Journal of Plantation Crops 2019-06-21T13:24:53+0530 Editor Open Journal Systems <p>As a multidisciplinary journal, Journal of Plantation Crops (JPC)&nbsp;aims at dissemination of research findings in plantation crops (coconut, arecanut, cocoa, cashew, oil palm, coffee, tea, rubber, date palm), including cropping systems, as well as various spices. Since its inception in 1973, 45 volumes have been published. The journal is published thrice a year during April, August and December and publication of the articles is subject to peer reviewing and recommendation by experts in the field.</p> Studies on genetic uniformity of Chowghat Green Dwarf and Malayan Green Dwarf varieties of coconut using molecular and morphometric methods 2019-06-20T17:55:50+0530 Regi J. Thomas M.K. Rajesh P.M. Jacob Mejosh Jose R.V. Nair <p>Two coconut varieties viz., Chowghat Green Dwarf (CGD) and Malayan Green Dwarf (MGD) were subjected to morphometric and molecular studies to assess their genetic uniformity. Since both these varieties possess traits for high yield and resistance to root (wilt) disease, they have already been released for cultivation in the root (wilt) disease prevalent tracts. Forty two CGD palms from ‘disease hotspots’ were analyzed using 43 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Monomorphic bands were detected in all the CGD samples with 41 primers, which is an indication of its genetic uniformity. A single CGD palm showed polymorphism with two SSR primers. Forty eight MGD palms were analyzed using 24 SSR primers. The MGD palms clustered at 62 per cent similarity. Analysis of morphological and fruit component characters of CGD and MGD population revealed that both the populations were phenotypically uniform. Breeding behaviour studies revealed that both CGD and MGD were predominantly self pollinated, like other dwarf varieties of coconut. There was complete overlapping of male and female phases in almost 96 per cent of CGD palms. Almost 100 per cent self-pollination was ensured in these palms as male phase prolonged even after completion of female phase. However, only 60 per cent of the MGD palms showed complete overlapping and in the remaining 40 per cent palms, there was only partial overlapping of male and female phases. From the present study, it is inferred that breeding behavior and genetic uniformity could be highly correlated in coconut. Collection of seed nuts preferably from mother palms with overlapping of male and female phases could possibly ensure production of true to type progenies in dwarf varieties of coconut. Present study also indicated that molecular markers like SSRs may be used to identify genetically pure mother palms for varietal improvement programmes in coconut.</p> 2015-07-11T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Long term yield of rubber and timber in some promising Prang Besar clones in India 2019-06-20T17:59:31+0530 Kavitha K. Mydin Alice John C. Narayanan <p>Nine Prang Besar clones were evaluated in a large scale trial laid out in 1989 at the Central Experiment Station of the Rubber Research Institute of India. Rubber yield and its attributes including girth, girth increment rate under tapping, summer yield and secondary traits like incidence of pink disease and tapping panel dryness (TPD), were studied along with stability in long term yield in the clones in relation to the high yielding popular clone RRII 105. Long term yield over 14 years was highest in clones PB 280 (70.7 g tree-1 tap-1), PB 312 (70 g tree-1 tap-1) and PB 314 (68.8 g tree-1 tap-1) which were comparable and superior to rest of the clones. PB 311 was the second best yielding clone with 65.5 g tree-1 tap-1 over 14 years of tapping. This clone was the only promising yielder with stability in yield over the years. In terms of summer yield , the clone PB 280, recorded the best performance in all the three panels indicating its capability to produce more latex in the summer months too when the trees undergo stresses from refoliation as well as low moisture and high temperatures. The promising yielders from the present study, clones PB 280, PB 312 and PB 314 showed very low incidence of pink disease in the immature stage with only 1.5 to 1.7 per cent trees affected. The occurrence of TPD after 16 years of tapping was lowest in clone PB 280 (10.7%) and high in PB 314 (26.6 per cent). Estimates of genetic parameters revealed rubber yield and bole volume to be highly heritable traits. Correlations revealed yield per unit girth to have a close relationship with yield over 14 years and summer yield over 11 years. Clone PB 280 has proven to be a high yielding clone with very good secondary attributes like low incidence of pink disease and TPD. Clone PB 312 has proved its merit as a very promising latex timber clone. PB 314, among the best rubber yielding clones with a high yield per unit girth (0.8 g dry rubber cm-1 girth), though prone to TPD, has shown a low incidence of pink disease. The study indicates scope for further upgradation of clones PB 280, PB 312 and PB 314 in the planting recommendations for the traditional rubber growing regions of India.</p> 2015-07-11T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Maintenance of embryogenic potential of calli derived from embryonic shoot of West Coast Tall cv. of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) 2019-06-20T18:08:44+0530 U. Bhavyashree K. Lakshmi Jayaraj K.E. Rachana K.S. Muralikrishna K.K. Sajini M.K. Rajesh Anitha Karun <p>Maintenance of embryogenic potential of calli is important as the totipotency is often lost in a short time in vitro. This caters to the need for year round availability of somatic embryos in a regenerable state. In the present study, 14 media combinations, with either 2,4-D or picloram as auxin source, were tested for maintaining embryogenic calli obtained from embryonic shoot explants of coconut. Irrespective of type and concentration of auxins, callusing was observed in all the media combinations. However, high dose of 2,4-D (above 74.6 μM) in the initial medium resulted in intense browning and lesser percentage of callusing. Embryogenic nature of calli could be maintained to a maximum of 21 weeks in medium supplemented with 2,4-D (74.6 μM) and subsequent culturing into higher concentration of 2,4-D (90.4 μM). Gene expression studies carried out using qRT-PCR revealed that genes such as ECP, GST, LEAFY and WUS were highly expressed in long term embryogenic calli (21 week old) and genes such as SERK, GLP, WRKY and PKL in initial embryogenic calli (21 days old). The study concludes that coconut plumular calli could be maintained for longer periods without compromising on the embryogenic potential of the calli.</p> 2015-07-11T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Studies on genetic relationships and diversity in arecanut (Areca catechu L.) germplasm utilizing RAPD markers 2019-06-21T13:24:53+0530 B.G. Bharath K.S. Ananda N.R. Nagaraja K.P. Chandran Anitha Karun M.K. Rajesh <p>In the present investigation, genetic relationship among 60 arecanut germplasm, consisting of both indigenous and exotic accessions, were assessed using 14 polymorphic RAPD primers. The average polymorphism was 6.64 markers per primer. The PIC values among the 14 primers ranged from 0.19 to 0.49. Similarity values among the accessions ranged between 0.68 and 0.93. Cluster analysis revealed two major clusters. The Indian collections Konkan I, Konkan II and Maidhan formed a separate cluster. All the collections from Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Fiji, Solomon Islands, Singapore and China and some Indian collections (viz., Andaman and Nicobar Islands and North East germplasm collections) formed a second cluster. The clustering pattern was, in general, in accordance with the geographical origin of the collections. The results obtained from this study are crucial for developing effective management strategies for genetic improvement of arecanut.</p> 2019-06-26T15:51:22+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Growth and yield of new generation clones of Hevea under the agroclimate of sub-Himalayan West Bengal 2019-06-21T12:16:08+0530 G. Das T. Meenakumari S. Meti S. Kumar Kavitha K. Mydin <p>Five rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) clones of the RRII 400 series derived from a cross involving RRII 105 and RRIC 100, along with five other popular clones viz. PB 217, RRII 176, RRII 203, RRII 105 and RRIM 600, were evaluated in Jalpaiguri district of sub- Himalayan West Bengal. Growth of clones in the immature and mature phases, rubber yield over seven years of tapping, biomass and timber yield were recorded for assessing the suitability of clones to the region. Clones RRII 429, RRII 417 and RRII 203 were superior in performance in the region compared to the recommended clone RRIM 600. Estimates of genetic parameters revealed comparatively high heritability and scope for improvement of rubber yield by selection.</p> 2015-07-11T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of organic farming practices in cocoa in India 2019-06-21T12:33:39+0530 D. Jaganathan C. Thamban C.T. Jose S. Jayasekhar K. Muralidharan K. P. Chandran <p>The study was conducted among 120 cocoa growers drawn randomly from one district each from Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states. Profile characteristics of farmers were quantified based on socio-personal, psychological and economic variables. Majority of farmers were middle aged (64.2%), literate (96%), with less than 2 ha area under cocoa (64%) and farmers having livestock (77%). Most of the farmers had medium level of social participation, extension orientation and mass media exposure. One fifth of farmers had undergone training on organic farming, soil testing was done by nearly 31 per cent farmers and very few farmers (5%) had done organic certification. Mulching and use of green leaf manure were the main agronomic practices. Main organic inputs which were produced or prepared at the farm were, farm yard manure, crop residues, cow dung slurry, ash and vermicompost. Farm yard manure, neem cake, biofertilizers, goat manure etc. were the major inputs which were purchased from the market. Majority of cocoa growers (68.3%) had medium level of knowledge about organic farming practices. Knowledge of farmers on biocontrol agents (35%), botanical pesticides (33.3%) and biofertilizers (31.7%) was recorded. Variables like, education, social participation, extension orientation, mass media exposure and training attended were found to have positive and significant relationship with knowledge on organic farming practices. The mean yield and productivity of cocoa was found to be 1.2 kg dry beans tree-1year-1 and 608 kg dry beans ha-1 respectively. Gross income from cocoa was calculated as `170 tree-1year-1 and ` 83377 ha-1. Non-availability of labour, non-availability of quality organic inputs, difficulty in controlling pests and diseases by organic methods and lack of knowledge about organic farming practices were the major constraints.</p> 2015-07-11T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of processing parameters on recovery of hot process virgin coconut oil and co-products utilization 2019-06-21T12:39:42+0530 M.R. Manikantan M. Arivalagan A.C. Mathew K.B. Hebbar <p>Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is growing in popularity as functional food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical oil. The high cost of VCO is due to its low recovery. In order to improve the recovery, the effect of milk expelling methods (manual and mechanical) and pre- treatments (slicing, pulverizing and blanching) on coconut milk and hot process VCO recovery with respect to fresh coconut kernel weight was studied. The blanching and pulverizing yielded more milk and VCO recovery in both manual and mechanical expelling methods. The recovery of coconut milk and VCO ranged from 34.0 to 51.6 per cent and 14.2 to 22.4 per cent respectively. Among the different treatment combinations, pulverized, blanched and double screw pressed coconut kernel yielded the highest milk and VCO recovery. The per cent recovery of two important co-products namely coconut milk residue and VCO cake ranged from 38.5 to 55.6 and 6.3 to 8.8 respectively. An attempt was made to recover the oil from 8 per cent dried coconut milk residue and VCO cake in commercial oil expeller. The oil recovery from milk residue and VCO cake flour was 41.2±1.1 per cent and 25.8±1.0 per cent respectively. The dried coconut milk residue and VCO cake flour was utilized in the preparation of extrudates and sweet snacks along with the broken rice, maize grits and pearl millet grits.</p> 2015-07-11T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance of cashew types under Bhubaneswar condition 2019-06-21T12:46:11+0530 K. Sethi K.C. Mohapatra P. Tripathy P.C. Dash <p>An experiment was conducted at the Cashew Research Station of Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India during 1994 to 2011 to identify the cashew types for commercial cultivation under Odisha condition. Evaluation of the 13 cashew types over fourteen years revealed significant variations for nut yield among the types. The result indicated a wide range of variation for different parameters under study. The maximum average number of nuts panicle-1 was recorded in H 303 (4.19). Highest weight (g) of nut as well as apple was observed in H 367 (9.7 and 92.7). All the cashew types under study exhibited shelling percentage more than 28 but maximum kernel recovery was observed in H 255 (31.7). BPP 30/1 and M44/3 were the early flowering types that recorded panicle initiation during 4th week of November, whereas NRCC Sel.-1 and H 255 were late flowering types that flowered during first week of January. The flowering period ended first in M 15/4 (1st week February) while it was during 3rd week of March in H 255 and BPP 3/28. Maximum flowering duration was observed in BPP 30/1 (96 days) and minimum in NRCC Sel.-2 (59 days). The cumulative nut yield (kg plant-1) at 14th harvest was observed in H 303 (106.8) followed by NRCC Sel.-2 (100.0), H 68 (93.1) and lowest in M 15/4 (37.5).</p> 2015-07-11T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Farm School - An extension tool to increase productivity of rubber smallholdings by improving tapping standards 2019-06-21T13:23:00+0530 B. Rajeevan L. Anita Devi Ramesh B. Nair 2015-07-11T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antifungal activity of plant extracts against Pestalotiopsis palmarum causing leaf blight disease of coconut 2019-06-21T13:23:09+0530 A.R. Rasmi 2015-07-11T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Management of mycoflora in copra using chemicals and biocontrol agents 2019-06-21T13:23:16+0530 K. Rajappan M. Surulirajan S. Arulraj 2015-07-11T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wallacea sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) – A new spindle infesting leaf beetle on coconut palm in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands 2019-06-21T13:23:23+0530 K.D. Prathapan K.M. Shameem 2015-07-11T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Management of stem bleeding disease of coconut using Trichoderma sp. and organics 2019-06-21T13:23:30+0530 G. Lekha P. Muralidharan P. Anithakumari 2015-07-11T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of locally available substrates for mass production of Trichoderma 2019-06-21T13:23:40+0530 V.H. Prathibha K.M. Sharadraj K. Nidhina Vinayaka Hegde 2015-07-11T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement##