Journal of Plantation Crops <p>As a multidisciplinary journal, Journal of Plantation Crops (JPC)&nbsp;aims at dissemination of research findings in plantation crops (coconut, arecanut, cocoa, cashew, oil palm, coffee, tea, rubber, date palm), including cropping systems, as well as various spices. Since its inception in 1973, 45 volumes have been published. The journal is published thrice a year during April, August and December and publication of the articles is subject to peer reviewing and recommendation by experts in the field.</p> Scienceflora Publishers Pvt. Ltd. en-US Journal of Plantation Crops 0304-5242 Influence of biochemicals on regulation of bud break, green leaf yield and crop distribution in tea <p>Tea (<em>Camellia</em> sp<em>.</em>) undergoes winter dormancy for a period of 3 to 4 months in north east India. An attempt was made to hasten the bud break and regulate crop distribution by exogenous application of certain biochemicals <em>viz</em>. Jibika (a commercial mixture of GA<sub>3</sub>+GA<sub>4</sub>+GA<sub>7</sub>), indole-3-acetic acid, cycocel, thiourea, methanol, succinic acid and sucrose besides deionised water as control. It was observed that the bud break was hastened by 11 days and the bushes reached 50% bud break stage by 9.3 days earlier due to Jibika treatment as compared to control. The number of primary shoots (158.0) and dry weight of tipped-in primaries (22.1 g/bush) were the highest in Jibika treated bushes while shoot (25.3 cm) and internodal (4.3 cm) length was maximum in thiourea treated bushes. The mean monthly green leaf yield showed a significant variation due to treatments and the total annual green leaf yield was higher (816.8 g/bush) due to sucrose application. Significant increase was recorded in terms of crop distribution by sucrose treat-ment during early (12.4 %) and mid (18.6 %) season while cycocel treatment produced 27.3 % increase in green leaf during end season with respect to control. Early season crop is important from quality point of view and it was effectively enhanced by sucrose. It seems that besides phytohormones, other chemicals can also regulate growth and green leaf yield and thus, could have a great potential in the tea industry.</p> Renu Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2009-10-27 2009-10-27 171 176 Self-sustainability of phosphorus cycle in rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations: Annual recycling through litter and removal through latex <p>Low phosphorus availability is one of the main soil factors limiting forest productivity in tropical and subtropical regions. Rubber (<em>Hevea brasiliensis</em>) trees are predominantly cultivated in warm humid tropics and the self-sustainability of rubber plantation with respect to phosphorus nutrition was studied in a PB 217 plantation planted in 1984 and received phosphorus at various levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>yr<sup>-1</sup>) from 1998 onwards. All the treatments received nitrogen and potassium uniformly at the rate of 30 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>yr<sup>-1</sup>. Before the commencement of the experiment all the trees were uniformly manured with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Yield of latex, recycling of P through litter and removal through latex were quantified during 2003-04. Recycling and removal of other nutrients were also quantified. Yield of latex was not influenced by the levels of P applied. Content of P in litter and latex and quantity of litter added were also not influenced by the levels of P. Recycling and removal of other major and micronutrients were also comparable in all the treatments. Annual recycling of P through litter was marginally greater than removal through latex whereas, recycling of other nutrients was substantially higher than their export through latex. The data indicate the self-sustainability of P cycle in a mature rubber plantation adequately supplied with phosphorus during the actively growing phase.</p> M.D. Jessy A.N. Sasidharan Nair M. Meera Bai P. Rajendran K.I. Punnoose ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2009-10-27 2009-10-27 177 184 Integrated pest management approaches to minimize incidence of cashew stem and root borers (Plocaederus spp.) <p>Cashew (<em>Anacardium occidentale</em> L.) trees infested by cashew stem and root borers (<em>Plocaederus</em> spp<em>.</em>) were treated with insecticides, entomopathogenic fungal spawn and neem oil after extraction of the pest stages in such trees, to prevent fresh infestation; referred to as ‘post extraction prophylaxis’ (PEP). Chlorpyriphos (0.2%) was identified as the most feasible PEP treatment in extensive field trials. Treatment with either neem oil (5 %) swabbing or application of <em>Metarhizium anisopliae</em> spawn (250 g/ tree) were proved to be ineffective in minimizing pest reinfestation, being on par with untreated control. Adoption of phytosanitation by removing the infested trees having more than 50 % bark circumference damage was proved to considerably reduce the number of trees having fresh pest incidence during the subsequent years. The pest population in a given location and also the pest load in infested cashew trees could be drastically reduced by adopting regular phytosanitation.</p> T.N. Raviprasad P. Shivarama Bhat D. Sundararaju ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2009-10-27 2009-10-27 185 189 Genetic analysis in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) <p>Genetic analysis in cashew with 12 genotypes and 14 morphological traits revealed that the genotypes showed significant variation with respect to all characters except number of primary branches. Number of perfect flowers m<sup>-2</sup>, number of nuts m<sup>-2</sup>, apple weight, nut weight and kernel weight provided a clear separation of the genotypes. Number of perfect flowers m<sup>-2</sup> and number of nuts m<sup>-2</sup> had high heritability indicating the reliability of these traits in selection. Number of nuts m<sup>-2</sup> also had significant positive correlation and direct effect on yield. Apple weight showed significant negative correlation and significant negative direct effect with yield. Cluster analysis could group the accessions into four clusters. Cluster I (Sulabha, Priyanka and P-3-2) and Cluster II (Mdk-1, AKM-1 and K-22-1) were the most divergent. Members of these two clusters can be utilized for hybridization in all possible combinations to yield superior cashew hybrids.</p> D. Ushavani V.G. Jayalekshmy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2009-10-27 2009-10-27 190 195 Field evaluation of Trichoderma harzianum, Pochonia chlamydosporia and Pasteuria penetrans in a root knot nematode infested black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) garden in India <p>Two fungal bioagents (<em>Trichoderma harzianum</em> and <em>Pochonia chlamydosporia</em>) and a bacterial endoparasite (<em>Pasteuria penetrans</em>) were evaluated for biological control of nematodes in a black pepper garden in Waynad District of Kerala, India for five years (1998-2001) in a randomized block design with six treatments replicated thrice. The yellowing of vines in the experimental plot has decreased in all the treatments after the first year onwards. After four years, the lowest incidence of yellowing (15.25 %) was noticed in plots treated with phorate followed by plots treated with <em>P. chlamydosporia</em> (20.78 %) and <em>P. penetrans</em> (24.13 %). The highest mean yield (1.83 kg vine<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained in <em>P. chlamydosporia</em> treated plots followed by combined application of phorate and potassium phosphonate (1.50 kg vine<sup>-1</sup>). The lowest mean population of root-knot nematodes in black pepper roots was observed in phorate + potassium phosphonate treated plants followed by <em>P. penetrans</em> treated plants. The final nematode level was the lowest in <em>P. chlamydosporia </em>treated plots. The study has clearly proved the efficacy of these bioagents, especially<em> P. chlamydosporia </em>for managing root knot nematodes in black pepper gardens.</p> Santhosh J. Eapen B. Beena K.V. Ramana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2009-10-27 2009-10-27 196 200 Estimating cost of production of coconut in a region <p>A methodology for estimating cost of production of coconut in a region is proposed by taking into account the establishment cost of the garden as well as the annual maintenance cost. Stratified multistage sampling design was adopted for collecting data from different growth stages of the crop. District level estimates of cost of production of coconut have been worked out on the basis of a survey carried out in three districts of Kerala state namely Kozhikode, Ernakulam and Thiruvannanthpuram. The cost of production of coconut (i.e., all paid out cost (Cost A) + imputed family labour) per 100 nuts, in Kozhikode, Ernakulam and Thiruvannanthpuram districts as estimated from the survey data is Rs. 198, 374 and 293, respectively for the year 2001. The per cent standard error obtained was 11.18, 15.4 and 15.45 in that order. The methodology evolved in this study can be used for arriving cost of production in all the major coconut growing districts/states in India.</p> U.C. Sud H.V.L. Bathla K. Muralidharan D.C. Mathur C. Thamban C.V. Sairam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2009-10-27 2009-10-27 201 205 Status of red palm weevil damage in East Godavari district and strategies for control with ecofriendly methods <p>A roving survey conducted during 2003 and 2004 to assess the damage level of red palm weevil in four major coconut growing districts of Andhra Pradesh i.e., East Godavari, West Godavari, Visakhapatnam and Srikakulam revealed East Godavari district as the hot spot area for the pest. Root feeding with Azadirachtin 5 % WSC was found effective in preventing further damage and spread of red palm weevil in the garden. The study confirmed that azadirachtin 5 % WSC can be a suitable botanical substitute for monocrotophos 36 % SL through root feeding against this pest. Aggregation pheromone lures deployed in various infested gardens decreased the damage levels of red palm weevil. A sustainable IPM for red palm weevil was suggested with ecofriendly components.</p> A. Sujatha M.S.V. Chalam S. Arulraj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2009-10-27 2009-10-27 206 211 Performance of Indian Indigo (Indigofera tinctoria L.) accessions as intercrop in coconut garden <p>Thirty accessions of Indian indigo (<em>Indigofera tinctoria</em> L.<em>),</em> collected from inside and outside Kerala, were grown in a coconut plantation so as to identify the superior accessions with respect to leaf yield and indigo dye content. Observations were taken at various growth stages namely pre-flowering (90 DAS), flowering (150 DAS) and seed maturation stages (240 DAS). The best ten accessions that recorded maximum leaf yield and glycoside content, obtained from phase I experiment were selected for the phase II experiment. Considerable variations were not noticed in plant height increment in different accessions during both the phases. The accessions differed significantly with respect to plant spread in both the phases. Among the accessions, those that revealed a trend to dominate in plant spread increment during both the phases were IT-105, IT-108 and IT-114. Accession IT-109 dominated in the increment of number of leaves during phase I experiment. Accessions IT-96, IT-99, IT-101, IT-106 and IT-108 were found superior with respect to shoot fresh weight and dry weight in both the phases of the experiment. IT-96, IT-99 and IT-101 were superior in terms of indigo dye content. The present study has revealed the genetic superiority of IT-96, IT-99 and IT-101 accessions in terms of leaf yield and indigo dye content, when grown as intercrop in coconut plantation.</p> S. Sarada B.R. Reghunath ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2009-10-27 2009-10-27 212 216 Effect of stimulation in the stress responses in Hevea brasiliensis R. Krishnakumar P.K Ambily James Jacob ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2009-10-27 2009-10-27 217 220 Studies on fruit growth pattern in nutmeg P.M. Haldankar B.M. Jamadagni P.C. Haldavnekar V.V. Shinde D.D. Nagwekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2009-10-27 2009-10-27 221 225 Biology of Helopeltis theivora (Heteroptera: Miridae) on tea (Camellia sinensis) in the sub Himalayan region Somnath Roy Ananda Mukhopadhyay G. Gurusubramanian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2009-10-27 2009-10-27 226 228 Management of rot diseases of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) using bioagents A.K. Vijayan Joseph Thomas K. Dhanapal J. Thomas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2009-10-27 2009-10-27 229 231 Status of available major and micronutrients in the coffee soils of Chikmagalur district in Karnataka N. Hariyappa M. Violet D'Souza J.S. Nagaraj M.A. Anantha Kumar Jayarama . ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2009-10-27 2009-10-27 232 234 Effect of pre treatments and methods of blanching on the quality of turmeric K.A. Athmaselvi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2009-10-27 2009-10-27 235 238 Breeding Plantation Tree Crops: Tropical Species <p>-</p> SM Jain PM Priyadarshan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2009-10-27 2009-10-27 239 241