Evaluation of antidiarrhea and antimicrobial activities of methanol extract leaves of Gmelina arborea
Since ancient times, plants have commonly been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments. This work evaluated the efficacy of methanol extract of Gmelina arborea leaf as antidiarrheal and antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial activity was conducted using standard microbiological techniques and antidiarrheal activity of the extract was carried out with 24 Wistar rats which were randomly grouped into 6 (n = 4). Group 1 served as control and received distilled water (10 ml/kg), group 2 received Loperamide, groups 3 was administered 10ml/kg of castor oil only (negative control), group 4 through 6 received Gmelina arborea at different doses of 200mg/kg-800mg/kg respectively. Diarrheal was induced using oral administration of 10 ml/kg of castor oil. Animals were kept in separate metabolic cages with transparent plastic container beneath the cage to collect faces. Latency time, frequency of defecation, total surface of impregnation and fresh total stools weight were measured for 8 hrs. The results of the antimicrobial activity of Gmelina arborea leaf extract showed that Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli were the most susceptible strains to Gmelina arborea extract with zone of inhibition of 9.73±0.64mm at 1000mg/kg of the extract. The feacal drops at 2/3hrs was significantly different (p<0.05) in all the extract groups when compared to the untreated group, however the extract treated groups showed non-significant (p>0.05) difference when compared to the standard drug. The findings from this study suggested that methanol leaf extract of Gmelina arborea contain pharmacologically active substances with antidiarrhea and antimicrobial properties.
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