Journal of Plantation Crops <p>As a multidisciplinary journal, Journal of Plantation Crops (JPC)&nbsp;aims at dissemination of research findings in plantation crops (coconut, arecanut, cocoa, cashew, oil palm, coffee, tea, rubber, date palm), including cropping systems, as well as various spices. Since its inception in 1973, 45 volumes have been published. The journal is published thrice a year during April, August and December and publication of the articles is subject to peer reviewing and recommendation by experts in the field.</p> Update Publishing House en-US Journal of Plantation Crops 0304-5242 Hybrid vigour and variability for key growth characters and yield in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) <p style="text-align: justify;">Hybrid vigour and assessment of genetic variability for important growth characters and yield traits in cashew were studied in eight cashew hybrids.The analysis of variance for the phenotypic data for 12 characters revealed significant variation among the genotypes except for tree spread, flowering laterals per m2, non-flowering laterals per m2 and sex ratio.The highest nut weight was observed in H-125 (12.07 g) whereas the lowest was in H-2452 (5.08 g).The maximum nut yield was noticed in hybrid H-126 with 5.96 kg tree-1 while NRCC Selection-2 recorded lowest with 0.53 kg tree-1. The standard heterosis over two checks, bold nut check (NRCC Sel-2) and high yielding check (Bhaskara) and variability parameters such as genotypic coefficient of variation, phenotypic coefficient of variation, broad-sense heritability and genetic advance were estimated. For nut weight, standard heterosis over bold nut check varied from -34.54 to 55.54 per cent and six out of eight hybrids <em>viz.,</em> H-43, H-66, H-68, H-125, H-126 and H-2473 showed significant and positive standard heterosis. Standard heterosis over the high yielding check, varied from -38.93 to 300 per cent and it was significant and positive in two hybrids <em>viz.</em>, H-126 and H-125 with 300 per cent and 214.09 per cent, respectively.The hybrid vigour was not significant for trunk girth, tree height, tree spread, number of flowering laterals per m2 and sex ratio. Notably, five hybrids presented more than 20 per cent standard heterosis for nut weight over bold nut check which may serve as a useful source of breeding material. Two hybrids <em>viz</em>., H-125 and H-126 showed good hybrid vigour for nut weight and yield over two checks and thus have been inducted into multi-location trials and also under consideration for release.</p> E. Eradasappa J. D. Adiga G.S. Mohana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-27 2020-07-27 71 81 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i2.6365 Long term performance of certain ortets and hybrid clones of Hevea brasiliensis in a high altitude region in Kerala, India <p style="text-align: justify;">Long term performance of four hybrid <em>Hevea</em> clones and ten ortet selections including nine from a high elevation site within the traditional rubber growing tract of Kerala was studied. Significant variability was observed among the hybrids and ortets for all major agronomic traits. Growth of rubber trees was invariably poor in the high altitude region and tappability by the tenth year of planting was less than 50 per cent. The hybrid clones RRII 203 and RRIC 100 showed highest growth vigour with 80 per cent tappability by the 13th year of planting. Among the ortets, P 270 and Iritty 1 recorded the highest tappability of 64 per cent. The ortet P 270 was the best performer with the highest girth at the opening (61 cm), girth increment during immaturity (5.5 cm) on tapping (3.4 cm) and bole volume (0.1 m3). RRII 203 was the highest yielding clone with 56 g tree-1 tap-1 over eight years of tapping. High annual yield (48 g tree-1 tap-1) and lean season yield of P 270 combined with high drc on par with the highest yielding clone RRII 203 indicated the specific adaptability of this ortet to high elevation areas. The ortets P 213 and Iritty 1 and hybrid clone RRIC 100 were the other promising clones exhibiting growth adaptation and high yield potential under high altitude conditions.</p> Radha Lakshmanan T. Meenakumari Vinoth Thomas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 82 90 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i2.6366 Characterisation and classification of arecanut-growing soils of Karnataka <p style="text-align: justify;">The present investigation was carried out to characterise the soils of areca based cropping system considering soil type and agro-climatic variability. Ten typical soil profiles were studied representing five different agro-climatic zones (ACZs) of Karnataka, namely, Tumkur and Hesarghatta (Eastern Dry Zone), T. Narasipura and Maddur (Southern Dry Zone), H D Kote and Hassan (Southern Transition zone), Mudigere and Sirsi (Hilly Zone), and Belthangady and Kumata (Coastal Zone). These pedons were studied for their morphological characteristics, physical and physicochemical properties. The arecanut-growing soils of Karnataka are generally deep to very deep, non-gravelly and well-drained soils. Texture ranged from sandy clay loam to clay in sub-surface. Soils of coastal and hilly zones were strongly acidic and had high organic carbon. In contrast, other sites of the southern transition zone to southern and eastern dry zone soils were near neutral to moderately alkaline with medium to high organic carbon content. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) ranged 2.5 to 32.6 cmol (p+) kg-1 base saturation varied 21.9 to 99.6 per cent. The major taxa of the soils identified at sub-group level of soil taxonomy were Rhodic Kanhaplustalfs, Typic Haplustalfs, Rhodic Paleustalfs, Typic Rhodustalfs, Vertic Haplustepts, Typic Haplustepts, Ustic Kanhaplohumults, Kanhaplic Haplustults and Typic Paleustults.</p> R. Vasundhara N.B. Prakash K.S. Anil Kumar Rajendra Hegde ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 91 102 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i2.6367 Productivity and carbon sequestration potential of coconut-based cropping system as influenced by integrated nutrient management practices <p style="text-align: justify;">A field experiment was carried out at Regional Coconut Research Station, Bhatye (DBSKKV, Dapoli), Maharashtra (India) during 2013-2018 to study the productivity and carbon sequestration potential as influenced by integrated nutrient management (INM) practices in coconut based cropping system. INM practices <em>viz</em>., T1- 75 per cent of RDF+25 per cent of N through organic recycling with vermicompost, T2- 50 per cent of RDF+50 per cent of N through organic recycling with vermicompost + vermiwash application + bio-fertilizer application + <em>in situ</em> green manuring (cowpea), T3- fully organic: 100 per cent N through organic recycling with vermicompost + vermiwash application + bio-fertilizer application + <em>in situ</em> green manuring (cowpea) and green leaf manuring + composted coir pith, husk incorporation and mulching with coconut leaves were imposed in coconut based cropping system involving nutmeg, cinnamon, banana and pineapple. For comparison, T4- control: monocrop of coconut with recommended NPK and organic manure was maintained. Four treatments were laid out in a block of 0.45 ha area each. Among the different INM practices, treatment T1 sequestered the highest amount of above ground (coconut + nutmeg) carbon stock (31.1 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) followed by T2 (30.3 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and T3 (27.3 t ha-1). In contrast, the treatment T4 - coconut monocrop alone had sequestered 25.6 t ha<sup>-1</sup>. The below-ground soil carbon stock in the rhizosphere of different crops was the highest in the nutrient management under T3 followed by T2 and T1, whereas, it was the lowest in coconut monocrop. The productivity of the system was higher in the intercropping garden. The coconut nut yield (5-year average) was higher yield under T1 (147.2 nuts palm<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>), followed by T2 (138.4 nuts palm<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>) and T3 (123.6 nuts palm-1 year<sup>-1</sup>), whereas, monocrop had recorded a significantly lower number of nuts (97.2 nuts palm-1 year<sup>-1</sup>).</p> V.V. Shinde H.P. Maheswarappa S.L. Ghavale S. Sumitha S.M. Wankhede P.M. Haldankar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 103 110 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i2.6368 Sustainability of soil health and system productivity through arecanut based cropping system in the NE Region of India <p style="text-align: justify;">The North-Eastern part of India contains seven states out of which, Assam is the major producer of arecanut. An attempt was made to study the impact of arecanut based multiple cropping system with proper utilization of recyclable resources on the long-term sustainability of acid soil at Kahikuchi. A long term arecanut based High-Density Multispecies Cropping System garden comprised of two models <em>viz</em>., Model-1 (M1): arecanut (<em>Areca catechu</em>), black pepper (<em>Piper nigrum</em>), banana (Musa spp.), citrus (<em>Citrus limon</em>) and clove (<em>Syzygium aromaticum</em>) and Model-2 (M2): arecanut, black pepper, banana, citrus and nutmeg (<em>Myristica</em> <em>fragrans</em>) as component crops was used. Both the models were sub-divided into three treatments<em> viz</em>., Full dose of recommended fertiliser (T1), 2/3rd of the recommended dose (T2) and 1/3rd of the recommended dose (T3) combined with treatment-wise recycling available biomass in the form of vermicompost and each treatment was replicated thrice. The results indicated that the quantity of recyclable biomass generated ranged between 8.27 to 12.23 t ha-1 year-1 and 8.11 to 12.38 t ha-1 year-1 in model-1 and model-2, respectively and revealed that the T2 treatment in both models improved the soil properties with respect to soil pH, organic carbon, available N, P and K status. Economics of the cropping system revealed that the maximum return was obtained from both Models under T2. The average benefit:cost ratio of T1, T2 &amp; T3 was 3.38, 4.42 &amp; 3.47 under model-1 and 3.34, 4.08 and 3.40 under model-2, respectively. Sustenance of soil pH above 5.0 over the years in the arecanut rhizosphere in both the models were found under T2, but T1 and T3 treatments showed a slow declining of pH towards increasing soil acidity.</p> S.C. Paul G.C. Acharya R. Chakraborty H.P. Maheswarappa M. Hussain A.K. Ray ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 111 119 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i2.6369 Population dynamics of exotic rugose spiralling whitefly, Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on coconut as influenced by weather factors and natural enemies <p style="text-align: justify;">The rugose spiralling whitefly, <em>Aleurodicus rugioperculatus</em> Martin is a new exotic pest occurring in several crops including coconut since 2016 in India. Due to variation in the agro-climatic conditions of different regions, arthropods show varying trends in their incidence also in nature and extent of damage to the crop. Besides, abiotic factors also play a key role in determining the incidence and dominance of a particular pest and their natural enemies in a crop ecosystem. The population dynamics of new exotic whitefly species, <em>A. rugioperculatus</em> and their associated natural enemies was assessed on five-year-old Chowghat Orange Dwarf coconut trees at Coconut Farm of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. The study indicated that RSW was found throughout the year on coconut and the observation recorded on weekly interval basis shows that <em>A. rugioperculatus</em> population escalated from the first week of July 2018 (130.8 nymphs/leaf/frond) reaching the maximum during the first week of October (161.0 nymphs/leaf/frond) which subsequently dwindled to a minimum during April. The parasitisation by <em>E. guadeloupae</em> on RSW ranged from 31.60 percent in Aug. 2018 to 57.60 percent in December 2018. The association of biotic and abiotic factors with <em>A. rugioperculatus</em> population showed a negative correlation with <em>E. guadeloupae</em> and <em>C. montrouzieri</em>. There was a significant positive correlation between maximum temperature and minimum temperature as well as relative humidity. However, rainfall showed a negative correlation with <em>A. rugioperculatus</em> population.</p> K. Elango S. Jeyarajan Nelson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 120 125 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i2.6370 Performance evaluation of high capacity mechanised dehusking equipment for green arecanut (Areca catechu L.) <p style="text-align: justify;">India is a major arecanut (<em>Areca catechu</em> L.) growing country. Of the many problems identified in arecanut processing, dehusking is found to be a major one, which is cumbersome and needs to be mechanised. Presently, there are a few types of equipments available, but these machines are basically of low capacity and cater to small arecanut growers. Performance evaluation of three high capacity green arecanut dehusking equipments was taken up, to work out its possible adoption for entrepreneurship development. Equipment under evaluation consisted of power mounted dehusker with hook tooth cutting blade fixed in a cutting wheel to dehusk the outer shell with a nut ejection system coupled with a vibrating deck of trays to grade and convey the dehusked nuts. The Blade-Knurl shaft speed ratio was optimised as 1:11. Whole nut recovery per cent ranged from 81.84 ± 1.87 to 82.52 ± 1.95 per cent. The unhusked per cent and partially husked percentage ranged from 7.60 ± 3.71 to 7.81 ± 4.68 and 8.29 ± 2.15 to 8.85 ± 2.82, respectively. The broken nut percentage ranged from 1.03 ± 1.36 to 2.06 ± 2.72 percentage. The total cost of operation for two-belt, four-belt and six-belt model was <strong>`</strong> 162 h-1,<strong>`</strong> 237 h-1 and <strong>`</strong> 262 h-1, respectively. Better dehusking efficiency with reduced damage to the nuts achieved in mechanical dehusking would enable the farmer to realise additional yield with saving in time and lower cost of operation.</p> Ravindra Naik R.H. Sadvatha T. Senthilkumar V. Balaji ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 126 136 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i2.6371 First incidence of a spider mite, Oligonychu stylus (Baker & Pritchard), in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) groves of Kachchh in Gujarat, India <p>-</p> C.M. Muralidharan D.A. Baidiyavadra Kapil Mohan Sharma N. Srinivasa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 137 141 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i2.6373 Evaluation of apple and nut characters of cashew germplasm from Bastar Region, Chhattisgarh <p>-</p> Vikas Ramteke Yaspal Singh Nirala M.G. Nayak G.S. Mohana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 142 145 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i2.6374 Enhancement of rooting and growth of bush pepper by jeevamruthum and tender coconut water <p>-</p> C.K. Thankamani K. Prathyusha S. Hamza K. Kandiannan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 146 149 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i2.6375 Sustainability of Farmer Producer Organisations - The case of producer organisations involved in the production and marketing of ‘neera’ in the coconut sector <p style="text-align: justify;">Neera-the coconut inflorescence sap has been promoted as a potential value-added non-alcoholic beverage with abundant health benefits. The concerted effort of the stakeholder agencies could liberate the product from the policy regulations on its production under the excise act (known as ‘Abkari act’ in Kerala). Subsequently, the coconut producer federations (CPFs) in the State were granted licenses for ‘neera’ production and marketing. However, the majority of the CPFs discontinued the ‘neera’ enterprise, which they have initiated with greater enthusiasm. The present study is a modest attempt to trace the reasons for setbacks experienced in the ‘neera’ sector and also to provide a refined framework for revamping the sector. The details of licenses granted to the CPFs were sourced from the Department of Excise, Government of Kerala. The sample size of the study was 95 (13 CPFs who are still active and 82 CPFs who have discontinued). It was observed that the ‘neera’ value chain is in the evolving stage, and the withdrawal of the institutional support had detrimentally affected the confidence of the CPFs ventured into it. The availability of ‘neera’ technicians (tappers) and the high wage rates have evoked concerns on the profitability as well as the assurance of continuous supply of the product. The study categorically highlights the need for a restructured value chain of ‘neera’ with specific roles assigned to the stakeholders through the creation of functional linkages.</p> C. Thamban S. Jayasekhar K.P. Chandran M.K. Rajesh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 150 158 10.25081/jpc.2020.v48.i2.6376