Journal of Plantation Crops <p>As a multidisciplinary journal, Journal of Plantation Crops (JPC)&nbsp;aims at dissemination of research findings in plantation crops (coconut, arecanut, cocoa, cashew, oil palm, coffee, tea, rubber, date palm), including cropping systems, as well as various spices. Since its inception in 1973, 45 volumes have been published. The journal is published thrice a year during April, August and December and publication of the articles is subject to peer reviewing and recommendation by experts in the field.</p> Update Publishing House en-US Journal of Plantation Crops 0304-5242 Discrimination of a selected set of turmeric, ginger, fenugreek and coriander varieties using ISSR markers <p style="text-align: justify;">DNA fingerprints are unique to individuals and can be used to identify individuals as in the case of conventional fingerprints. Plant DNA fingerprinting make use of various molecular markers for identifying newly released crop varieties and are all the more important in plant variety registration under the PPV&amp;FR Act of 2001. The trade-related intellectual property rights (TRIPS) and the convention on biological diversity (CBD) insist on the establishment of identity and ownership of genotypes for enforcement of their provisions for securing protection to plant varieties as well as for regulating access to germplasm resources. DNA fingerprints, along with morphological markers, can be efficiently utilized for plant varietal identification, detection of duplicates and adulterants. Here in this particular study, the spice samples received at the DNA fingerprinting facility (DNAFF) of ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research (ICAR-IISR) from various centres of All India Coordinated Project on Spices (AICRPS) were DNA fingerprinted using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The DNA profile of a candidate variety <em>vis-a-vis</em> check variety is an essential prerequisite during submission of proposal for release of crop variety to central sub-committee on crop standards notification and release of varieties. The new varieties of turmeric, ginger, coriander and fenugreek were compared with the closely resembling check varieties for establishing distinctness for varietal registration. A total of 118 ISSR primers were screened in the above-given crops, to identify the distinct markers identifying the candidate from the check varieties. Using this technique, the DNAFF at ICAR-IISR could facilitate registration of turmeric varieties, Roma, Rasmi and Suroma; ginger varieties Suruchi, Suravi and Suprabha; coriander varieties, Suguna, Susthira and Suruchi, while varieties of turmeric, Uttara Rupanjana and Uttara Ranjini; fenugreek variety Ajmer fenugreek (AFg-5); coriander varieties Ajmer coriander (ACr-2) and Chhattisgarh Shri Chandra Hasini dhaniya-2 (ICS-4) are in the process of getting registration. ISSR markers were found to be appropriate for establishing distinctness of the new varieties of spices for securing varietal registration.</p> A. Giridhari I.P. Vijesh Kumar T.E. Sheeja ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 161 172 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i3.6622 Potential of soil resources of Coconut Research Station, Aliyarnagar, Tamil Nadu, India for agro-technology generation <p style="text-align: justify;">Potential of soil resources of Coconut Research Station, Aliyarnagar of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University and one of the Centers of ICAR-AICRP (Palms), was assessed by soil profile examination and spatial variability mapping. Three soil profiles were examined, one each in A, B and C blocks of the farm, soils were studied horizon wise samples were collected, and fertility parameters were analyzed. Spatial variability of primary nutrients was mapped employing GIS techniques. Soil profile examination revealed the presence of canker nodules in the lower horizons and the depth of the soil was not a constraint for the cultivation of perennial crops. The texture of the soil varied from loamy sand to sandy clay loam. pH was alkaline and electrical conductivity was less than 2 dSm-1. The content of KMnO<sub>4</sub>-N was low, and Olsen P, NNNH<sub>4</sub>OAc-K and organic carbon were medium. Land capability class was IIIew and was highly suitable (S1) for coconut, moderately suitable (S2) for cocoa and marginally suitable (S3) for pepper. The soil taxonomic class is fine-loamy mixed, isohyperthermic <em>Fluventic/Typic Haplustepts</em>. Rock outcrops were noticed over 5 per cent of the area. Top soil erosion and seepage problems resulting in temporary water logging are the major fertility constraints associated with this farm. Scrupulous application of organic manures, split application of fertilizers, providing trenches in areas of water logging, <em>etc</em>., are the strategies to overcome the constraints, which are existing in the farm.</p> C. Sudhalakshmi R. Kumaraperumal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 171 183 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i3.6625 Discovery of a new Steinernema sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) with higher shelf life and better efficacy against red palm weevil under laboratory conditions <p style="text-align: justify;">Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are excellent bio-control agents for the management of insect pests of soil and cryptic habitat. One of the greatest challenges in the successful utilization of EPN is the poor shelf life of infective juveniles (IJs) under ambient temperature. The present study aimed to evaluate the survival and virulence of different EPN species for determining a superior one in the bio-suppression of red palm weevil (RPW). Among the five species of Steinernematids and two Heterorhabditid isolates evaluated, <em>Steinernema</em> sp. (S0804) sustained up to 13 months, with a desirable survival of 100 per cent during the first five months to about 64 per cent ten months after storage at ambient temperature. Virulence of <em>Steinernema</em> sp. (S0804) sustained up to ten months of storage, was confirmed using <em>Galleria mellonella</em> inoculation test. However, the viable IJs were observed only up to one month in both the Heterorhabditids and up to a period of four to six months of storage in all other Steinernematids. The <em>Steinernema</em> sp. (S0804) was also found to be efficacious against the grubs of RPW in filter paper bio-assay inducing 100 per cent larval mortality in 72 h when applied @ 200 IJs per grub and confirmed further by leaf petiole bioassay. The study thus revealed higher survival and virulence of <em>Steinernema</em> sp. (S0804) and also found to be a potential bio-control agent against RPW. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first EPN isolate reported, which could survive for more than one year at ambient temperature without any additives.</p> K.M. Anes Merin Babu Jinu Sivadasan A. Josephrajkumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 184 191 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i3.6626 Characterization and classification of coconut-growing soils of Maddur, Karnataka and comparative evaluation of their suitability towards tender coconut production <p style="text-align: justify;">A study was conducted along the coconut-growing soils of Karnataka to assess the potential of soils and consequences towards tender coconut production and marketing system. Major coconut-growing soils across the different agro-climatic zones of Karnataka were investigated for their development by studying the soil profiles. It was observed that the soils are moderately well to well-drained, moderately deep to deep black, gravelly or non-gravelly red loamy and clayey in central, eastern and southern dry, southern transitional and coastal zones, with good water holding capacity and medium to high fertility. Soils in Maddur were characterized and classified in this study. It was found that the soils in Maddur are deep, well-drained, gravelly clayey with low available water capacity on undulating inter-fluves, with moderate erosion, classified to clayey-skeletal, mixed, semi-active, isohyperthermic <em>Typic Rhodustalfs</em> at the family level and found to be ideal for tender coconut cultivation due to better rainfall distribution, suitable temperature, the elevation of the area, rooting conditions, moisture availability to roots, favourable soil reaction, higher base saturation, N, K and B levels along with gravelly clayey sub-soil and gravelly sandy loam surface texture.</p> R.K. Avinash K.S. Anil Kumar K.S. Karthika Rajendra Hegde S.K. Singh K. Sujatha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 192 201 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i3.6627 Multivariate analysis of genetic diversity in Phytophthora pod rot resistant exotic cocoa germplasm <p style="text-align: justify;">The current research work was carried out to evaluate the genetic diversity associated with thirty cocoa accessions resistant to <em>Phytophthora</em>. The cluster analysis and principal component analysis evaluated the genetic variability among the different genotypes. The highest number of genotypes were observed in cluster III (8) when qualitative traits were considered. In quantitative cluster analysis, most of the genotypes were placed in separate clusters due to high variability in the germplasm. Principal component (PC) analysis showed that the first three PCs with more than one Eigen-value contributed to 79.9 per cent of variability for different traits. When qualitative and quantitative characters were considered along with resistant reaction, clusters with genotypes highly resistant to <em>Phytophthora</em> pod rot were observed. Hybridization programme involving these resistant hybrids belonging to diverse clusters will result in high yielding hybrids with ample resistance.</p> S.A. Veeresh J.S. Minimol B. Suma P.S. Panchami K.S. Shilpa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 202 212 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i3.6628 Iron filings in tea and its impact on the quality attributes of made tea and tea liquor <p style="text-align: justify;">Presence of iron filings in made tea (MT) is a serious issue in the tea industry with the implementation of FSSAI regulations. In this scenario, the estimation of iron filings in tea is a critical operation. Unfortunately, the widely accepted method of analysis as per IS 3633 is having a lot of limitations to obtain a reproducible result. Attempts were made to quantify the possible factors affecting the accuracy of the result. Critical attempts were also made to investigate the impact of iron filings on the quality attributes of made tea as well as the tea liquor. Other aspects like adulteration of tea with iron filings and its possible health hazards are also discussed.</p> U.I. Baby ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 213 224 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i3.6629 Performance analysis of coconut enterprises facilitated through agribusiness incubators <p style="text-align: justify;">Agribusiness incubators (ABI) catalyze entrepreneurship development by facilitating technology and institutionalized services. The study addresses the performance analysis of enterprises promoted through coconut sector ABIs working in Kerala. Primary and secondary data collected from 30 randomly selected ABI graduated entrepreneurs in business were used to characterize the enterprises. The results indicated that 56 per cent of enterprises joined ABIs at the nascent stage and were able to receive government funding under different subsidy schemes. Majority of enterprises (72%) shared features of micro-enterprises in terms of the number of persons employed (01-10) and annual turnover less than <strong>`</strong> 25 lakh. Most of the micro-enterprises (66%) functioned as sole proprietary firms, whereas small enterprises were registered as limited company/partnership firms (20%). Virgin coconut oil (VCO) was the major product in 40 per cent of enterprises followed by coconut chips (20%), coconut chocolates (10%), desiccated coconut (07), neera and tender coconut water-based drinks (07%). Performances of two purposively selected enterprises producing VCO and coconut chips were undertaken using break-even analysis. Production and sales of both VCO and coconut chips were more than the calculated BEP values of 1000 litres and 500 kg respectively. This indicated that both enterprises operated at profitable levels. The findings suggest that the entrepreneurs who completed the business incubation program had greater success in their business irrespective of the business size. This can be attributed to their greater access to technologies and entrepreneurship development programmes under the ABI.</p> T. Ashwini Binoo P. Bonny S. Lokesh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 225 231 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i3.6630 Effect of bio-inoculants on growth and yield of betel vine (Piper betle) <p style="text-align: justify;">Betel vine (<em>Piper betel</em>) cultivation and the consumption of betel leaves is a very traditional and widespread practice in India and many South-East Asian countries. The marginal and small farmers generally cultivate betel vine in their small holdings which provide them with a means of alternative cash earning to meet their day to day livelihood. Chewing betel leaves is an old habit of the people residing in subtropical countries. It is used in several traditional remedies for the treatment of stomach ailments, infections and as a general tonic. As betel leaf is directly chewed, there is a need to improve the leaf yield and to optimize the usage of manures for the leaf production. A study was taken up to assess the efficacy of some of the bio-inoculants in combination with inorganic fertilizers in betel vine <em>cv.</em> SGM 1 under an open system of deep trench method. Among the various treatments, <em>Azospirillum </em>@ 5 kg coupled with 100 kg each of P and K ha-1 had recorded the highest vine length (195.6 cm), more number of laterals per vine (22.3) and highest leaf yield ha-1 (44.7 lakh).</p> R. Chitra D. Janaki P. Jansirani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 232 236 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i3.6631 Assessment of the status of soil organic carbon stocks under natural forest and plantation ecosystems in southern Karnataka <p style="text-align: justify;">A study was conducted to assess the status of soil organic carbon stocks under selected plantation and altered and natural ecosystems in southern Karnataka. Seven locations were identified for the study following the agro-climatic variability. The sites identified were Brahmavara in Udupi (coastal zone), Balehonnur in Chikkamagalur (hilly zone), Madnur and Salegrama in Hassan (northern and southern transitional zone), Alburu in Tumkur (eastern and southern dry zone), Babbur and Javagamatur in Chitradurga (central dry zone). In each of these zones, natural forest ecosystems were assessed in comparison to the plantation-based ecosystems to understand the changes in soil development with emphasis to soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. The SOC stocks at the surface varied from 1.24 to 6.44 kg m-3 in forests and from 1.53 to 6.51 kg m-3 in different plantation ecosystems. It was found from the study that SOC stocks followed the order hilly zone (per-humid climate) &gt; coastal zone (hot humid climate) &gt; eastern and southern dry zone (moist semi-arid climate) &gt; northern and southern transitional zone (dry sub-humid climate) &gt; central dry zone (dry semi-arid climate). The soils belonged to the order <em>Ultisols</em> and <em>Alfisols</em>. The major taxa of the soils identified at sub-group level of soil taxonomy are <em>Rhodic Kandiustults, Typic Plinthohumults, Ustic Haplohumults, Typic Rhodustalfs, Rhodic Paleustalfs,</em> <em>Kandic Paleustalfs </em>and<em> Typic Haplustalfs.</em></p> , Pradeep K.S. Anil Kumar R.K. Avinash K.S. Karthika ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 237 246 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i3.6632 Tea seed oil: Physicochemical profiling <p style="text-align: justify;">A study was undertaken to evaluate the quality characteristic of tea (<em>Camellia sinensis</em> L.) seed oil. The oil content ranged between 20.84 and 21.90 per cent. Smoke point, iodine value, saponification value, calorific value, refractive index, oil density, oil colour and oil pH were in the range of 247.29 - 251.53 (oC), 82.74 - 85.65 (g I 100-1 g), 185.33 - 185.72 (mg KOH g-1), 6822.53-6891.05 (J per 100 g), 1.46 (at 40 0C), 0.92 - 0.94 (g per cm3), 4.45 - 4.47 (Y+5R) and 4.62 - 4.64, respectively. The oxidation parameters, <em>i.e</em>., peroxide value, ranged from 1.17 - 2.63 meq kg-1. The tea seed oil has PUFA/SFA ratio 0.82 - 1.31 closer to WHO recommended value. Besides, antioxidant activity in term of DPPH free radical scavenging activity ranged between 6.30 - 7.14 per cent, β-carotene 4.62 - 12.93 mg kg-1 and α-tocopherol 90.49 - 366.52 mg kg-1. Highest oleic acid content was found in TSS 1, whereas highest α-tocopherol was found in TS 557. The results open up the possibilities of extracting oil from these bi-clonal seed stocks, which will diversify the use of tea.</p> Pradeep Kumar Patel Rupak Sarma Buddhadeb Das Shobhit Kumar Singh Anoop Kumar Barooah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-12 2020-12-12 247 251 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i3.6633 Community-level management of bio-resources for augmenting income from coconut-based farming systems in Kerala state, India <p style="text-align: justify;">On-farm management of farm residues for mass multiplication of beneficial microbes plays an important role in organic farming as well as integrated nutrient management by improving soil health. Community-level production of organic inputs from crop residues can be a potential source of income for farmers’ groups also. A large scale operational research on community-based bio-resource management, along with soil test based nutrient management, was undertaken by ICAR-CPCRI with financial support from NABARD in the major organic tract of Kerala in the coastal belt - Kanjikuzhy block during 2014-2016. The bio-resource management components under technology integration included farm-level production of organics from crop residues, enrichment using bio-agents, utilization of enriched organics for soil and plant health management and production of bio-primed planting materials. For enhancing the efficiency of <em>Trichoderma-</em>enriched organic manure, two ideal media <em>viz</em>., coir pith compost + neem cake (4:1) and coir pith compost + neem cake + poultry manure + cow dung (2:1:1:1) were standardized. Coconut seedlings produced through bio-priming with <em>Trichoderma</em> sp. showed early germination (90%), higher recovery percentage (79.5%), higher collar girth (17 cm), more number of fronds (9) and height (160 cm). Farm-based participatory action management integrating cost-effective bio-resource management interventions in coconut-based farming systems resulted in improvements in income from coconut by 26 per cent and intercrops by 142.9 per cent, contributing to an increase in the average farm income by 149.8 per cent. The average knowledge index of the respondents related to bio-resource management increased by 115.8 per cent and that of integrated nutrient management by 74.5 per cent.</p> S. Kalavathi Jeena Mathew S. Indhuja Merin Babu K. Muralidharan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-12 2020-12-12 252 258 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i3.6637 Carbon storage and mineralization potential of soils under major plantation crops in the Western Ghats region of Kerala <p>-</p> Phebe Joseph M. D. Jessy Mahesh Mohan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-12 2020-12-12 259 268 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i3.6638 A durable pollination raincoat for hybridization during monsoon in coconut <p style="text-align: justify;">Large-scale production of hybrid seed nuts of coconut is necessary to match the high demand for hybrid seedlings. But in major coconut producing states such as Kerala, Karnataka and Goa hybridisation is carried suspended during monsoon season and out effectively only during dry season for a period of six months from November to May. Some of the reasons attributed to the stoppage of pollination work during monsoon are the slippage of the trunk while climbing, problems in male flower collection and wetting of the pollination bags during heavy rains. Technological developments in coconut sector <em>viz.,</em> the invention of coconut climbing devices and cryopreservation techniques have contributed to safe climbing and pollen storage for utilisation during off-seasons, respectively. However, the wetting of the pollination bag used for hybridization remains a problem. We report the development and successful initial testing of a durable raincoat for the pollination bag so that coconut pollination can be carried out throughout the year in heavy monsoon areas. This reusable raincoat is integrated with the ground pollination unit and can be fitted easily on the pollination bag, and it ensures complete dryness of the pollination bag. Only one climbing per tree is required for emasculation, bagging and raincoat fitting on a single inflorescence. The raincoat has provisions for suspending a pollen delivery tube and pollen dusting and bag removal can be done from the ground. The durable raincoat cover for the pollination bags has resulted in a fruit setting of 22.5-41.3 per cent.</p> K. Devakumar Regi Jacob Thomas Anitha Karun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-12 2020-12-12 269 272 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i3.6639 Effect of Lecanicillium lecanii on date palm scale, Parlatoria blanchardi in date groves of Kachchh, Gujarat, India <p>-</p> C.M. Muralidharan D.A. Baidiyavadra Kapil Mohan Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-12 2020-12-12 273 276 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i3.6640