Journal of Plantation Crops https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC <p>As a multidisciplinary journal, Journal of Plantation Crops (JPC)&nbsp;aims at dissemination of research findings in plantation crops (coconut, arecanut, cocoa, cashew, oil palm, coffee, tea, rubber, date palm), including cropping systems, as well as various spices. Since its inception in 1973, 45 volumes have been published. The journal is published thrice a year during April, August and December and publication of the articles is subject to peer reviewing and recommendation by experts in the field.</p> Scienceflora Publishers Pvt. Ltd. en-US Journal of Plantation Crops 0304-5242 Response of coconut seedlings to elevated CO2 and high temperature in drought and high nutrient conditions https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5804 <p>The interaction effect of climate change variables elevated CO<sub>2</sub> and elevated temperature (ET) with drought and nutrients on growth and development of coconut seedlings was studied in an open top chamber (OTC) at Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI), Kasaragod. Seedlings were exposed to ambient (normal CO<sub>2</sub> and temperature), elevated CO<sub>2</sub> (550 and 700 ppm), ET (3 °C above ambient) and ET + elevated CO<sub>2</sub> (550 ppm CO<sub>2</sub> + 3 °C). In each OTC, a set of seedlings were subjected to drought (50% FC) and another set was maintained at 150 per cent recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF). Seedlings in elevated CO<sub>2</sub> treatments accumulated significantly higher biomass. It was 1.13 and 1.98 kg seedling<sup>-1</sup> with 550 and 700 ppm CO<sub>2</sub> respectively as against 1.10 in ambient treatment. It was the least in ET treatment (0.91). The stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (Tr) of plants grown under elevated CO<sub>2</sub> was reduced without affecting the photosynthesis. As a consequence, the whole plant WUE of coconut seedlings grown under elevated CO<sub>2</sub> was high both under control and drought condition. The WUE significantly reduced both in high temperature and drought stressed plants. Elevated CO<sub>2</sub> to certain extent compensated for water stress and high temperature induced reduction in growth of coconut.</p> K B Hebbar T L Sheena K Shwetha Kumari S Padmanabhan D Balasimha Mukesh Kumar George V Thomas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 118 122 Effect of nurse culture on inducing division of isolated pollen protoplasts of Hevea brasiliensis https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5805 <p>Haploids are of great relevance in crop improvement of <em>Hevea</em>, a highly heterozygous tree species with a long breeding cycle. The isolation and culture of pollen protoplasts may be a viable proposition for raising haploid plants/ homozygous lines in <em>Hevea.</em> The present work envisages the development of a method for the isolation and culture of pollen protoplasts of <em>Hevea</em>. Effect of different nurse cultures on the development of cultured protoplasts has been studied. Intact pollen grains were isolated from mature male flowers of <em>Hevea</em> prior to opening. Viable protoplasts in high yield could be isolated from these pollen grains when exposed to a mixture of 0.5 per cent cellulase and 0.05 per cent pectolyase in the presence of the osmotic stabilizers 0.6 M mannitol and 0.3 M sorbitol. These protoplasts were partially purified and cultured in the nutrient medium with three different nurse cultures namely embryogenic calli from <em>Hevea</em>, tobacco and carrot. Division of the cultured protoplasts leading to the formation of a few micro-colonies was observed in the medium containing 0.8 mg l<sup>-1</sup> 2, 4-D and 0.5 mg l<sup>-1</sup> BA and enriched with <em>Hevea</em> nurse culture. Cultures with micro-colonies are dark incubated for further development. This is the first report of division of pollen protoplasts and micro-colony formation in <em>Hevea brasiliensis</em>.</p> S Sushamakumari Sneha Joseph S Sobha K Rekha R Jayashree Leda Pavithran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 123 129 Evaluation of coconut based high density multi-species cropping system under organic and integrated nutrient management https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5807 <p>A field experiment on evaluation of coconut based high density multi-species cropping system under organic and integrated nutrient management was initiated during 2007 in coconut based cropping system at Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasaragod. Three treatments <em>viz</em>., T1: 2/3rd of recommended NPK fertilizer + recycling biomass (vermicompost), T2: 1/3rd of recommended NPK fertilizer + recycling biomass (vermicompost) + bio-fertiliser + green manuring + vermiwash and T3: Fully organic with recycling biomass (vermicompost) + bio-fertiliser + green manuring + vermiwash + husk burial + mulching coconut basin were replicated seven times in RBD. The crops involved in the system were coconut, black pepper, pineapple, banana, clove, annual crops like, turmeric, ginger and vegetable crops (brinjal, pumpkin, and elephant foot yam), sweet corn and baby corn were grown in the space available during different seasons. Irrigation was provided through sprinkler system at IW/CPE=1.0. Average of five years (2007 to 2012) data on coconut yield indicated non significant difference among the treatments and it ranged between 145 to 155 nuts palm<sup>-1</sup>year<sup>-1</sup>. Black pepper yield also did not differ significantly among the treatments and ranged from 1.7 to 1.8 kg vine<sup>-1</sup>, and banana (Njalipoovan variety) yield ranged from 6.0 to 7.2 kg bunch<sup>-1</sup> and Grand naine variety yield also did not differ significantly among the treatments and it ranged from 13.7 kg to 15.5 kg bunch<sup>-1</sup>. The copra and oil content of coconut did not differ significantly among the treatments and it ranged from 159.5 to 164.6 g nut<sup>-1</sup> and from 65.7 to 65.8 per cent, respectively. Economics of the system indicated higher net return in T3 treatment.</p> H P Maheswarappa R Dhanapal P Subramanian C Palaniswami ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 130 135 Impact of continuous mechanical harvesting on the carbohydrate dynamics and architectural characteristics of tea plants https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5808 <p>Tea is a labour intensive plantation crop and management of crop husbandry practices has become difficult due to the scarcity of labour. In order to improve the labour productivity and to attain positive cost benefits ratio, management of tea estates are forced to adopt mechanization as a routine cultural operation. In the present study, carbohydrate dynamics and bush architecture of machine harvested fields are studied in comparison to integrated shear harvested fields. Continuous mechanization registered relatively lower levels of phytomass. Recovery from pruning was delayed in the mechanically harvested fields. Yield and yield attributes were significantly higher in the integrated shear harvested fields compared to mechanical harvesting. Carbohydrate dynamics of both the fields indicated low level of total carbohydrate, starch and reducing sugars in the root. Replenishment of carbohydrate showed a similar pattern in both the fields. No major variation was observed between the treatments for photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation rate and pigment concentration. Leaf constituents like polyphenols, catechins and amino acids of crop shoots did not show major variations. Soil biota was less in the mechanically harvested fields. The data generated from this experiment will lead to advanced research on mechanization and to develop suitable agro-technologies.</p> Siby Mathew R Raj Kumar M Marichamy R Shanmugapriyan P Mohan Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 136 141 Structural modification of phloic rays in Hevea brasiliensis with reference to tapping panel dryness and stimulation https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5809 <p><em>Hevea brasiliensis</em>, the prime source of natural rubber, when tapped intensively showed the symptoms of gradual cessation of latex flow from the tapping wound and this phenomenon is termed as tapping panel dryness (TPD), leading to a number of structural deformations in the bark tissues. The unproductive bark thus formed due to TPD is subjected to ethephon stimulation resume latex flow for a period. The study was initiated to trace the structural modifications occurred in phloic rays as an alternative route for translocation under necessity. The dimension of phloic rays also showed significant variation in TPD trees in comparison with both healthy stimulated trees. A decrease in length and an increase in width of phloic rays were evident in TPD affected trees over healthy trees. Average height of ray (µm) in the bark of healthy, TPD affected, unaffected zone above the TPD affected area and TPD panel under ethephon was 495, 259, 416 and 285 respectively. In healthy trees, 57 per cent of the rays fall in the stratified height class of 300-500 µm but in TPD trees, 78 per cent of the phloic rays is having a height less than 300 µm. The average width of the ray measured 56.81 and 74.25 µm respectively for healthy and TPD trees. In healthy trees 61 per cent of the ray falls under width strata of 40-60 µm and in TPD trees 68 per cent is in the 60-80 and 24 per cent in 80-100 µm width strata. For the production of latex from unproductive bark of TPD tree on stimulation, adequate nourishments is being mobilized to the site of action by strengthening radial transport system in the affected area.</p> Vinoth Thomas S. Pramod K. S. Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 142 150 Effect of bio-control agents and botanicals on in vitro growth and development of Ganoderma applanatum https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5810 <p>Efficacy of bio-control agents and botanicals against <em>Ganoderma applanatum</em>, a fungi causing basal stem rot of coconut was studied at Agricultural Research Station, Arsikere during the year 2008-09. Among the 17 bio-control agents screened, native <em>Trichoderma</em> sp. (V<sub>2</sub>) recorded minimum radial growth of 1.72 cm by exerting 81 per cent reduction over control, which was followed by <em>Trichoderma</em> sp. (12a) by accounting 2.30 cm radial growth with 74 per cent reduction over control. Among the six bio-control agents, tested for biomass production, native <em>Trichoderma</em> sp. (B<sub>4</sub>) recorded maximum biomass (0.76 g) followed by <em>Trichoderma</em> sp. (C<sub>4</sub>) which accounted for 0.7 g 100 ml<sup>-1</sup> potato dextrose broth. Among 10 botanicals tested, only <em>Glyricidia</em> was found to be inhibitory against <em>G. applanatum</em>, by recording radial growth of 5.4 cm as against 9.0 cm in control.</p> K B Palanna B Boraiah M S Nagarj N E Thyagaraj G R Ramaswamy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 151 156 Cloning and characterization of metallothionein like protein cDNA in tea using RACE https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5811 <p>Metallothionein (MT) like protein have important role in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. It also plays vital role in controlling intracellular redox potential and activation of oxygen detoxification in plants after pathogen invasion. In the present study, full length gene encoding MT was amplified using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) reaction and sequenced (GenBank Acc. No. JN315623). Sequence analysis revealed presence of 276 bp open reading frame with coding capacity of 92 amino acids, flanked by 262 bp and 166 bp 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions (UTR) respectively. Theoretical pi and molecular weight of the analysed sequence was 5.37 and 9.5 kDa respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of MT with other plant species was discussed.</p> P Senthilkumar A. K.A Mandal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 157 162 Adaptability of prospective mother trees of Hevea to the cold climate of Sub-Himalayan West Bengal and Assam https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5812 <p>Ortet selection in rubber from polycross mother trees grown in stress prone areas is one of the mandate for developing new generation rubber clones for the non-traditional regions. Aiming at this, experiments were laid out at two Regional Research Stations of Sub-Himalayan range of North Eastern India, <em>viz.</em> Nagrakata in Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal and Sarutari in Kamrup district of Assam. The weather of both the stations was different from each other especially on the basis of temperature (T<sub>max</sub> and T<sub>min</sub>) and total annual rainfall. Effect of such variations in weather condition had reflected on growth and yield performance of the seedlings. The collective mean yield of trees showing yield above the average block yield every years over eleven years (category I) was much lower at Nagrakata (44.84 g tree<sup>-1</sup> tap<sup>-1</sup>) than Sarutari (53.29 g tree<sup>-1</sup> tap<sup>-1</sup>) but it was opposite in category II where the trees showed above average yield for ten years over eleven years. In view of the yield performance at Nagrakata, the mother tree NGK 203 was the top ranker (69.79 g tree<sup>-1</sup> tap<sup>-1</sup>) followed by NGK 47 (55.40 g tree<sup>-1</sup> tap<sup>-1</sup>) with low CV (37.11% and 35.33% respectively) and appreciable winter yield contribution (53.92% and 52.17% respectively); at Sarutari, it was GWH 245 (86.74 g tree<sup>-1</sup> tap<sup>-1</sup>) followed by GWH 286 (81.14 g tree<sup>-1</sup> tap<sup>-1</sup>) with CV of 55.01 per cent and 40.35 per cent, respectively and winter yield contribution of 48.33 per cent and 43.61 per cent, respectively. Study on adaptation of potential mother trees to two different weather conditions was compared.</p> Gitali Das Gopal Chandra Mondal Dhurjati Choudhuri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 163 171 Seed quality and germination in selected hybrids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.) https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5813 <p>Different indigenous oil palm hybrids were evaluated with an objective to assess their quality and to develop seed quality standards in commercial seed production centers. Majority of the indigenous hybrids had large proportion of small seeds and their percentage of distribution varied according to the hybrids. The different hybrid combinations recorded coefficient of variation of 11.70, 11.28 and 15.35 for seed weight, shell weight and kernel weight, respectively. Large seed group in all the crosses had high seed weight, shell weight, shell thickness and kernel weight. Though shell thickness had significant differences among crosses and size groups, the coefficient of variation recorded (6.38%) was low compared to other characteristics. Selected hybrids had low average kernel weight of 1.63, 1.05 and 0.74 g for large, medium and small seeds, respectively. In this study, high and low germination percentage was recorded in all the categories of seed groups irrespective of their sizes. All the seed physical parameters studied were positively correlated which are highly significant.</p> P Murugesan M Shareef H Haseela R K Mathur1 ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 172 176 Evaluation of Brazilian wild Hevea germplasm in India for cold tolerance: Variability and character associations in juvenile growth phase https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5814 <p>Natural rubber (<em>Hevea brasiliensis</em>), cultivation has been extended to non-traditional regions due to limited scope of further expansion in traditional rubber growing areas in India. These areas are often confronted with various abiotic stresses especially temperature extremes. A set of 18 wild accessions, two popular clones along with two control clones RRIM 600 and Haiken 1, were evaluated in the juvenile growth phase at the Regional Experiment Station of the Rubber Research Institute of India, Nagrakata, West Bengal, a sub-Himalayan cold prone region of India. The genotypes exhibited highly significant clonal differences (P&lt;0.01) for all the eight quantitative traits. During the pre-winter period, the number of leaves per plant ranged from 14.2 (AC 3074) to 47.6 (MT 2229). In the post winter period maximum leaves per plant was recorded in MT 900 (29.27) comparable to the control clone Haiken 1 (28.20), while the accession AC 3293 recorded very high loss in leaves. An increase in number of whorls per plant during winter period was noted in MT 1020 as compared to Haiken 1 (0.80). Increment of plant height during winter ranged from 6.53 cm (AC 3293) to 45.01 cm (MT 1020) as compared to the control clone Haiken 1 (40.73 cm). Girth ranged from 5.36 cm (AC 3293) to 11.53 cm (MT 915) while the control clone Haiken 1 recorded a girth of 10.50 cm. Girth was significantly correlated with the other growth traits. Based on rank sum values, the accessions were ranked for overall performance and the top 20 per cent of the potential accessions showing early growth vigour were identified. These can be used for the development of cold tolerant clones.</p> G Prabhakara Rao Saji T Abraham C P Reghu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 177 181 Effect of plant bio-regulators (PBRs) on qualitative traits of apple and nut of cashew var. Jhargram-1 https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5815 <p>A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of plant bio-regulators on qualitative traits of apple and nut in cashew var. Jhargram-1. The application of NAA 200 ppm twice at flowering and fruit-set significantly increased the size and weight of cashew apple, juice recovery (66.17 %), ascorbic acid content (3.67 mg ml<sup>-1</sup>), and titrable acidity (0.45 %). Double spraying with IAA 200 ppm recorded the maximum size of nut and kernel while, carbohydrate, starch, sugar and protein content of cashew kernel were found highest with NAA 200 ppm sprayed twice.</p> A Pariari L S Singh M Poduval S Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 182 185 Labour availability in coconut cultivation and impact on technology adoption as perceived by coconut farmers https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5817 <p>Labour is an important resource for sustainable farming. Coconut, a perennial tree crop, requires skilled and unskilled labour components for adoption of scientific management practices. The study indicated that both hired and family labour were utilised in seedling planting and management, whereas family labour was prominently utilised in case of chemical fertiliser application and basin management with green manure. Hired labour was critical in basin opening, organic manure application, plant protection and harvesting. Most of the technologies adopted were irregular in nature which was indicated due to escalating input costs and declining output price. Majority of the respondents (76.32%) adopted keramithra for de-husking coconuts. Farmers who adopted mechanisation in land preparation opined 60-75 per cent reduction in expenditure compared to manual labour. Seventy eight per cent of respondents recorded scarcity in labour availability. The responses of the farming community towards the high wage rate and scarcity were discontinuation of milch animals in coconut homesteads, reduction in number of regular harvests, untimely harvests of coconut, reduction in intercropping, irregularity in basin opening and cultural practices, low level of organic manure application <em>etc</em>. Mechanization in coconut cultivation among small/marginal holders is meagre and needs impetus from supporting agencies. The constraints and suggestions of the farmers were also documented.</p> P Anithakumari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 186 190 Assessment of nitrogen utilization from urea applied in rubber seedling nursery using 15N tracer technique https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5818 <p>Nitrogen uptake from urea applied to rubber seedlings in the nursery was evaluated using <sup>15</sup>N tracer methodology, in micro-plots established in the field. Effect of varying rates of N on growth, and the relative contribution of soil N and fertilizer N towards total N uptake were studied. Influence of rate of N application on growth of seedlings was observed up to three months, and after six months, growth of plants was comparable for all the four N levels. The efficiency of N absorption by the plant, expressed as percentage N utilization ranged from 13.62 per cent at 125 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> to 5.84 per cent at 500 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>. The <sup>15</sup>N balance sheet averaged over the four levels of N shows that about 9.27 per cent of applied N was taken up by rubber seedlings, about 8.78 per cent remained in 0-60 cm depth of soil and about 81.95 per cent was unaccounted N.</p> P Prasannakumari M D Jessy Sherin George Sankar Meti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 191 195 Impact of continuous mechanical harvesting on leaf leatheriness and possible alleviation measures https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5819 <p>Mechanization in plucking has become imperative to improve the profitability and efficiency in tea industry. Continuous shear harvesting of tea shoots creates a stress on plant thereby changing the texture of the crop shoots termed as “leaf leatheriness”. Objective of the study was to generate data on the formation of leaf leatheriness due to continuous shear harvesting and to propose the remedial measures. A factorial block design experiment was conducted with a ‘Chinery’ clone UPASI-9. Results indicated that continuous shear harvesting for a period of six months resulted in the accumulation of total wax content when compared to the hand plucked crop shoots which contributed to the leatheriness of crop shoots. Significant increase in the banji content in the harvest was also noticed due to continuous shear harvesting. Foliar applied chemicals influenced the reduction in banji shoots in the shear harvested treatments. Among the foliar applied treatments, reduction in the total wax content in the continuously shear harvested plots was obtained by the foliar application of KNO<sub>3</sub> (2%) + Urea (1%) followed by KNO<sub>3</sub> (2%) and Ca(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub> (2%) when compared with control. Study concluded that foliar application of KNO<sub>3</sub> (2%) alone or in combination with Urea (1%) is beneficial in alleviating the leaf leatheriness caused due to continuous shear harvesting without deterioration of quality characteristics with a prophylactic effect to improve the yield of tea plants.</p> Jibu Thomas R Raj Kumar A. K.A. Mandal N Muraleedharan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 196 201 Changes in biochemical constituents and defense related enzymes in response to red spider mite incidence in tea https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5821 <p>In recent years, red spider mite (RSM), <em>Oligonychus coffeae</em> (Nietner) menace challenged the crop productivity in tea. Though the reports on bush physiology are available, a compressive data on changes in biochemical constituents including enzymes is lacking. Crop shoots were collected from the field grown tea plants (UPASI-3 &amp; UPASI-10) and segregated into healthy, moderately infested (~4 mites leaf<sup>–1</sup>) and severely infested (&gt;4 mites leaf<sup>–1</sup>). The crop shoots were used for determining the biochemical constituents and quality. Stress-related enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were also analysed. Irrespective of the RSM damage, UPASI-3 significantly recorded higher amount of polyphenols, catechins, amino acids, reducing sugars and carotenoids. UPASI-10 possessed higher amount of total chlorophylls than that of UPASI-3. Irrespective of the clones, polyphenols, catechins, and pigments linearly decreased with severity of RSM infestation while reducing sugars and hydrogen peroxide linearly increased. Irrespective of the RSM damage, crop shoots of UPASI-10 contained significantly lower amount of quality parameters and stress-related enzymes, except polyphenol oxidase. Though quality related enzymes enhanced due to RSM attack initially and declined when the RSM infestation was severe. All the stress related enzymes progressively increased with the increasing degree of RSM damage. Interactions between activities of enzymes and clones with respect to RSM damage were elucidated.</p> D Shalini R. Raj Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 202 208 Adoption of RRII 400 series rubber clones by rubber small growers https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5822 <p>The paper examines the response of small growers to the recommendation of multi-clonal planting in the context of release of RRII 400 series clones for commercial cultivation, since 2005. The data pertaining to 56080.6 ha under 130658 RPD permits, which availed subsidy from the Rubber Board during the seven year period from 2004 to 2010, were gathered from 26 Regional Offices of the Rubber Board located in the traditional rubber growing regions. The study revealed that the adoption had been characterised by the mono-clonal status (95.1%) of RRII 105 till the year 2004. However, the share of RRII 105 declined to 55.7 per cent in 2010. Conversely, share of RRII 400 series clones increased from 1.0 per cent in 2004 to 28 per cent in 2010 in the total planted area. But trends in adoption of new clones did not exhibit a consistent pattern across size-classes and regions during the post-release phase. It is in sharp contrast to the experience of RRII 105 since its release in 1980. Adoption of multi-clonal planting was only 2.6 per cent in 2004 which increased to more than 15 per cent in 2010. Multi-clonal planting was positively associated with the size of holdings during the period under review. But the strength of this relationship has been dependent on region-specific factors. Therefore, the study brings out the need for evolving a long term policy of region-specific clone recommendations based on life-cycle commercial yield performance.</p> S. Veeraputhran T. Siju Joby Joseph K. Tharian George ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 209 213 Production technology of coir pith cake formulation of Trichoderma harzianum https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5823 <p>Low cost formulations and delivery system are necessary for wide adoption of bio-control of plant diseases using microbial antagonists. Though several plantation crops wastes/by-products including coir pith are used for multiplication of <em>Trichoderma</em> species, no attempt has been made so far to develop a low cost commercial product with long shelf life and high population of antagonist. A technology has been developed to prepare a commercial product <em>viz</em>., Trichoderma coir pith cake (TCPC) using ‘maida’ flour and <em>Trichoderma harzianum</em> biomass. It has been found that dried TCPC packed in polythene bags can be stored at room temperature (26-30 °C) for 10 months with high level of <em>T. harzianum</em> population. Through a simple activation process of moistening the dried TCPC and incubating under room temperature for 2 days, luxurious growth of <em>Trichoderma</em> covering the entire product was obtained and thus the population could be increased to a very high level. Mean <em>T. harzianum</em> population in dry TCPC after 10 months of storage was found to be 5.0x10<sup>6</sup> CFU g<sup>–1</sup> which has increased to 14.4x10<sup>6</sup> CFU g<sup>-1</sup> on activation. Though the population after one year could be increased from 1.6x10<sup>6</sup> CFU g<sup>-1</sup> in dry TCPC to 5.2x10<sup>6</sup> in activated, it is ideal to recommend a shelf life period of 10 months while commercializing the product. The new, simple and low cost technology developed, thus, clearly indicates that coir pith, a waste from coconut industry can be made into value added and environment friendly commercial product for management of plant diseases. Several such products can be commercially prepared for different microbial bioagents following this production technology.</p> R. Chandra Mohanan Prabha K. Peter K. M. Sharadraj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 214 218 Laboratory evaluation of pesticides on oviposition, egg mortality and feeding deterrence on cashew stem and root borer, Plocaederus ferrugenius L. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5827 <p>--------------------</p> P. Vasanthi T. N. Raviprasad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 227 232 Identification of variety-specific ISSR markers in small cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.) https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5829 <p>-----------</p> Sherin Jose K. Mary Mathew Y. S. Rao K. M. Kuruvilla M. R. Sudarshan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 233 237 Trend analysis and forecasting coconut production in Assam https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5831 <p>----------------------</p> Sandip Shil G. C. Acharya S. C. Paul Soumen Paul ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 238 241 Performance of selected cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) clones under arecanut and coconut https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5832 <p>-----------</p> S. Elain Apshara ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 242 246 Bio-efficacy of pumpkin phloem lectin on red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) infesting tea https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5833 <p>----------------</p> A. Kalaivani P. Sathyapriya S. Arvinth R. Raj Kumar P. Mohan kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 247 250 Heliconia stricta as intercrop in coconut - Impact of cropping system and nutrition on floral traits https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5835 <p>---------------</p> K. Nihad V. Krishnakumar V. L. Sheela ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 251 254 Management of purple root disease of Hevea brasiliensis seedlings in nursery https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5836 <p>----------------</p> G. C. Mondal H. K. Deka Sabu P. Idicula ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 255 257 New distributional record of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) infesting arecanut in Assam, India https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5838 <p>---------------</p> Himadri Rabha Ranjana Chakrabarty G. C. Acharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 258 260 Effect of stage of harvest on the quality of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5839 <p>-----------------</p> S. Sreekrishna Bhat M. R. Sudharshan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 261 263 Growth performance of the tea clone TRF-1 under Nilgiri conditions https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5840 <p>--------------------</p> B. Radhakrishnan P. Muthukannan N. Manigandan R. Santhosh Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 264 266 Impact of intercropping on root distribution in coconut under coastal sandy soil https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5841 <p>--------------------</p> R. Dhanapal P. Subramanian H. P. Maheswarappa C. B. Harisha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 267 269 Flowering and pollination biology in coconut https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5803 <p>Coconut is a seed propagated crop and knowledge on its flowering and pollination biology will be of significance for optimizing the pollination techniques and also to design efficient conservation strategies in gene banks. Coconut palm is monoecious, with inflorescence bearing both staminate and pistillate flowers. The male flowers are the first to open, beginning at the top of each spikelet and proceeding towards the base. The male phase is followed by female phase and in tall varieties there is a gap between these two phases within the same inflorescence. Although both wind and insects bring about pollination, insect pollination is more predominant. Strategies for employing honey bee colonies in coconut plantations and seed gardens for enhancing pollination and fruit set are discussed. Future lines of work with regard to pollination biology aiming increasing fruit set in coconut seed gardens are also pointed out.</p> Regi J Thomas A Josephrajkumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 109 117 A different approach to soil analysis: Indicative studies https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/JPC/article/view/5826 <p>Soil analysis is a tool that has been employed with the primary goal of providing recommendations for soil rectification, crop productivity and for soil health management. Time tested methods like ammonium acetate extraction and diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) are commonly used for analysis of bioavailable nutrients. However, there are some limitations to these methods as both extraction fluids are buffered to neutral or near-neutral pH. Hence extracted nutrients represent a “potential or ideal-case” fertility status of soil instead of an “actual” field status. In the ‘Regular methods’, we are overlooking the role of pH, the master variable, in determining the availability of nutrients. Hence, in ‘Modified methods’, the extraction fluid is buffered to actual soil pH. Results obtained with over 150 random samples representing a range of pH, have indicated a difference in values between regular and modified extraction methods. The modified methods (MM) of ammonium acetate and DTPA extraction adjusted to soil pH were found to be better than regular method (RM) for estimation of calcium, magnesium with ammonium acetate and iron and manganese with DTPA in alkaline soils above pH 8.0. For a complete picture of soil health, productivity and fertility, microbiological and enzymatic analysis of soils were included in the present study. Soil solution equivalent medium (SSE) was found to be the appropriate culture medium for microbial counts. A linear relationship was found between urease activity and available nitrogen of soil.</p> K. K. Muraleedharan D. P. Verma Ujwala Ranade Malvi G. M. Nandini G. J. Kumar M. S. Shruthi R. Smitha R. Sowmya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 219 226