Soil quality assessment and phytoaccumulation potentials of selected edible vegetables around Ntigha solid waste dump, Abia State, Nigeria
The present study evaluated the impact of open solid waste dumping on soil physicochemical characteristics, enzyme activities, soil heavy metals and bioavailability of these metals in selected edible vegetables. Twenty-six soil samples were collected from 13 different points. The considered points were center of the dumpsite (DC), 4 meters away east (E1), west (W1), north (N1), and south (S1) from the center of the dumpsite; and 8 meters away east (E2), west (W2), north (N2) and south (S2) from the center of the dumpsite. The controls were taken 100 meters away from the dumpsite center east (E3), west (W3), north (N3), and south (S3). Soil samples were collected at the depth of 0-45cm and 46-90cm at each point. Results obtained showed the physicochemical and enzyme activities of the center of the dumpsite (DC) were affected when compared to other points considered in this study. Significant differences between soil depths were also observed. Soil heavy metals also showed significant increase in dumpsite compared to control soils (P<0.05). Phytoavailability of the heavy metals studied showed that vegetables grown around Ntigha dumpsite accumulated significant level of the metals compared to their control counterparts (P<0.05). This study has revealed that open pit disposal of solid waste increased the phytoaccumulation potentials of edible vegetables grown around the dumpsite. Hence proper waste disposal method is advocated so as to prevent bioaccumulation of these heavy metals in human food chain.
2. Osuocha, K.U., Akubugwo, E. I., Chinyere, G. C., Ezekwe, A.S., Duru M. K and Nwaogu, L. A. Effects of mining effluent contaminated soil treated with fertilizers on growth parameters, chlorophyll and proximate composition of cucurbita pepo vegetable. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES) 2013: 3(9): 1-8.
3. Osuocha, K.U., Akubugwo E.I., Chinyere G.C and Ugbogu E.A Seasonal impact on phyto-accumulation potentials of edible vegetables grown in Ishiagu quarry mining effluent discharge soil. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2016. 10(1):34-43
4. Amadi, A. N., Ameh, M. I. and Jisa, J. The impact of dump-sites on groundwater quality in Markurdi Metropolis, Benue State. Natural and Applied Sciences Journal 2010: 11(1): 90 – 102.
5. Alina, D. S., Cornel, D., Cornelia, C and Maria, S. Field management effects on soil enzyme activities. Romanian Agricultural Research 2008: 5:62-68.
6. Sunday, B., Martins, O. O. and John S. O. Assessment of impact of some waste dumpsites on the groundwater quality in parts of Akure metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology 2012: 2: 528-536.
7. Awomeso, J. A., Taiwo, A. M., Gbadebo, A. M., and Arimoro, A. O. Waste disposal and pollution management in urban areas: A workabale remedy for the environment in developing countries. American Journal of Environmental Sciences 2010: 6(1): 26 – 32.
8. Anwesha, B., Sanghamitra, S and Sribir, S. Soil phosphatase activity of agricultural land: A possible index of soil fertility. Agricultural Science Research Journals 2012: 2(7): 412-419.
9. Awopetu M.S., Ronke G.A., Esther D.S., Akinde O.C Municipal solid waste management and the role of waste pickers in Nigeria. International Journal of Education and Research 2014 2(3):1-12.
10. Akubugwo, I. E., Ogbuji, C.G., Chinyere, G.C. and Ugbogu, A.E. Physicochemical properties and enzymes activity studies in a refined oil contaminated soil in Isiukwuato, Abia State, Nigeria. Biokemistri J. 2009 21(2): 79-84
11. Amadi, A. N., Olasehinde, P. I., Okosun, E. A., Okoye, N. O., Okunlola, I. A., Alkali, Y. B. and Dan-Hassan, M. A. A comparative study on the impact of Avu and Ihie dumpsites on soil quality in Southeastern Nigeria. American Journal of Chemistry 2012): 2(1): 17-23.
12. Sakai, S., Sawell, S. E and Chandler, A.J. World trends in municipal solid waste management. (J). Waste Mange. 1996: 16 (5/6): 341-350.
13. Chopra, A. K. Pathak, C. and Prasad. G. (2009): Scenario of heavy metal contamination in agricultural soil and its management. Journal of Applied and Natural Sciences 1: 99 – 108.
14. APHA Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association and Water Pollution Control Federal 2oth ed, Washington DC, USA. 1998
15. Dewis, J. and Freitas, F. Physical and chemical methods of soil and water analysis. Soil Bulletin, 10. pp.1-275. FAO, Rome. 1970
16. AOAC (2005): Association of Analytical Chemists, Official methods of Analysis. Washington, D.C. USA
17. Tabatabai, M. Soil enzymes In: Methods of soil analysis, part 2. Agronomy monograph, Vol.9.Page A.L (ed). American Society of Agronomy. Madison. 1982 pp. 903-904.
18. Alef, K and Nannipieri, P. Method in applied soil microbiology and biochemistry. Academy Press New York. 1995 pp.214-218.
19. Nannipieri, P., Kandeler, E and Ruggiero, P. Enzyme activities and microbiological and biochemical process in soil. In: Burns, R.G. and R. Dick (Eds.) Enzyme in the environment. Marcel Delker, New York, 2002 pp. 1-33.
20. Tabatabai, M. A and Bremner, J.M): Use of p-nitrophenylpospahte for assay of soil phosphate activity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 1972 1:301-307.
21. Onuh, M. O, and Igwemma, A. A. Applied statistical techniques for business and basic sciences. Skill mark media Ltd, Owerri. 2000 pp. 176.
22. Wyszkowska, J. and Kuchariski, J. Biochemical properties of soil contaminated by petrol. Journal of Environmental Studies. 2000 9:479-485
23. Akubugwo, I. E., Ofoegbu, C.J., Dike, C.C and Ugbogu, A.E. Effect of mining operations on the physicochemical properties and microbial diversity of soil from Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied and Environmental Sciences 2010 6:46-51.
24. Tabatabai MA Effect of trace elements on urease activity in soils. Soil Biol Biochem. 1977 9:9–13.
25. Olalade, I.A., Ashoghon, A.O. and Adeyemi, O. Plants level of chromium and nickel at a refuse tie, any positive impact? J. Appl. Sci. 2007 (In press
26. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Test methods for evaluating solid waste: Physical/chemical methods (3rd ed.) Method 3050B, Acid Digestion of sediment sludges and soils, USEPA Washington, DC, SW-846 1996
27. Chinyere, G.C., Nwankwo T.N and Osuocha K.U Studies on soil anions, cations and enzyme activities at Mgbunjuku- Port-Harcourt, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2013 16-23
28. Deng, S. P. and Tabatabai, M. A. Effect of tillage and residue management on enzyme activities in soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils 1997 24: 141-146.
29. Li, H., Zhang, Y., Zhang, C.G and Chen, G.X. Effects of petroleum containing waste water irrigation on bacterial diversities and enzymatic activities in a paddy soil irrigation area. J. Environ. Qual. 2005 34:1073-1080.
30. Oliveira, A. and Pampulha, M.E.C. Effects of long-term heavy metal contamination on soil microbial characteristics. J. Biosc. Bioeng. 2006 102(3):157-161.
31. Nwaugo, V.O., Onyeagba, R. A., Azu,N. and Nworie, O Petroleum produced (formation) water induced changes in bacterial quality and soil enzymatic activities in a farmland in Egbema Southern, Nigeria. Estud. Biol. J. .2007 20 (66): 89-97.
32. Simpson, J. R, Freney, J. R., Wetselaar, R., Muirhead, W. A., Leuning, R., and Denmead, O. T. Transformations and losses of urea nitrogen after application to flooded rice. Aust J Agric Res 1984 35:189–200.
33. Simpson, J. R., Freney. J. R. Interacting processes in gaseous nitrogen loss from urea applied to flooded rice fields. In: Pushparajah E, Husin A, Bachik A.T. (eds) Proceedings of international symposium on urea technology and utilization. Malaysian Society of Soil Science, Kuala Lumpur, 1988 pp 281–290.
34. Zantua, M.I and Bremner, J.M. Stability of urease in soils. Soil Biol Biochem. 1977: 9:135–140.
35. Yang, Z., Liu, S., Zheng, D. and Feng, S, Effects of cadmium, zinc and lead on soil enzyme activities. Journal of Environmental Science. 2006 18:1135–1141.
36. Dick, R. P., Breakwell, D.P and Turco, R. F Soil enzyme activities and biodiversity measurements as integrative microbiological indicators. In: Methods for Assessing Soil Quality, vol.9. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Madison, WI, 1996: pp.9-17.