Biological and in vitro effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica) extract on second and third instar larvae of Spodoptera litura


  • Zohaib Afzal Soil and Environmental Sciences, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture Multan, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Shabar Hussain Department of Entomology, Bahaudin Zakriya University Multan, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Arif Department of Entomology, Bahaudin Zakriya University Multan, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Ahmed Department of Entomology, Bahaudin Zakriya University Multan, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Usama Iqbal Department of Entomology, Bahaudin Zakriya University Multan, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Ikram Ullah Department of Entomology, Bahaudin Zakriya University Multan, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Waqas Haider Department of Entomology, Bahaudin Zakriya University Multan, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Behroz Fazal Hashmi Department of Entomology, Bahaudin Zakriya University Multan, Punjab, Pakistan



Spodoptera litura, Azadirachta indica, Euclyptus globulus, Bio-pesticides, Pakistan


Spodoptera litura is a major threat to agricultural crops all over the world including Pakistan. It has developed resistance to several chemicals, especially synthetic insecticides. Plant based chemicals like extracts may serve as suitable and alternative biocontrol methods for pests in the future. The current study was conducted to determine the biology of S. litura on cabbage and the effects of two botanicals i.e. Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus globulus against 2nd and 3rd instar larvae in controlled conditions. The incubation period of pest was 3-4 days. The average mean developmental period of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th larval instar was 2.44±0.71, 2.32±0.74, 3.43±0.68, 2.76±0.80, and 2.40±0.79 days, respectively. The pre-ovipositional, and ovipositional period of females was 2.04-3.58 and 2.89-5.71 days respectively. The total life cycle of pests was 30.83-38.79 days. Significantly higher mortality of 2nd and 3rd instar larvae was recorded in A. indica. The percentage of mortality increased with an increase in treatment time.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdullah, A., Ullah, M. I., Raza, A. B. M., Arshad, M., & Afzal, M. 2019. Host Plant Selection Affects Biological Parameters in Armyworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 51(6), 2117-2123.

Ahmad, M., Ghaffar, A., & Rafiq, M. (2013). Host plants of leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Pakistan. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 1(1), 23-28.

Ali, S., Ullah, M. I., Khalil, S., Farooqi, M. A., Arshad, M., Farooq, F. & Shah, Z. U. (2018). Toxicity of Nerium Odorum (A.) and Parthenium Hysterophorus (L.) botanicals against Spodoptera Litura (L.). Pakistan Entomologist, 40(1), 51-55.

De lima Santos, N. D., Da Silva Paixao, K., Napoleao, T. H., Trindade, P. B., Pinto, M. R., Coelho, L. C. B. B., Eiras, E. A., Navarro, D. M. A. F., & Paiva, P. M. G. (2014). Evaluation of Moringa oleifera seed lectin in traps for the capture of Aedes aegypti eggs and adults under semi-field conditions. Parasitology Research, 113, 1837-1842.

Gorawade, V., Attar, U., & Shiragave, P. (2022). Bioefficacy and GC-MS analysis of Chromolaena odorata and Leonotis nepetifolia leaf extracts against Spodoptera litura. Journal of Crop Protection, 11(3), 361-375.

Kaur, M., Choudhary, A., Saraf, I., Singh, I. P., & Kaur, S. (2022). Efficacy of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) extract against Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 42(1), 103-108.

Khan, R. R., Ali, R. A., Ali, A., Arshad, M., Majeed, S., Ahmed, S., & Khan, S. A. (2018). Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) and the biocide, spinosad for mitigation of the armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 28, 58.

Kumar, S., Nair, G., Singh, A. P., Batra, S., Wahab, S., & Warikoo, R. (2012). Evaluation of the larvicidal efficiency of stem, roots and leaves of the weed, Parthenium hysterophorus (Family: Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti L. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 2(5), 395-400.

Kumar, S., Sharma, A. K., Rawat, S. S., Jain, D. K., & Ghosh, S. (2013). Use of pesticides in agriculture and livestock animals and its impact on environment of India. Asian Journal of Environmental Science, 8(1), 51-57.

Lin, T., Li, X., Chen, B., Chen, P., Guo, M., Zhou, X., & Cheng, X. (2019). Geographical origin identification of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) based on trace element profiles using tobacco as intermedium planted on soils from five different regions. Microchemical Journal, 146, 49-55.

Liu, D., Jia, Z.-Q., Peng, Y.-C. Sheng, C.-W., Tang, T., Xu, L., Han, Z.-J., & Zhao, C.-Q. (2018). Toxicity and sublethal effects of fluralaner on Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 152, 8-16.

Mathesius, U. (2018). Flavonoid functions in plants and their interactions with other organisms. Plants, 7(2), 30.

Murtaza, G., Ramzan, M., Ghani, M. U., Munawar, N., Majeed, M., Perveen, A., & Umar, K. (2019). Effectiveness of different traps for monitoring sucking and chewing insect pests of crops. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences. (A. Entomology), 12(6), 15-21.

Murugasridevi, K., Saranya, M., & Muthaiah, C. (2017). Bio-Efficacy of Different Botanicals Against Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura Fab. Environment and Ecology, 35(3C), 2227-2231.

Narvekar, P. F., Mehendale, S. K., Golvankar, G. M., Karmarkar, M. S., & Desai, S. D. Comparative biology of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) on different host plants under laboratory condition. International of Journal of Chemical Studies, 6(6), 65-69.

Qin, W., Huang, S., Li, C., Chen, S., & Peng, Z. (2010). Biological activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Piper Sarmentosum Roxb. (Piperaceae) and its chemical constituents on Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 96(3), 132-139.

Ramzan, M., Ilahi, H., Umar, A. B., Nasir, M., Zahid, M. K., Rukh, S., & Rehman, M. U. (2021). Biological parameters of Armyworm, Spodoptera litura and toxicity of three insecticides against 3rd instars larvae under laboratory conditions. Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, 9(1), 12-17.

Ramzan, M., Murtaza, G., Javaid, M., Iqbal, N., Raza, T., Arshad, A., & Awais, M. (2019). Comparative efficacy of newer insecticides against Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera litura on cauliflower under laboratory conditions. Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, 7(5), 1-7.

Ramzan, M., Sultan, Y., Sabir, M. W., Haseeb, U. R., Shafiq, M., Murtaza, G., Shahid, M., Umair, M., & Asif, H. M. (2020a). Effect of host plant on the biology of Spodoptera litura. Indian Journal of Entomology, 82(3), 123-126.

Ramzan, M., Usman, M., Sajid, Z., Ghani, U., Basit, M. A., Razzaq, M., Shafee, W., & Shahid, M. R. (2020b). Bio-ecology and management of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): A review. Journal of Pure and Applied Agriculture, 5(4), 1-9.

Safder, A., Afzal, Z., Munawar, F., Hashmi, A. M., Ali, R. B., & Amanat, N. Efficacy of botanicals extracts against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory condition. Journal of Scientific Agriculture, 6, 32-35.

Shad, S. A., Sayyed, A. H., Fazal, S., Saleem, M. A., Zaka, S. M., & Ali, M. (2012). Field evolved resistance to carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids, and new chemistry insecticides in Spodoptera litura Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Pest Science, 85, 153-162.

Trivedi, A., Nayak, N., & Kumar, J. (2018). Recent advances and review on use of botanicals from medicinal and aromatic plants in stored grain pest management. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 6(3), 295-300.

Ullah, M. I., Majeed, S., Arshad, M., Altaf, N., Luqman, M., Abdullah, A., & Afzal, M. (2021). Effect of emamectin benzoate with leaf extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus and Moringa oleifera on the digestibility and survival indices of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 37(3), 830-838.

Wu, H.-B., Wu, H.-B., Wang, W.-S., Liu, T.-T., Qi, M.-G., Feng, J.-C., Li, X.-Y., & Liu, Y. (2016). Insecticidal activity of sesquiterpene lactones and monoterpenoid from the fruits of Carpesium abrotanoides. Industrial Crops and Products, 92, 77-83.