• Touheed Iqbal Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • Iqbal Hussain, Nazir Ahmad Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China
  • Muhammad Nauman, Mujahid Ali, Saad Saeed, Muhammad Zia The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Fawad Ali Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan


Development of rice cultivars with appreciative performance is one of the prime objectives of rice breeding programs. In this regard, the current experiment was conducted during 2016 at Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The aims of the study were to generate scientific information on nature and magnitude of genetic variability and relationship of yield and related attributes and to classify genotypes into distinct clusters on the basis of quantitative traits. Fourteen elite rice genotypes were evaluated following randomized complete block design with three replications. Analysis of variance manifested significant (P ≤ 0.01) differences among genotypes based on the studied triats viz., panicle emergence, flag leaf area, effective tillers plant-1, panicle length, primary branches and grains panicle-1, 1000 grain eight and paddy yield plot-1, except physiological maturity. The magnitudes of PCV and GCV were higher (>20%) in all the studied traits, except physiological maturity, reflecting wide spectrum of variability and offering greater opportunities for selection. Similarly, the magnitude of broad-sense heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean was moderate to high for majority of traits, indicating additive gene action in their inheritance hence, amenable for simple selection. Correlation analysis revealed that paddy yield manifested significantly positive correlation with physiological maturity (r = 0.46**) and negative correlation with 1000-grain weight (r = -0.30*). The dendrogram grouped 14 rice genotypes into four clusters. Cluster IV incorporated the highest number of genotypes, which also had highest cluster mean for paddy yield. Therefore, prominence should be given to genotypes aggregated in cluster IV that having high yield potentiality. Based on mean performance, Irrigated-04, E-93, E-94 and E-107 showed superiority in respect of paddy yield and some other traits, hence these lines could be recommended for varietal development.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Smith CW, Dilday RH. Rice: Origin, history, technology, and production, 1st ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. 2003.
2. Augustina UA, Iwunor OP, Ijeoma OR. Heritability and character correlation among some rice genotypes for yield and yield components. J. Plant Breed. Genet. 2013;1:73-84.
3. Nirmaladevi G, Padmavathi G, Kota S, Babu VR. Genetic variability, heritability and correlation coefficients of grain quality characters in rice (Oryza sativa L.). SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 2015;47: 424-433.
4. Selvi R, Muthiah AR, Maheswaran M, Shanmugasundaram. Genetic diversity in the genus Vigna based on morphological traits and isozyme markers. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 2003;35:103-112.
5. Megloire N. The genetic, morphological and physiological evaluation of African cowpea genotypes. University of Free State. 2005.
6. Obute GC. The morphological characterization of an aneuploid Vigna unguiculata (L.). Walp Nigr. J. Genet. Breed. 2001;55:307-311.
7. De Datta SK. Principles and practices of Rice production. John Wiley and sons New York. 1981;p618.
8. Bagati S, Singh AK, Salgotra RK, Bhardwaj R, Sharma M, Rai SK, Bhat A. Genetic variability, heritability and correlation coefficients of yield and its component traits in basmati rice. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 2016;48:445-452.
9. Tejaswini KLY, Kumar R, Mohammad LA, Raju SK, Srinivas M, Rao PVR. Study of genetic parameters in F5 families of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Int. J. Environ. Agric. Biotechnol. 2016;1:735-738.
10. Bitew JM. Estimation of genetic parameters, heritability and genetic advance for yield related traits in upland rice (Oryza sativa L. and Oryza glaberrima Steud) genotypes in northwestern Ethiopia. WSN. 2016;47:340-350.
11. Jayasudha S, Sharma D. Genetic parameters of variability, correlation and path-coefficient for grain yield and physiological traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under shallow lowland situation. Electronic J. Plant Breed. 2010;1:1332-1338.
12. Ratna M, Begum S, Husna A, Dey SR, Hossain MS. Correlation and path coefficients analyses in basmati rice. Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 2015;40:153-161.
13. Vural H, Karasu A. Variability studies in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties grown in Isparta, Turkey. Revista UDO Agricola, 2007;7:29-34.
14. Steel RGD, Torrie JH, Dickey DA. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometric Approach (3rd Ed.) McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. USA. 1997.
15. Burton GW, DeVane EM. Estimating heritability in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) from replicated clonal material. Agron. J. 1953;45:478-481.
16. Burton GW. Quantitative inheritance in grasses proceedings of 6th Grassland congress J. 1952;1:277-281.
17. Deshmukh SN, Basu MS, Reddi PS. Genetic variability, character association and path coefficient of quantitative traits in Virginia bunch varieties of groundnut. Indian J. Agric. 1986;56:816-821.
18. Falconer DS. Introduction to quantitative genetics (3rd). Longman Scientific and Technical, Longman House, Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex, England. 1989.
19. Robinson HF, Comstock RE, Harvey PH. Estimates of heritability and the degree of dominance in corn. Agron. J. 1949;42:353–359.
20. Allard RW. Principles of Plant Breeding. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 1960.
21. Comstock RE, Robinson HF. Genetic parameters, their estimation and significance. Proc. 6th Intl. Grassland Cong. 1952;1:284-291.
22. Johnson HW, Robinson HF, Comstock RE. Estimates of genetic and environmental variability in soybean. Agron. J. 1955;47:314-318.
23. Kwon SH, Torrie JH. Heritability and interrelationship of traits of two soybean populations. Crop Sci. 1964;4:196-198.
24. Ward JH. Hierarchical grouping to optimize an objective function. ‎J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 1963;58:236–244.
25. Anis G, El-sabagh A, Ghareb A, El-Rewainy I. Evaluation of promising lines in rice (Oryza sativa L.) to agronomic and genetic performance under Egyptian condition. Int. J. Agron. Agric. Res. 2016;8:52-57.
26. Konate AK, Zongo A, Kam H, Sanni A, Audebert A. Genetic variability and correlation analysis of rice (Oryza sativa L.) inbred lines based on agro-morphological traits. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 2016;11:3340-3346.
27. Pradhan, B., T. K. Mishra and S. R. Das. 2015. Genetic basis of yield variations in Lowland rice. Int. J. Basic and App. Sci. 19: 306-318.
28. Akhtar N, Nazir MF, Rabnawaz A, Mahmood T, Safdar ME, Asif M, Rehman A. Estimation of heritability, correlation and path coefficient analysis in fine grain rice (Oryza sativa L.) J. Anim. Plant Sci. 2011;21:660-664.
29. Samonte SO, Wilson LT, McClung AM. Path analysis of yield and yield-related traits of fifteen diverse rice genotypes. Crop Sci. 1998;38:1130-1136.
30. Mehetre SS, Mahajan CR, Patil PA, Lad SK, Dhumal PM. Variability, heritability, correlation, path analysis, and genetic divergence studies in upland rice. IRRN. 1994;19:8-9.
31. Prasad KR, Radha-Krishna KV, Bhave MHV, Subba-Rao LV. Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in boro rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2017;6:1261-1266.
32. Manikya CM, Reddy TD. Studies on genetic divergence in medium duration elite rice genotypes (Orzya sativa L.). J. Res. ANGRAU, 2011;39:122.
33. Khaliq I, Noorka LR, Khaliq R. Estimation of heritability and genetic advance for some quantitative characters in spring wheat. Int. J. Agric. App. Sci. 2009;1:76-78.
34. Sumanth V, Suresh BG, Ram BJ, Srujana G. J. Pharmacog. Phytochem. 2016;6:1437-1439.
35. Rukmini KD, Parimala K, Venkanna V, Lingaiah N, Hari Y, Chandra BS. Estimation of variability for grain yield and quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 2016;4:250-255.
36. Ogunbayo SA, Sié M, Ojo DK, Sanni KA, Akinwale MG, Toulou B, Shittu A, Idehen EO, Popoola AR, Daniel IO, Gregoria GB. Genetic variation and heritability of yield and related traits in promising rice genotypes (Oryza sativa L.). J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 2014;6:153-159.
37. Bornare SS, Mittra SK, Mehta AK. Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis of floral, yield and its component traits in cms and restorer lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Bangladesh J. Bot. 2014;43: 45-52.
38. Paikhomba N, Kumar A, Chaurasia AK, Rai PK. Assessment of genetic parameters for yield and yield components in hybrid Rice and parents. J. Rice Res. 2014;2:117.
39. Estehghari MR, Farshadfar E. Evaluation of phenotypic variability, genetic parameters, heritability and genetic gain in bread wheat genotypes under rainfed conditions. Int. J. Biosci. 2015;4:193-201.
40. Tuhina-Khatun M, Hanafi MM, Yusof MR, Wong MY, Salleh FM, Ferdous J. Genetic variation, heritability, and diversity analysis of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes based on quantitative traits. Biomed. Res. Int. ID 290861, 2015.
41. Sardana S, Mahajan RK, Gautam NK, Ram B. Genetic variability in pea (Pisum sativum L.) germplasm for utilization. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 2007;39:31-41.
42. Abebe T, Alamerew S. Tulu L. Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for yield and its related traits in rainfed lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes at Fogera and Pawe, Ethiopia. Adv. Crop. Sci. Tech. 2017;5:272-279.
43. Kumar S, Deo I. Studies on genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in advance lines of Kalanamak aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.). Eco. Env. Cons. 2016;22: 891-895.
44. Osundare OT, Akinyele BO, Fayeun LS, Osekita OS. Evaluation of qualitative and quantitative traits and correlation coefficient analysis of six upland rice varieties. J. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;1:17-27.
45. Kalyan B, Radha Krishna KV, Subba Rao LV. Correlation coefficient analysis for yield and its components in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2017;6:2425-2430.
46. Akhter MS, Rizwan M, Akhter M, Naeem M, Hussain W, Elahi F, Latif M. Genotypic and phenotypic condition coefficient analysis for yield and yield related components in basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.). Am-Euras. J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 2014;14:1402-1404.
47. Ahmed A, Shaon SG, Islam MS, Saha PS, Islam MM. Genetic divergence analysis in HRDC rice (Oryza sativa L.) hybrids in Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Pl. Breed. Genet. 2014;27: 25-32.
278 Views | 211 Downloads
How to Cite
IQBAL, Touheed et al. GENETIC VARIABILITY, CORRELATION AND CLUSTER ANALYSIS IN ELITE LINES OF RICE. Journal of Scientific Agriculture, [S.l.], v. 2, p. 85-91, mar. 2018. ISSN 2184-0261. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 26 sep. 2018. doi:
Citation Formats