a dose dependent manner. <em>M. nodiflorum</em> sample showed the most phytotoxic effect among the studied species.</p> 2021-02-12T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Yasser A. El-Amier, Suliman M. Alghanem, Oday N. Al-hadithy, Alaa A. Fahmy, Mustafa M. El-Zayat Phytoremediation of zinc polluted soil using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) 2021-02-19T11:27:40+0530 Elda Soares Abdul Hamid Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aimed at assessing the ability of sunflower to remediate zinc (Zn) impacted soils and the partitioning factors of Zn in soil-plants interactions. The research method used ex situ experiments using teddy bear sunflower seeds with 8 different treatments for each. This began with the preparation of the sample soil media on garden soil, and the seeding of sunflower seeds. This research was carried out for six months starting in August - December 2020, with <em>Helianthus annuus</em> plants with variations of the Zn. Various concentrations of Zn were applied, ranging from 50 ppm to 350 ppm. Laboratory analysis of Zn was carried out using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) method. The research results have revealed that roots have the ability to translocate more Zn than shoots, which suggests a phytoremediation mechanism. Sunflower plants are able to translocate Zn, which proves it reliable for phytoremediation of Zn-polluted soil.</p> 2021-02-19T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Elda Soares, Abdul Hamid, Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo Effect of seed invigoration with inorganic nanoparticles on seed yield in chilli (Capsicum annum) 2021-02-27T09:45:11+0530 Riya Mary Mathew Dijee Bastian Rose Mary Francies Cherian. K Anita K. Raja Milu Herbert <p style="text-align: justify;">An experiment was conducted to study the effect of seed invigoration with inorganic nanoparticles on plant growth and seed yield of chilli. Seed invigoration with nano particles of ZnO and TiO2 was found to be beneficial in improving yield and yield attributes. Seed treatment with nano ZnO @ 1300 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> of seed and nano TiO<sub>2</sub> @ 900 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> exhibited increased plant height, fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit yield, number of seeds per fruit and seed yield.</p> 2021-02-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Riya Mary Mathew, Dijee Bastian, Rose Mary Francies, Cherian. K Anita, K. Raja, Milu Herbert Effect of the temperature and relative humidity in stored sotol (Dasylirion cedrosanum Trel.) seeds on fungi biodiversity 2021-03-25T17:20:09+0530 A. Antonio-Bautista M. E. Vazquez-Badillo Ma. E. Galindo-Cepeda A. Flores-Naveda E. Benítez-Neri A. Sánchez-Arizpe J. L. Arispe-Vázquez <p style="text-align: justify;">The objective of the research was to identify the fungi in sotol seeds at different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Seeds were collected at Buñuelos, municipality, and taken to the Laboratory of the Center for Training and Development in Seed Technology (CCDTS) at Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro. The seed was stored for a period of 90 days, whit conditions of 60, 75, 80 and 85% of relative humidity kept at 5, 15 and 25 °C. Fungi identifying by morphological criteria. A completely randomized experiment using R software, with factorial arrangement whit two replications. Pathogens identified were: <em>Aspergillus glaucus</em>, <em>Aspergillus niger</em>, <em>Fusarium</em> sp., <em>Penicillium</em> sp., <em>Aspergillus</em> <em>candidus</em>, <em>Cladosporiun</em> sp., <em>Alternaria</em> sp. and <em>Aspergillus chraceus</em>, the results showed that the higher the humidity, temperature and storage time, the incidence of fungi tends to be higher. Fungi with a higher presence in sotol seeds were: <em>Aspergillus glaucus</em> and <em>Penicillium</em> sp. Safe storage environments for sotol seeds reported in this work are 5 °C and a relative humidity of 60-75%. Sotol seeds tolerates conditions of 15 °C and a relative humidity up to 75%.&nbsp;</p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 A. Antonio-Bautista, Ma. E. Vázquez Badillo, Ma. E. Galindo-Cepeda, A. Flores-Naveda, E. Benítez-Neri, A. Sánchez-Arizpe, J. L. Arispe-Vázquez Adjusting planting time of Binadhan-17 in boro season 2021-03-18T19:41:19+0530 Shampa Rani Ghosh Sushan Chowhan Snigdha Roy Dinesh Chandra Roy Md. Khan Jahan Ali Kamrun Nahar Md. Moshiur Rahman Md. Imdadul Hoque Majharul Islam <p style="text-align: justify;">Boro rice (grown in winter under irrigated condition) contributes to the major portion of rice production (over 50%) in Bangladesh. Binadhan-17 is a green super rice developed by BINA which requires 30% less nitrogenous fertilizer and water which is grown in aman season (primely produced under rainfed). Due to it’s increasing popularity and adoption rice growers are keen to cultivate it in boro season also. Taking account of the above situation, two field trials were conducted at Magura during November 2019 to May 2020 to investigate the effect of variety, sowing dates and their interaction. Factorial RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design) was applied for experimentation. Two rice varieties: Binadhan-17 (V<sub>1</sub>), BRRI dhan58 (V<sub>2</sub>) and three sowing times: 30<sup>th</sup> November (T<sub>1</sub>), 10<sup>th</sup> December (T<sub>2</sub>), 20<sup>th</sup> December (T<sub>3</sub>) were used as treatments. 35 days old seedlings were transplanted in main field. Relevant agronomic and morphological data were statistically analyzed through Statistix 10.0. Combined effect of the above factors at farm exposed that, T<sub>1</sub>×V<sub>1</sub> required longest days (159.33 days) to mature. but, comparatively short life cycle (149.97 days) was observed by T<sub>3</sub>×V<sub>2</sub>. Maximum grain was yielded (7.70 t/ha) by T<sub>2</sub>×V<sub>1 </sub>and minimum (5.74 t/ha) by T<sub>1</sub>×V<sub>1 </sub>treatment combination. Outcomes of on station revealed that, T<sub>1</sub>×V<sub>1</sub> needed more days (158.00 days) to mature; conversely, alike duration was noted with T<sub>2</sub>×V<sub>2 </sub>(147.20 days) and T<sub>3</sub>×V<sub>2 </sub>(145.43 days) which matured quite earlier. T<sub>2</sub>×V<sub>1 </sub>produced the highest grain yield (7.41 t/ha) and T<sub>1</sub>×V<sub>2 </sub>the lowest (5.94 t/ha). Our results indicate that, planting of Binadhan-17 on 10<sup>th</sup> December may give insect-disease free grains with optimum yield in context of Magura region. Farmers will be financially benefited if they cultivate this variety in the boro season in lieu of aman; due to higher yield</p> 2021-03-18T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Shampa Rani Ghosh, Sushan Chowhan, Snigdha Roy, Dinesh Chandra Roy, Md. Khan Jahan Ali, Kamrun Nahar, Md. Moshiur Rahman, Md. Imdadul Hoque, Majharul Islam Indoor phytoremediation using decorative plants: An overview of application principles 2021-03-19T22:34:46+0530 Harida Samudro Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo <p style="text-align: justify;">A healthy and sustainable indoor space was one of the goals of a building, which was an important concern of architects in designing and using it. Design arrangements can be approached physically, such as the use of air vents, lighting, and layout arrangements. However, now the paradigm of using a natural approach has been intensive. In this regard, this paper focuses on the greening of indoor spaces, both for the prevention and restoration of indoor room quality. The study methodology was a survey of existing research results in many countries, and a selection of up-to-date, current data. The results of the literature research obtained are related to the purpose of indoor greening, which is none other than to achieve the goal of green building. Its main target was biodiversity in the prevention of negative health effects and indoor phytoremediation.</p> 2021-03-18T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Harida Samudro, Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo Halogenation for improvement of seed yield and quality in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) 2021-03-30T11:03:27+0530 Milu Herbert Dijee Bastian Rose Mary Francies K. Anita Cherian P. Prameela Riya Mary Mathew <p>Freshly harvested seeds of chilli variety Anugraha were treated with halogens namely Calcium oxy chloride (CaOCl<sub>2</sub>) and Iodine crystal (I<sub>2</sub>) indirectly through a carrier Calcium carbonate (CaCO<sub>3</sub>). The treatments included Control (Untreated), CaOCl<sub>2</sub> + CaCO<sub>3</sub> (2g each/kg seed), CaOCl<sub>2</sub> + CaCO<sub>3</sub> (4g each/kg seed), Iodine crystal + CaCO<sub>3</sub> (50mg each/kg seed) and Iodine crystal + CaCO<sub>3</sub> (100mg each/kg seed). &nbsp;Seed treatment with CaOCl<sub>2</sub> + CaCO<sub>3</sub> @2g each/kg seed registered significantly higher values for fruits per plant, fruit weight, seed yield per plant and hundred seed weight followed by CaOCl<sub>2</sub> + CaCO<sub>3</sub> @4g each/kg seed. The treatments, CaOCl<sub>2</sub> + CaCO<sub>3</sub> @2 g each/kg seed and Iodine crystal + CaCO<sub>3</sub> @100mg each/kg seed performed superior in seed quality with higher seedling vigour and lower electrical conductivity of seed leachates over other treatments, while untreated control recorded least seedling vigour indices and highest electrical conductivity.</p> 2021-04-14T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Milu Herbert, Dijee Bastian, Rose Mary Francies, K. Anita Cherian, P. Prameela, Riya Mary Mathew Differential expression profiles of anthocyanidin biosynthesis gene during black rice seed development 2021-03-30T11:40:35+0530 Yeon Bok Kim Ramaraj Sathasivam Soo-Un Kim Sang Un Park <p>The black rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em> cv. Heugjinju) is rich in anthocyanins which is beneficial to human health. To correlate the biosynthesis of the pigments with relevant genes, the mRNA level of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) during seed development of black rice. The mRNA level of F3’H, DFR, and ANS, key enzymes in anthocyanidin biosynthesis, peaked at 10 days after flowering. In general, the absolute level of ANS was approximately one order higher than F3’H, F3’5’H, and DFR in 10 days after flowering. The transcript level of major seed protein gene GluA-3, taken as reference, was also at the highest on the 10 days after flowering. However, the level of CHS isogenes was highest at 15 or 20 days after flowering. The highest transcript level of the genes, except CHS, preceded the highest anthocyanidin content by 5 days. This pattern coincided with an increase of anthocyanin content between 10 and 15 days after flowering. From these findings, it is suggested that particular CHS isoforms might be responsible for the anthocyanin production in black rice.</p> 2021-04-14T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Yeon Bok Kim, Ramaraj Sathasivam, Soo-Un Kim, Sang Un Park Uraria picta: A comprehensive review on evidences of utilization and strategies of conservation 2021-04-05T12:35:46+0530 B. P. Bhusare M. L. Ahire C. K. John T. D. Nikam <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Uraria&nbsp;picta&nbsp;</em>(Jacq.) DC. (Prishnaparni) is one of the most important medicinal plants used in different traditional systems of medicines including the Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese medicine. The major use of this plant was found in the most popular Ayurvedic formulation “Dashmula” and in several many other important Ayurvedic formulations. IUCN placed this woody herb in the least concern category as per version 3.1. It has extensive therapeutic uses and pharmacological activities. Though this plant is a source of many phytochemicals, the uses are uncertain because the raw plant parts or crude extracts are being used in all formulations. Therefore, extensive investigations are necessary to focus on the identification of these phytochemicals. It is an urgent need to give special attention to collecting various aspects and more efforts are required in all areas for utilization and conservation of this valuable medicinal herb. Herein, a compilation of all information with various aspects has been presented, including the authors published work on <em>Uraria picta</em>. This review pursues attention towards biological activity, phytochemical profile, utilization, propagation and conservation of <em>Uraria picta</em>.</p> 2021-04-17T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 B. P. Bhusare, M. L. Ahire, C. K. John, T. D. Nikam Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Indigofera cordifolia leaf extract and their pharmacological potential 2021-04-17T12:49:04+0530 P. K. Siva M. Sathish T. Parvathi M. Kamaraj R. Bhuvaneswari M. Arumugam <p style="text-align: justify;">Biologically the silver nanoparticles were synthesized from <em>Indigofera cordifolia </em>leaves extract. The absorbance of the silver nanoparticles centered at four hundred and twenty nm, with respect to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles wavelength. XRD method proves<strong>, </strong>biosynthesized NPs would retain the face centered cubic (fcc) structure. In TEM image analysis, silver NPs morphology was spherical in shape. The composition of the silver nanoparticles was obtained by EDAX analysis method. FTIR analysis concluded that biosynthesis Ag NPs was observed at 1384 cm<sup>-1</sup>, with respect to –NO<sub>3</sub> stretching arises from AgNO3. Ten types of bands are present in the broad emission because of organic matrix bound to silver nanoparticles, which reveals as the result of photoluminescence measurements. The silver NPs possess more antibacterial activity as compared to the standard drug, Amoxicillin.</p> 2021-04-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 P. K. Siva, M. Sathish, T. Parvathi, M. Kamaraj, R. Bhuvaneswari , M. Arumugam Morphological characterization and nutrient assessment of wild pepper, Piper umbellatum L. (Piperaceae) grown in Sarawak, Malaysia 2021-04-05T11:17:47+0530 Noorasmah Saupi Philip Lepun Ribka Alan Muta Harah Zakaria Ainul Asyira Saidin Nurul Aisyah Yusli <p>Wild pepper, <em>Piper umbellatum </em>L. is traditionally consumed as a leafy vegetable by the indigenous Kenyah tribesmen of Belaga, Sarawak, Malaysia. The shoots are normally harvested from secondary forest floors. The present study was carried out to determine the morphological and nutritional characteristics of <em>P. umbellatum</em>, i.e., proximate, mineral, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), vitamin C, and anti-nutrients, i.e., oxalate and phytate<em>. </em>The results showed that <em>P. umbellatum</em> possesses an ovate, alternate, entire and non-glandular trichome on its leaf surface. The inflorescence comprises an oblongoid spike attached to a peduncle and the ripened berries were orange and red in color. The results also revealed that the leaves of <em>P. umbellatum</em> had a high moisture content (63.27%), other recorded nutrient values were ash (8.62%), crude fiber (19.32%), K (1280.20 mg/100 g), Ca (570.60 mg/100 g), Mg (323.80 mg/100 g) and P (291.14 mg/100 g), TPC (510.63 mg/100 g), TFC (377.82 mg/100 g) and phytate (411.67 mg/100 g). Thus the consumption of the <em>P. umbellatum</em> as a leafy vegetable supplies a good dose of various essential nutrients.</p> 2021-05-13T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Noorasmah Saupi, Philip Lepun, Ribka Alan, Muta Harah Zakaria, Ainul Asyira Saidin, Nurul Aisyah Yusli Synthesis, physicochemical characterization and biological activity of synthesized Silver and Rajat Bhasma nanoparticles using Clerodendrum inerme 2021-04-05T13:01:20+0530 Pallab Kar Swarnendra Banerjee Avhijit Chhetri Arnab Sen <p>Bhasmais Metallo-medicine and made from metals and minerals. Rajatbhasma or Silver Bhasma belongs to a group of nanoparticles that have medicinal values and are used in Ayurveda as Drugs against various ailments. <em>Clerodendrum inerme</em>a traditionally well-accepted plant is used extensivelyin ayurvedic therapeutic formulations, but till date no major steps have been carried out to validate the scientific relevance of synthesized nanoparticles from Rajatbhasma using <em>C. inerme.</em> Therefore, in the present study biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, SEM, FESEM and EDX analysis whereas, a comparative study has also been made to check the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of synthesized silver and rajatbhasma nanoparticle. The SEM and FESEM analysis revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles are well shaped and the average particle size ranges between 30–90 nm and 10-50 nm respectively. In the case of EDX analysis, the highest peak at ~3Kev in the case of synthesized silver and rajatbhasma nanoparticle supports the formation of silver nanoparticles. Subsequently, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the synthesized nanoparticles showed excellent results when compared to the standard. The obtained results may provide support in the field of therapeutics and drug delivery and might prove beneficial as a novel drug candidate against bacterial infection in the future.</p> 2021-05-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Pallab Kar, Swarnendra Banerjee, Avhijit Chhetri, Arnab Sen Some nutritional properties of Taiwan Napier grass leaves (Pennisetum purpureum) harvested at different time 2021-02-17T18:05:32+0530 Masnindah Malahubban Nur Zahirah Abd Jalil Fitri Ab Aziz Zakry Juriah Kamaludeen Mohammad Nasir Hassan Noorasmah Saupi <p>The effect of different harvesting time on Napier grass's nutrient composition (<em>Pennisetum purpureum</em>) leaves was investigated. Taiwan Napier grass grown under field conditions were harvested at day-15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 after planting. The leaves samples subjected for analyses on dry matter, moisture, ash, crude fibre, crude fat, crude protein and acid detergent fibre, and the data expressed as a percentage. The present study found that the different harvesting time had changed all nutrients composition, except, crude protein where no variation in crude protein during any harvesting time observed. The present study recommends harvesting time for Taiwan Napier grass between 45 and 60 days after planting was the best. This finding is useful as baseline data that provides information on Taiwan Napier's nutritional composition grown at a particular cropping site. It helps plan and strategy for new planting activity, especially when determining the best time for harvesting.</p> 2021-06-04T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Masnindah Malahubban, Nur Zahirah Abd Jalil, Fitri Ab Aziz Zakry, Juriah Kamaludeen, Mohammad Nasir Hassan, Noorasmah Saupi Allelopathy effect of Prosopis juliflora on selected grass species (Cenchrus ciliaris, Paspalidium desertorum and Lintonia nutans) 2021-05-25T11:44:08+0530 Ali Noha Lisanework Nigatu Rejila Manikandan <p><em>Prosopis juliflora </em>growing frightening rate of invasiveness had affected the livelihood of the pastoral communities in the Amibara rangeland of Afar National Regional State. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the allelopathy effect of an aqueous leaf, bark, and root extracts of <em>Prosopis juliflora</em> on selected grass species such as <em>Cenchrus ciliaris, Paspalidium desertorum, and Lintonia nutans. </em>A total of 10 soil samples were collected from the Amibara rangeland of Afar National Regional State. The collected soil samples were mixed in a plastic bag to get composite soil. Further, the composite soil sample was subjected to analysis of physic-chemical characters (pH, soil organic matter, phosphorus, and nitrogen content). To study the allelopathy effect of <em>Prosopis juliflora</em> on selected grass species. To this, aqueous extracts were prepared from powdered leaf, bark, and root of <em>Prosopis juliflora</em> at different concentration levels (0%, 1%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%). Further, the extracts were subjected to analysis of seed germination percentage and seedling growth of selected grass species such as <em>Cenchrus ciliaris, Paspalidium desertorum</em> and <em>Lintonia nutans. </em><em>Prosopis juliflora</em> showed a significant inhibitory effect on seed germination of <em>Cenchrus ciliaris, Paspalidium desertorum, </em> and <em>Lintonia nutans.</em> grass species. Among the leaf, bark, and root aqueous extracts, the leaf showed the highest inhibitory effect on seed germination percentage, and the effect also concentration-dependent. <em>Prosopis juliflora</em> aqueous extracts of leaf, bark, and root of were exhibited significant inhibition on the fresh shoot biomass weights of <em>Cenchrus ciliaris, Paspalidium desertorum</em> and <em>Lintonia nutans. </em>when compared to the control. While the fresh shoot biomass weight of <em>Cenchrus ciliaris </em>and <em>Paspalidium </em><em>desertorum</em> was highly deteriorated at (5% and 10%). Whereas, the fresh shoot biomass weight of <em>Lintonia nutans </em>momentously retarded at (1% and 5%) as compared to the control.</p> 2021-06-28T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Ali Noha, Lisanework Nigatu, Rejila Manikandan Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase expression and pyranocoumarin accumulation in Angelica gigas plantlets exposed to light-emitting diodes 2021-06-09T17:18:39+0530 Yeon Bok Kim Woo Tae Park Ramaraj Sathasivam Seon Kyoung Yeo Gong In Lee Jong Seok Park Sang Un Park <p><em>Angelica gigas</em> (Dang Gui) is an important medicinal plant. In this study, we examined the accumulation of pyranocoumarin (decursin and decursinol angelate) and the expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (<em>PAL</em>) in Korean angelica plantlet grown under different light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (red, orange, green, blue, and white). Three weeks after LED exposure (WAE), the transcript levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase mRNA in seedlings grown under orange LEDs were 4-, 18-, and 7-fold higher than those in seedlings grown under green, blue, and white LEDs, respectively. The decursinol angelate content was almost double than the decursin content. The highest levels of decursin (3.2 mg/g dry weight) and decursinol angelate (6 mg/g dry weight) were detected in plants grown under orange LEDs, at 2 WAE. Therefore, we suggest that orange LEDs may affect decursin and decursinol angelate accumulation. The findings of this study could help to determine an effective strategy for producing secondary metabolites in <em>A. gigas</em> using LED technology.</p> 2021-06-28T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Yeon Bok Kim, Woo Tae Park, Ramaraj Sathasivam, Seon Kyoung Yeo, Gong In Lee, Jong Seok Park, Sang Un Park Indole-3-acetic acid production by rhizobacteria Bacillus spp. to various abiotic stress factors 2021-04-02T17:33:01+0530 Piriya Latha Veerasamy Fitri Ab Aziz Zakry Wong Sing King Susilawati Kasim Masnindah Malahubban <p>Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) phytohormone plays an essential role in forming and initiating main, lateral, and adventitious roots in vegetative propagation. Plants are receiving IAA naturally from a diverse group of soil-plant associated rhizobacteria. However, IAA synthesis by rhizobacteria is influenced by abiotic growth conditions. Three indigenous <em>Bacillus</em> isolates were subject to <em>in vitro </em>assay for the effects of abiotic factors (temperature, salinity and pH) on growth and IAA production. All isolates grew well between 25 - 40°C, and only <em>B. megaterium</em> UPMLH3 was capable of synthesising IAA (21.18 µg/ml) at 40°C. All three bacterial growth under saline stress were slightly dropped over control (0% NaCl), but still producing IAA up to 1% NaCl condition. <em>B. cereus</em> UPMLH24 revealed high resistance to salinity up to 5% NaCl. The optimum growth of all three <em>Bacillus</em> spp. was at pH 7. <em>B. cereus</em> UPMLH1 and UPMLH24 discovered higher IAA production in slightly alkaline conditions (pH 8). Each rhizobacterium shows different physiology trait against each abiotic factor. However, the multiple tolerance ability of PGPR against abiotic factors is an indication that its ability to survive under harsh soil and plant environments while delivering benefits to the plant. Thus, <em>B. cereus</em> UPMLH1, <em>B. megaterium</em> UPMLH3 and <em>B. cereus</em> UPMLH24 might serve as potential biofertiliser, enhancing the growth performance of test plants at various environmental conditions.</p> 2021-07-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Piriya Latha Veerasamy, Fitri Ab Aziz Zakry, Wong Sing King, Susilawati Kasim, Masnindah Malahubban Annihilating efficacy of Euphorbia hirta L. extracts on Artemia salina Nauplii and human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7 & MDA-MB-231) 2021-06-14T12:19:42+0530 Ramasamy Elankanni Devanga Ragupathi Naveen Kumar Rangasamy Ashok Kumar <p>Cancer is one of the major causes of death both in developed and developing countries. Recently the secondary metabolites produced by plants are being investigated due to their promising anticancer activities. Accordingly in the present study the anti-cancer potentials of <em>Euphorbia hirta </em>L., a well-known medicinal plant was explored for its anticancer activity. The methanol and aqueous extracts of <em>Euphorbia hirta </em>L. (EHA and EHM) were tested against <em>Artemia salina </em>nauplii for toxicity and MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines for its cytotoxic potentials. Both the extracts EHA and EHM exhibited maximum toxicity towards <em>Artemia salina</em> among which the methanol extract was able to kill all the nauplii in its highest concentration. Excitingly, <em>Euphorbia hirta </em>L. extracts exhibited minimal cytotoxicity on normal cells (VERO) than in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). In conclusion, the results suggest that EHM extract of the selected plant may have promising therapeutic potential against human breast cancers and may lead to the development of new clinical drug specifically against ER-positive breast cancer.</p> 2021-07-17T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Ramasamy Elankanni, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen Kumar, Rangasamy Ashok Kumar Essential oil composition of Origanum vulgare and its application in substitution of synthetic chemical additives 2021-06-14T19:42:57+0530 Sonia Heni Hicham Boughendjioua Salima Bennadja Abdelghani Djahoudi <p>In this work, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the essential oil of <em>Origanum vulgare. L. </em>obtained by hydrodistylation was warried out and it allowed to identify 98.1% of its constituents. The main components are carvacrol (47.6%), thymol (16.6%), <em>p-</em>cymene (13.5%) and<em>γ</em>-terpinene (11.2%). The chemical components of the essence are distributed over five biochemical classes represented mainly by monoterpene phenols and monoterpene carbides. The extraction gave a yield of oil 2.8%. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of this oil was determined against food spoilage bacteria and pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus <em>Staphylococcus </em>tested in vitro. This study aims to enhance the value of oregano essential oil by determining its chemical composition on the one hand, and by its application as a natural antibacterial preservative in substitution of synthetic chemical additives on the other hand. The sample was incorporated into a sensitive food matrix exposed to bacterial contamination: white meat. The bacteriostatic/bactericidal power of this bioactive extract was determined by a significant reduction in the number of bacteria and a clear increase in shelf life. Thus, it is possible to propose the use of this aromatic essence as a source of natural preservative.</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Sonia Heni, Hicham Boughendjioua, Salima Bennadja, Abdelghani Djahoudi Synergistic effects of Ruta montana (Clus.) L. essential oil and antibiotics against some pathogenic bacteria 2021-06-07T15:54:43+0530 Azzeddine Zeraib Lamia Boudjedjou Naziha Suici Tarek Benmeddour Khaled Rahal Azzedine Fercha <p>Antibiotic resistance has been called one of the world’s most pressing public health threats. The combination of essential oils with conventional antibiotics is one of the emerging approaches that could help prevent this problem. In light of this, this study aimed to investigate the impact of combination of <em>Ruta</em> <em>montana</em> essential oil with conventional antibiotics on some pathogenic bacteria. The essential oil isolated by steam-hydrodistillation was first analyzed using GC-MS then tested alone and in combination with five recommended antibiotics against three bacterial strains by the agar disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution methods. Out of forty-nine peaks, thirty-eight components were identified representing 98.17% of the total oil composition. The major components were 2-Undecanone (63.39%), 2-Nonanone (5.65%), 2-Acetoxytetradecane (4.94%), 2-Decanone (4.47%) and 2-Dodecanone (3.35%). While <em>R. montana</em> essential oil showed&nbsp;only weak antibacterial activity compared to the antibiotics tested alone, unexpectedly, the combination of RM essential oil with antibiotics remarkably increased the antibacterial activity of the antibiotics through synergistic effects in up to 70% of cases. These results suggest that combining antibiotics with essential oils, even those with low antibacterial activity, may be effective in overcoming problems caused by increasing bacterial resistance.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Azzeddine Zeraib, Lamia Boudjedjou, Naziha Suici, Tarek Benmeddour, Khaled Rahal, Azzedine Fercha Response of morphological and biochemical traits of maize genotypes under waterlogging stress 2021-08-17T20:21:27+0530 Shamima Nasrin Asha Naima Sultana Lutful Hassan Shirin Akhter Arif Hasan Khan Robin <p>Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops cultivated around the world. Waterlogging stress is a major production constraint of maize production in rain-fed agricultural systems. The main objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of continuous waterlogging on morphological and biochemical traits of maize genotypes at the vegetative stage. Ten maize genotypes were treated under no waterlogging (control) and continuous waterlogging of five centimeters depth for 10 days. The treatments were applied to the plants at their 45 days of age. Visual leaf injury scores from Leaf 4 (youngest leaf is the reference point) to Leaf 7 separated tolerant and susceptible genotypes. Waterlogging stress significantly reduced the total number of live leaves and chlorophyll content in leaf tissues in susceptible genotypes. The anatomical study revealed that tolerant maize genotypes produce a large number of aerenchyma cells under waterlogging stress compared to susceptible genotypes. The enzymatic activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD) exhibited a greater increase in tolerant genotypes than susceptible genotypes whereas the contents of reactive oxygen species (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) greatly increased in susceptible genotypes than tolerant genotypes under waterlogging stress compared to control. Principal component 2 (PC2) indicated that increasing plant height in the genotypes BHM-14, BHM-13 and BHM-9 was associated with waterlogging tolerance. The findings of this experiment will add value to maize breeding to screen out maize genotypes for waterlogging stress tolerance.</p> 2021-09-09T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Shamima Nasrin Asha, Naima Sultana, Lutful Hassan, Shirin Akhter, Arif Hasan Khan Robin Seaweed effects on plant growth and environmental remediation: a review 2021-02-17T18:13:31+0530 Umar Aliyu Abdullahi Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker Nadiawati Alias Elyni Mat Shaari Md. Amirul Alam Noor Afiza Badaluddin Khamsah Suryati Mohd <p>Seaweeds are plants found in sea that have tremendous applications in the fields of agriculture and environment. It comprises of three giant classes with a large number of different species. their ability to adopt to various conditions qualifies them more applicable to various environmental and agricultural arena. Agriculturally, both three classes <em>Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta </em>and <em>Chlorophyta, </em>have significant roles in promoting plant growth and productivity and soil protection as well as reclamation with class <em>Phaeophyta</em> has highest contribution due to its alginic acid content and other multifaceted components that are higher followed by <em>Rhodophyta </em>and <em>Chlorophyta</em>. Seaweed (living or dead biomass) has ability to phycoremediate environment against heavy toxic metals and lessen the excessiveness of non-metal inorganic elements via physisorption, chemisorption with the aid of binding sites provided by proteins and carbohydrates functional groups existing in their cell walls and secretion of organic acids and intracellular transformation and accumulation. Seaweed is an important factor in environmental remediation and soil restoration processes.</p> 2021-09-17T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Umar Aliyu Abdullahi, Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker, Nadiawati Alias, Elyni Mat Shaari, Md. Amirul Alam, Noor Afiza Badaluddin, Khamsah Suryati Mohd Salicylic acid and thiourea ameliorate the negative impact of salt stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings by up-regulating photosynthetic pigments, leaf water status, and antioxidant defense system 2021-07-23T17:47:20+0530 Sumaiya Farzana Md. Rasel Md. Tahjib Ul Arif Mohammad Anwar Hossain Md. Golam Azam Md. Asadulla Al Galib A.G.M. Sofi Uddin Mahamud Mohammad Afzal Hossain <p>Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stress inhibiting wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.) growth and development. Therefore, finding efficient strategies to prevent salt-induced growth retardation and yield loss is critical for modern agriculture to sustain production. The role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and thiourea (TU) in regulating salt tolerance was investigated by evaluating morpho-physiological characteristics and antioxidant response in two wheat genotypes at the seedling stage. In both wheat genotypes, salt stress reduced growth characteristics and leaf water status, photosynthetic pigments, while simultaneously increasing the Na<sup>+</sup>/K<sup>+</sup> ratio, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA). In contrast, exogenous application of SA and/or TU alone in the salt-stressed plants significantly reduced the negative effects of salt stress and improved the growth performance by up-regulating photosynthetic pigments, leaf water status, and proline content in both genotypes. Besides, when compared to seedlings treated only with salt stress, SA and TU played an important role in maintaining lower Na<sup>+</sup>/K<sup>+</sup> levels and reducing oxidative stress by lowering MDA and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2 </sub>levels in salt-stressed plants through boosting the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidase. In addition, hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis revealed a significant interaction among growth characteristics, chlorophyll content, carotenoid content and antioxidant activity with the salt, SA, and/or TU treatments. The findings suggested that exogenous application of SA or TU could be a useful technique for reducing the negative effects of salinity on wheat growth and development.</p> 2021-09-19T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Sumaiya Farzana, Md. Rasel, Md. Tahjib Ul Arif, Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Md. Golam Azam, Md. Asadulla Al Galib, A.G.M. Sofi Uddin Mahamud, Mohammad Afzal Hossain Assessing antioxidant system and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds under elevated temperature condition 2021-10-21T16:40:34+0530 L. Priyanandhini M. K. Kalarani A. Senthil N. Senthil K. Anitha M. Sai Venkata Ravi Teja <p>Maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) is the most important food and feed crop grown under diverse soil and climatic conditions. Among the cereals, demand for maize is increasing year after year, but fluctuation in climatic conditions especially the temperature extremes is the current and future threat in maize cultivation. Each degree Celsius increase in global mean temperature causes yield reduction up to 7.4 per cent in maize. The high temperature stress impact at the reproductive stage affects grain filling rate and duration. Adaptation of maize crop to future warmer climatic conditions requires a better understanding of physiological responses to elevated temperatures. With this view, a pot culture experiment was conducted at the Department of Crop Physiology, TNAU, Coimbatore during the summer season of 2020. Two maize inbreds viz., UMI 1230 and CBM-DL- 322 were taken for the study and exposed to high temperature stress treatments viz., T<sub>1</sub> - ambient, T<sub>2</sub> - ambient+4°C and T<sub>3</sub> - ambient+6°C (44°C) for 10 days during the reproductive stage to assess the changes in biochemical and yield traits. The ambient+4ºC treatment revealed that the maize inbred line CBM-DL-322 recorded lower malondialdehyde content with over production of antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase). Cob weight and seed set parentage showed a negative correlation with both elevated temperatures. It is concluded that the maize inbreds line CBM-DL- 322 performed better at an elevated temperature at ambient+4°C and recorded more cob weight (57.09g) compared to UMI 1230 inbred (43.56g).</p> 2021-11-10T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 L. Priyanandhini, M. K. Kalarani, A. Senthil, N. Senthil, K. Anitha, M. Sai Venkata Ravi Teja Virtual screening of anticancer efficacy of phloretin against apoptotic targets – An In Silico molecular docking study 2021-09-01T17:34:23+0530 Thangavelu Ranjanamala Vanmathiselvi Krishanan Ramanatha Shreemaya Sundarajan Nagarajan Rajeswari Casimeer C Sangeetha Alaa Yousef Ghidan Fatima Yousel Ghidan <p style="text-align: justify;">Recent advances demonstrate phytochemicals to be a potent anticancer therapeutic agent as various anti-cancer targets. This study depicts the anti-cancer potential against certain crucial common cancer targets leading to cancer cell proliferation and survival. The main objective of this study is to study the anti-cancer potential of phloretin against certain cancer targets. Ligand analysis was performed and Phloretin was chosen as the experimental ligand and Bcl-2, NF Kappa B, Carbonic anhydrase I (CA-1), Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS), Endothelial Nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), Caspase 3, and Caspase 9 proteins were chosen as targets. Induced fit molecular docking was performed by the use of Glide 6.5 software (Schrodinger - 2015). The docked poses were further evaluated based on binding energy, Conformational changes, and the amino acid residues involved in the protein-ligand interaction. The docking results depicted that phloretin showed notable binding affinity especially with carbonic anhydrase I, ENOS, and INOS. It also showcased significant potential against Caspase 3 and NF Kappa, thereby showing its potential as an effective anti-cancer therapeutics. During this study, the Inhibitory potential of Phloretin was studied as a result of this molecular docking study. This Insilico study revealed the binding efficiency of phloretin against the aforementioned targets. In vitro analysis is required for further validation of this data.</p> 2021-11-19T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Thangavelu Ranjanamala, Vanmathiselvi Krishanan, Ramanatha Shreemaya, Sundarajan Nagarajan Rajeswari, Casimeer C Sangeetha, Alaa Yousef Ghidan, Fatima Yousel Ghidan A review on chemical constituents of essential oils of Aframomum genus 2021-11-19T21:31:43+0530 Hong Thien Van Tan Viet Pham Hanh Thi Dieu Nguyen Ngoc An Nguyen Duy H. Truong <p><em>Aframomum </em>K.Schum is a genus native to Africa belonging to Zingiberaceae. Members of the genus <em>Aframomum</em> are the aromatic and perennial rhizomatous herbs. Many plant parts of <em>Aframomum</em> species contain essential oils, including fruits, seeds, leaves, stems, rhizomes, pods, husks, pericarps, limbos and leaf sheaths. The major constituents of <em>Aframomum</em> plants are mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes and monoterpene hydrocarbons. The present work provides the comprehensive information regarding the volatile components of various <em>Aframomum </em>species.</p> 2021-12-17T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Hong Thien Van, Tan Viet Pham, Hanh Thi Dieu Nguyen, Ngoc An Nguyen, Duy H. Truong Regeneration potential of different explants during micropropagation of neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) 2021-11-01T17:35:00+0530 Bhavadharani Dhandapani Gnanam Ramasamy Senthil Natesan Kumaran Kalayanasundaram <p><em>Azadirachta indica</em> A. Juss., (Neem), a prodigious multipurpose tree, has immense potential to benefit mankind and to protect the environment. In order to investigate the effects of three different explants for its regeneration potential, de embryonated cotyledon, immature zygotic embryo and nodal segments from a 30 year old neem plus tree were used. Half strength MS medium with benzyl amino purine (3 mg/L) and naphthalene acetic acid (0.5 mg/L) and casein hydrolysate (1 g/L) was effective in shoot bud sprouting from both nodes and cotyledons. Half strength MS medium fortified with TDZ (0.2 mg/L) was effective for induction of somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos. Shoot buds initiated from the cotyledons produced a maximum number of shoots per explants (4.33) which on further sub culturing induced maximum multiple shoots (15) on half strength MS medium fortified with BAP (1.5 mg/L), NAA (0.5 mg/L) and CH (400 g /L) and the nodal explants induced only 4-5 axillary shoots on further sub culturing. Even though immature zygotic embryos produced more number of somatic embryos per explant (24.97) within a short time (30-45 days), the plantlet conversion was poor (25.52 %). <em>In vitro</em> rooting was observed in half strength MS medium supplemented with IBA (2 mg/L). The regeneration potential of de embryonated cotyledons through a simple regeneration system may be beneficial for efficient mass propagation of selected plus trees of neem.</p> 2021-12-17T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Bhavadharani Dhandapani, Gnanam Ramasamy, Senthil Natesan, Kumaran Kalayanasundaram Assessment of the antiproliferative potential of Cissampelos owariensis (P. Beauv) methanolic extract in Wistar rats 2021-11-22T18:28:51+0530 Dayo Rotimi Omotoso Uche Christiana Okwuonu Olayinka Simbiat Lawal Oluwasegun Davis Olatomide <p><em>Cissampelos owariensis </em>is a medicinal plant with a wide range of therapeutic uses.&nbsp; In this study, the objective was to further assess its antiproliferative potential using cell proliferation and tumor suppressor markers. Solvent extraction of <em>C. owariensis </em>leaves was done using methanol. Twenty (20) male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups 1–4 (n=5) and respectively administered with methanolic extracts of <em>C. owariensis</em> at 0, 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. After treatment, the hepatic tissues were processed and examined histologically and immunohistochemically for cell proliferation (Ki-67) and tumor suppressor (p53) proteins.&nbsp; Immunoexpression of the proteins was quantified using image-J software, the data analyzed with SPSS version 20 and values compared using <em>t-</em>test and one-way analysis of variance. The histological results showed no significant variation in hepatic histomorphology of treated Groups 2–4 relative to non-treated Group 1. However, the immunohistochemical results showed significant (<em>p</em>&lt; 0.05) down-regulation in Ki-67 protein expression and a concomitant significant (<em>p</em>&lt; 0.05) up-regulation in p53 protein expression in hepatic tissues of treated Groups 2–4 relative to non-treated Group 1.These inverse expression patterns of cell proliferation and tumor suppressor proteins following exposure to methanolic extracts of <em>C. owariensis</em> may suggest the antiproliferative potential of the plant extracts.</p> 2021-12-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Dayo Rotimi Omotoso, Uche Christiana Okwuonu, Olayinka Simbiat Lawal, Oluwasegun Davis Olatomide Biodiversity of some fig cultivars in Southern Syria 2021-11-01T18:46:33+0530 Sahara Abo Amin Faisal Hamed Seba Sarhan Nashaat Abo Tafish <p style="text-align: justify;">This research has been conducted in the Biotechnology Laboratory in Damascus University_ Damascus, Syria where the genetic diversity of fourteen cultivars of figs (<em>Ficus carica L.</em>) growing in Swaida governorate which located in the south region of&nbsp; Syria were investigated using (Simple Sequence Repeats) SSRs technique, where 4 cultivars of them were genotypes scattered in the local fields without any scientific taxonomy and farmers did not classify them properly. Eight pairs of SSRs markers were used depend on their ability to separate between fig cultivars as mentioned in previous studies, six pairs of them gave amplified products in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while MFC3 and MFC6 primers did not give any amplification products. A total of 17 alleles were detected at six SSRs loci. The alleles number per locus ranged from 2 to 4 with &nbsp;an average of 2.83 alleles/locus. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.33, while the expected heterozygosity (He) was 0.17. The mean value of genetic similarity was 0.69 where fig cultivars has separated into two clusters in Cluster Analysis, which confirms a significant genetic similarity between most of the cultivars. MFC1 and MFC2 loci gave about 0.67 and 0.61 PIC (Polymorphism Information Content) values respectively, which confirms their ability to study the genetic diversity of fig cultivars more than other loci. F1 and F2 cultivars greatly affect the quality of the fruits as paternity traits as Caprifigs. Tammozi cultivar has low values of its genetic similarity with the rest of the cultivars which reflect great difference between it and other cultivars. Generally, the challenges in this study were in characterizing unrecognized fig cultivars in southern Syria to distinguish between them as they were not certified in agriculture ministry in Syria because the lack in studies related to the same topic as these cultivars were not studied before, thus, we managed to make a significant contribution in certifying fig cultivars in Syria using SSR technique.</p> 2021-12-24T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Sahara Abo Amin, Faisal Hamed, Seba Sarhan, Nashaat Abo Tafish An in silico approach towards exploration of the oxidative stress resistance of major withanolides of Withania somnifera in relation to COVID-19 management 2021-11-30T22:13:05+0530 Sangeetha Vinodkumar Krishnapriya Santhanu Kanimozhi Natarajan Kalaiselvi Senthil <p>Oxidative stress is the state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) in the biological system and the ability of the body to detoxify them resulting in increased accumulation of free radicals in the cells. This stress leads to weakening of the immune system thus leading to higher susceptibility to other infections as well. This also includes the weakening of the respiratory tract leading to increased susceptibility of viral infections as in the case of COVID-19. Treatment for any kind of abnormality requires the identification of the key target proteins and pathways that are being altered. <em>Withania somnifera</em> is being used in the traditional medicinal system to improve health and longevity thus creating a sense of mental as well as physical well being. The present study utilises network pharmacological approach to predict the potential oxidative stress targets of the three major withanolides: withanolide A, withaferin A and withanone. Primarily, the targets of the individual withanolides were obtained from the Swiss target and DIGEP-pred databases and the GO terms and lead hits related to oxidative stress were retrieved from AMIGO2 database. Totally 40 correlative hits were obtained as anti stress targets of the withanolides, which were subjected to functional enrichment and protein–protein interaction analysis to study the enriched pathways underlying oxidative stress response. Further the eleven crucial targets of the four selected pathways were analysed using molecular docking analysis. A total of forty protein hits were obtained as oxidative stress targets of the withanolides. Further, the pathway enrichment of these forty target genes showed the AGE RAGE signalling pathway as highly enriched pathway. Therefore, the AGE RAGE signalling pathway along with its underlying pathways namely MAPK signalling pathway, FOXO pathway and PI3-AKT pathway were chosen among all the other enriched pathways. Further the molecular docking analysis of the eleven target proteins falling under these four pathways showed good docking scores of the withanolides with all the eleven targets with the highest interaction against BCL2. From the above study, the biological targets and associated pathways of the withanolides have been retrieved. Thus the <em>in silico</em> approach undertaken in this study explores the role of the key withanolides in the antioxidant potential of the traditional medicinal plant <em>Withania somnifera. </em></p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Sangeetha Vinodkumar, Krishnapriya Santhanu, Kanimozhi Natarajan, Kalaiselvi Senthil